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Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984

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Whole provisions yet to be inserted into this Act (including any effects on those provisions):

  • s. 61(6BA) inserted by 2008 c. 28 s. 10(1) (This amendment not applied to legislation.gov.uk. S. 10 omitted (14.12.2011) by virtue of 2011 c. 23, ss. 29, 31(2), Sch. 7 para. 5(3))
  • s. 63(3D) inserted by 2008 c. 28 s. 10(2) (This amendment not applied to legislation.gov.uk. S. 10 omitted (14.12.2011) by virtue of 2011 c. 23, ss. 29, 31(2), Sch. 7 para. 5(3))
  • s. 64(1AA) inserted by 2008 c. 28 s. 10(4) (This amendment not applied to legislation.gov.uk. S. 10 omitted (14.12.2011) by virtue of 2011 c. 23, ss. 29, 31(2), Sch. 7 para. 5(3))
  • s. 65(1) words inserted by 2008 c. 28 s. 10(5) (This amendment not applied to legislation.gov.uk. S. 10 omitted (14.12.2011) by virtue of 2011 c. 23, ss. 29, 31(2), Sch. 7 para. 5(3))
  • s. 65(1) words inserted by 2010 c. 17 s. 14(3)(a) (This amendment not applied to legislation.gov.uk. S. 14 repealed (31.10.2013) without ever being in force by 2012 c. 9, Sch. 9 para. 4(2), Sch. 10 Pt. 1; S.I. 2013/2104, art. 3(c)(d))
  • s. 65(1) words inserted by 2010 c. 17 s. 14(3)(b) (This amendment not applied to legislation.gov.uk. S. 14 repealed (31.10.2013) without ever being in force by 2012 c. 9, Sch. 9 para. 4(2), Sch. 10 Pt. 1; S.I. 2013/2104, art. 3(c)(d))
  • s. 114ZA inserted by 2016 anaw 6 s. 185(1)
  • Sch. 1A para. 21A added by 1995 c. 32, s. 8B(1) (as inserted) by 2006 c. 12 Sch. 3 para. 13

ConfessionsE+W+S+N.I.

76 Confessions.E+W+S+N.I.

(1)In any proceedings a confession made by an accused person may be given in evidence against him in so far as it is relevant to any matter in issue in the proceedings and is not excluded by the court in pursuance of this section.

(2)If, in any proceedings where the prosecution proposes to give in evidence a confession made by an accused person, it is represented to the court that the confession was or may have been obtained—

(a)by oppression of the person who made it; or

(b)in consequence of anything said or done which was likely, in the circumstances existing at the time, to render unreliable any confession which might be made by him in consequence thereof,

the court shall not allow the confession to be given in evidence against him except in so far as the prosecution proves to the court beyond reasonable doubt that the confession (notwithstanding that it may be true) was not obtained as aforesaid.

(3)In any proceedings where the prosecution proposes to give in evidence a confession made by an accused person, the court may of its own motion require the prosecution, as a condition of allowing it to do so, to prove that the confession was not obtained as mentioned in subsection (2) above.

(4)The fact that a confession is wholly or partly excluded in pursuance of this section shall not affect the admissibility in evidence—

(a)of any facts discovered as a result of the confession; or

(b)where the confession is relevant as showing that the accused speaks, writes or expresses himself in a particular way, of so much of the confession as is necessary to show that he does so.

(5)Evidence that a fact to which this subsection applies was discovered as a result of a statement made by an accused person shall not be admissible unless evidence of how it was discovered is given by him or on his behalf.

(6)Subsection (5) above applies—

(a)to any fact discovered as a result of a confession which is wholly excluded in pursuance of this section; and

(b)to any fact discovered as a result of a confession which is partly so excluded, if the fact is discovered as a result of the excluded part of the confession.

(7)Nothing in Part VII of this Act shall prejudice the admissibility of a confession made by an accused person.

(8)In this section “oppression” includes torture, inhuman or degrading treatment, and the use or threat of violence (whether or not amounting to torture).

F1(9). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Extent Information

E1S. 76 extends to England and Wales only with exceptions as regards courts martial, see s. 120(1)(6)-(8)

Amendments (Textual)

F1S. 76(9) repealed (18.6.2012 for specified purposes, 5.11.2012 for specified purposes, 28.5.2013 for specified purposes) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), s. 336(3)(4), Sch. 3 para. 56(4), Sch. 37 Pt. 4; S.I. 2012/1320, art. 4(1)(c)(d)(2)(3) (with art. 5) (see S.I. 2012/2574, art. 4(2) and S.I. 2013/1103, art. 4); S.I. 2012/2574, art. 2(2)(3)(c)(d), Sch. (with arts. 3 4) (as amended (4.11.2012) by S.I. 2012/2761, art. 2) (with S.I. 2013/1103, art. 4); S.I. 2013/1103, art. 2(1)(c)(d)(2)(3) (with arts. 3 4)

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C1S. 76 modified (2.10.2000) by S.I. 2000/2370, rule 27(2), Sch. 3 Pt. III para. 18(c)

S. 76 modified (2.10.2000) by S.I. 2000/2371, rule 27(2), Sch. 3 Pt. III para. 18(c)

S. 76 modified (2.10.2000) by S.I. 2000/2370, rule 27(2), Sch. 3 Pt. III para. 18(c)

[F276AConfessions may be given in evidence for co-accusedE+W+S+N.I.

