Criminal Justice Act 1988

133 Compensation for miscarriages of justice.E+W+N.I.

(1)Subject to subsection (2) below, when a person has been convicted of a criminal offence and when subsequently his conviction has been reversed or he has been pardoned on the ground that a new or newly discovered fact shows beyond reasonable doubt that there has been a miscarriage of justice, the Secretary of State shall pay compensation for the miscarriage of justice to the person who has suffered punishment as a result of such conviction or, if he is dead, to his personal representatives, unless the non-disclosure of the unknown fact was wholly or partly attributable to the person convicted.

(2)No payment of compensation under this section shall be made unless an application for such compensation has been made to the Secretary of State

[F1before the end of the period of 2 years beginning with the date on which the conviction of the person concerned is reversed or he is pardoned.

(2A)But the Secretary of State may direct that an application for compensation made after the end of that period is to be treated as if it had been made within that period if the Secretary of State considers that there are exceptional circumstances which justify doing so.]

(3)The question whether there is a right to compensation under this section shall be determined by the Secretary of State.

(4)If the Secretary of State determines that there is a right to such compensation, the amount of the compensation shall be assessed by an assessor appointed by the Secretary of State.

[F2(4A)Section 133A applies in relation to the assessment of the amount of the compensation.]

(5)In this section “reversed” shall be construed as referring to a conviction having been quashed—

(a)on an appeal out of time; or

(b)on a reference—

[F3(i)under the Criminal Appeal Act 1995; or]

[F4(ii)under section 194B of the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995 (c. 46);]

F5(iii). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [F6or

(c)on an appeal under section 7 of the Terrorism Act 2000][F7 or

(d)on an appeal under section 12 of the Prevention of Terrorism Act 2005.]

[F8(5A)But in a case where—

(a)a person's conviction for an offence is quashed on an appeal out of time, and

(b)the person is to be subject to a retrial,

the conviction is not to be treated for the purposes of this section as “reversed” unless and until the person is acquitted of all offences at the retrial or the prosecution indicates that it has decided not to proceed with the retrial.

(5B)In subsection (5A) above any reference to a retrial includes a reference to proceedings held following the remission of a matter to a magistrates' court by the Crown Court under section 48(2)(b) of the [F9Senior Courts Act 1981].]

(6)For the purposes of this section [F10and section 133A] a person suffers punishment as a result of a conviction when sentence is passed on him for the offence of which he was convicted.

(7)Schedule 12 shall have effect.

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Extent Information

E1This version of this provision extends to England, Wales and Northern Ireland only; a separate version has been created for Scotland

Amendments (Textual)

F1S. 133: s. 133(2A) and preceding words in 133(2) inserted (E.W.N.I) (1.12.2008) by Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008 (c. 4), ss. 61(3) , 153 (with Sch. 27 para. 22); S.I. 2008/2993, art. 2(1)(a)

F4S. 133(5)(b)(ii) substituted (S.) (23.4.2007) by Criminal Proceedings etc. (Reform) (Scotland) Act 2007, (asp 6), ss. 80, 84, {Sch. 5 para. 6(1)}; S.S.I. 2007/250, art. 3(h)(i)

F5S. 133(5)(b)(iii) and the word immediately preceeding it repealed (1.1.1996) by 1995 c. 35, s. 29(2), Sch. 3; S.I. 1995/3061, art. 3(i)(vii) (and s. 133(5)(b)(iii) expressed to be repealed (31.3.1997) by 1995 c. 35, s. 29(1), Sch. 2 para. 16(4); S.I. 1997/402, art. 3(e))

F6S. 133(5)(c) and word or immediately preceding it inserted (19.2.2001) by 2000 c. 11, s. 7(8); S.I. 2001/421, art. 2

133 Compensation for miscarriages of justice.S

(1)Subject to subsection (2) below, when a person has been convicted of a criminal offence and when subsequently his conviction has been reversed or he has been pardoned on the ground that a new or newly discovered fact shows beyond reasonable doubt that there has been a miscarriage of justice, the Secretary of State shall pay compensation for the miscarriage of justice to the person who has suffered punishment as a result of such conviction or, if he is dead, to his personal representatives, unless the non-disclosure of the unknown fact was wholly or partly attributable to the person convicted.

(2)No payment of compensation under this section shall be made unless an application for such compensation has been made to the Secretary of State.

(3)The question whether there is a right to compensation under this section shall be determined by the Secretary of State.

(4)If the Secretary of State determines that there is a right to such compensation, the amount of the compensation shall be assessed by an assessor appointed by the Secretary of State.

[F11(4A)In assessing so much of any compensation payable under this section to or in respect of a person as is attributable to suffering, harm to reputation or similar damage, the assessor shall have regard in particular to—

(a)the seriousness of the offence of which the person was convicted and the severity of the punishment resulting from the conviction;

(b)the conduct of the investigation and prosecution of the offence; and

(c)any other convictions of the person and any punishment resulting from them.]

(5)In this section “reversed” shall be construed as referring to a conviction having been quashed—

(a)on an appeal out of time; or

(b)on a reference—

[F3(i)under the Criminal Appeal Act 1995; or]

[F4(ii)under section 194B of the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995 (c. 46);]

F5(iii). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [F6or

(c)on an appeal under section 7 of the Terrorism Act 2000][F7 or

(d)on an appeal under section 12 of the Prevention of Terrorism Act 2005.]

(6)For the purposes of this section a person suffers punishment as a result of a conviction when sentence is passed on him for the offence of which he was convicted.

(7)Schedule 12 shall have effect.

Annotations: Help about Annotation
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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Extent Information

E2This version of this provision extends to Scotland only; a separate version has been created for England, Wales and Northern Ireland only

Amendments (Textual)

F4S. 133(5)(b)(ii) substituted (S.) (23.4.2007) by Criminal Proceedings etc. (Reform) (Scotland) Act 2007, (asp 6), ss. 80, 84, {Sch. 5 para. 6(1)}; S.S.I. 2007/250, art. 3(h)(i)

F5S. 133(5)(b)(iii) and the word immediately preceeding it repealed (1.1.1996) by 1995 c. 35, s. 29(2), Sch. 3; S.I. 1995/3061, art. 3(i)(vii) (and s. 133(5)(b)(iii) expressed to be repealed (31.3.1997) by 1995 c. 35, s. 29(1), Sch. 2 para. 16(4); S.I. 1997/402, art. 3(e))

F6S. 133(5)(c) and word or immediately preceding it inserted (19.2.2001) by 2000 c. 11, s. 7(8); S.I. 2001/421, art. 2