(1)In any proceedings a confession made by an accused person may be given in evidence for another person charged in the same proceedings (a co-accused) in so far as it is relevant to any matter in issue in the proceedings and is not excluded by the court in pursuance of this section.

(2)If, in any proceedings where a co-accused proposes to give in evidence a confession made by an accused person, it is represented to the court that the confession was or may have been obtained—

(a)by oppression of the person who made it; or

(b)in consequence of anything said or done which was likely, in the circumstances existing at the time, to render unreliable any confession which might be made by him in consequence thereof,

the court shall not allow the confession to be given in evidence for the co-accused except in so far as it is proved to the court on the balance of probabilities that the confession (notwithstanding that it may be true) was not so obtained.

(3)Before allowing a confession made by an accused person to be given in evidence for a co-accused in any proceedings, the court may of its own motion require the fact that the confession was not obtained as mentioned in subsection (2) above to be proved in the proceedings on the balance of probabilities.

(4)The fact that a confession is wholly or partly excluded in pursuance of this section shall not affect the admissibility in evidence—

(a)of any facts discovered as a result of the confession; or

(b)where the confession is relevant as showing that the accused speaks, writes or expresses himself in a particular way, of so much of the confession as is necessary to show that he does so.

(5)Evidence that a fact to which this subsection applies was discovered as a result of a statement made by an accused person shall not be admissible unless evidence of how it was discovered is given by him or on his behalf.

(6)Subsection (5) above applies—

(a)to any fact discovered as a result of a confession which is wholly excluded in pursuance of this section; and

(b)to any fact discovered as a result of a confession which is partly so excluded, if the fact is discovered as a result of the excluded part of the confession.

(7)In this section “oppression” includes torture, inhuman or degrading treatment, and the use or threat of violence (whether or not amounting to torture).]

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Amendments (Textual)

77 Confessions by mentally handicapped persons.E+W+S+N.I.

(1)Without prejudice to the general duty of the court at a trial on indictment [F3with a jury] to direct the jury on any matter on which it appears to the court appropriate to do so, where at such a trial—

(a)the case against the accused depends wholly or substantially on a confession by him; and

(b)the court is satisfied—

(i)that he is mentally handicapped; and

(ii)that the confession was not made in the presence of an independent person,

the court shall warn the jury that there is special need for caution before convicting the accused in reliance on the confession, and shall explain that the need arises because of the circumstances mentioned in paragraphs (a) and (b) above.

(2)In any case where at the summary trial of a person for an offence it appears to the court that a warning under subsection (1) above would be required if the trial were on indictment [F4with a jury] , the court shall treat the case as one in which there is a special need for caution before convicting the accused on his confession.

[F5(2A)In any case where at the trial on indictment without a jury of a person for an offence it appears to the court that a warning under subsection (1) above would be required if the trial were with a jury, the court shall treat the case as one in which there is a special need for caution before convicting the accused on his confession.]

(3)In this section—

  • independent person” does not include a police officer or a person employed for, or engaged on, police purposes;

  • mentally handicapped”, in relation to a person, means that he is in a state of arrested or incomplete development of mind which includes significant impairment of intelligence and social functioning; and

  • police purposes” has the meaning assigned to it by [F6section 101(2) of the M1Police Act 1996].

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Extent Information

E2S. 77 extends to England and Wales only with exceptions as regards courts martial, see s. 120(1)(6)-(8)

Amendments (Textual)

F3Words in s. 77(1) inserted (24.7.2006 for E.W. and 8.1.2007 for N.I.) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), ss. 331, 336, Sch. 36 Pt. 4 para. 48(2); S.I. 2006/1835, art. 2(g)(h) (subject to art. 3); S.I. 2006/3422, art. 2(c)(i)

F4Words in s. 77(2) inserted (24.7.2006 for E.W. and 8.1.2007 for N.I.) by Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44), ss. 331, 336, Sch. 36 Pt. 4 para. 48(3); S.I. 2006/1835, art. 2(g)(h) (subject to art. 3); S.I. 2006/3422, art. 2(c)(i)

F6Words in the definition of "police purposes" in s. 77(3) substituted (22.8.1996) by 1996 c. 16, ss. 103(1), 104(2), Sch. 7 Pt. II para.38

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

Marginal Citations

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