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Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982

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[F1TITLE IIE+W+S+N.I.JURISDICTION

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Amendments (Textual)

F1Sch. 1 substituted (1.10.1991) by S.I. 1990/2591, art. 12(1), Sch. 1

Section 1E+W+S+N.I.General provisions

Article 2E+W+S+N.I.

Subject to the provisions of this Convention, persons domiciled in a Contracting State shall, whatever their nationality, be sued in the courts of that State.

Persons who are not nationals of the State in which they are domiciled shall be governed by the rules of jurisdiction applicable to nationals of that State.

Article 3E+W+S+N.I.

Persons domiciled in a Contracting State may be sued in the courts of another Contracting State only by virtue of the rules set out in Sections 2 to 6 of this Title.

In particular the following provisions shall not be applicable as against them—

—0in Belgium: Article 15 of the civil code (Code civil—Burgerlijk Wetboek) and Article 638 of the judicial code (Code judiciaire—Gerechtelijk Wetboek),

—0in Denmark: Article 246(2) and (3) of the law on civil procedure (Lov om rettens pleje),

—0in the Federal Republic of Germany: Article 23 of the code of civil procedure (Zivilprozeßordnung),

—0in Greece, Article 40 of the code of civil procedure (Kwdikaς Politikhς Dikonomíaς),

—0in France: Articles 14 and 15 of the civil code (Code civil),

—0in Ireland: the rules which enable jurisdiction to be founded on the document instituting the procedings having been served on the defendant during his temporary presence in Ireland,

—0in Italy: Articles 2 and 4, nos 1 and 2 of the code of civil procedure (Codice di procedura civile),

—0In Luxembourg: Articles 14 and 15 of the civil code (Code civil),

—0in the Netherlands: Articles 126(3) and 127 of the code of civil procedure (Wetboek van Burgerlijke Rechtsvordering),

—0in Portugal: Article 65(1)(c), article 65(2) and Article 65A(c) of the code of civil procedure (Código de Processo Civil) and Article 11 of the code of labour procedure (Código de Processo de Trabalho),

—0in the United Kingdom: the rules which enable jurisdiction to be founded on:

(a)the document instituting the proceedings having been served on the defendant during his temporary presence in the United Kingdom; or

(b)the presence within the United Kingdom of property belonging to the defendant; or

(c)the seizure by the plaintiff of property situated in the United Kingdom.

Article 4E+W+S+N.I.

If the defendant is not domiciled in a Contracting State, the jurisdiction of the courts of each Contracting State shall, subject to the provisions of Article 16, be determined by the law of that State.

As against such a defendant, any person domiciled in a Contracting State may, whatever his nationality, avail himself in that State of the rules of jurisdiction there in force, and in particular those specified in the second paragraph of Article 3, in the same way as the nationals of that State.

Section 2E+W+S+N.I.Special jurisdiction

Article 5E+W+S+N.I.

A person domiciled in a Contracting State may, in another Contracting State, be sued–

1.In matters relating to a contract, in the courts for the place of performance of the obligation in question; in matters relating to individual contracts of employment, this place is that where the employee habitually carries out his work, or if the employee does not habitually carry out his work in any one country, the employer may also be sued in the courts for the place where the business which engaged the employee was or is now situated.

2.In matters relating to maintenance, in the courts for the place where the maintenance creditor is domiciled or habitually resident or, if the matter is ancillary to proceedings concerning the status of a person, in the court which, according to its own law, has jurisdiction to entertain those proceedings, unless that jurisdiction is based solely on the nationality of one of the parties.

3.In matters relating to tort, delict or quasi-delict, in the courts for the place where the harmful event occurred.

4.As regards a civil claim for damages or restitution which is based on an act giving rise to criminal proceedings, in the court seised of those proceedings, to the extent that that court has jurisdiction under its own law to entertain civil procedings.

5.As regards a dispute arising out of the operations of a branch, agency or other establishment, in the courts for the place in which the branch, agency or other establishment is situated.

6.As settlor, trustee or beneficiary of a trust created by the operation of a statute, or by a written instrument, or created orally and evidenced in writing, in the courts of the Contracting State in which the trust is domiciled.

7.As regards a dispute concerning the payment of remuneration claimed in respect of the salvage of a cargo or freight, in the court under the authority of which the cargo or freight in question–

(a)has been arrested to secure such payment, or

(b)could have been so arrested, but bail or other security has been given;

provided that this provision shall apply only if is claimed that the defendant has an interest in the cargo or freight or had such an interest at the time of salvage.

Article 6E+W+S+N.I.

A person domiciled in a Contracting State may also be sued–

1.Where he is one of a number of defendants, in the courts for the place where any one of them is domiciled.

2.As a third party in an action on a warranty or guarantee or in any other third party proceedings, in the court seised of the original proceedings, unless these were instituted solely with the object of removing him from the jurisdiction of the court which would be competent in his case.

3.On a counter-claim arising from the same contract or facts on which the original claim was based, in the court in which the original claim is pending.

4.In matters relating to a contract, if the action may be combined with an action against the same defendant in matters relating to rightsin rem in immovable property, in the court of the Contracting State in which the property is situated.

Article 6aE+W+S+N.I.

Where by virtue of this Convention a court of a Contracting State has jurisdiction in actions relating to liability from the use or operation of a ship, that court, or any other court substituted for this purpose by the internal law of that State, shall also have jurisdiction over claims for limitation of such liability.

Section 3E+W+S+N.I.Jurisdiction in matters relating to insurance

Article 7E+W+S+N.I.

In matters relating to insurance, jurisdiction shall be determined by this Section, without prejudice to the provisions of Articles 4 and 5 point 5.

Article 8E+W+S+N.I.

An insurer domiciled in a Contracting State may be sued—

1.in the courts of the State where he is domiciled, or

2.in another Contracting State, in the courts for the place where the policy-holder is domiciled, or

3.if he is a co-insurer, in the courts of a Contracting State in which proceedings are brought against the leading insurer.

An insurer who is not domiciled in a Contracting State but has a branch, agency or other establishment in one of the Contracting States shall, in disputes arising out of the operations of the branch, agency or establishment, be deemed to be domiciled in that State.

Article 9E+W+S+N.I.

In respect of liability insurance or insurance of immovable property, the insurer may in addition be sued in the courts for the place where the harmful event occurred. The same applies if movable and immovable property are covered by the same insurance policy and both are adversely affected by the same contingency.

Article 10E+W+S+N.I.

In respect of liability insurance, the insurer may also, if the law of the court permits it, be joined in proceedings which the injured party had brought against the insured.

  • The provisions of Articles 7, 8 and 9 shall apply to actions brought by the injured partly directly against the insurer, where such direct actions are permitted.

  • If the law governing such direct actions provides that the policy-holder or the insured may be joined as a party to the action, the same court shall have jurisdiction over them.

Article 11E+W+S+N.I.

Without prejudice to the provisions of the third paragraph of Article 10, an insurer may bring proceedings only in the courts of the Contracting State in which the defendant is domiciled, irrespective of whether he is the policy-holder, the insured or a beneficiary.

The provisions of this Section shall not affect the right to bring a counterclaim in the court in which, in accordance with this Section, the original claim is pending.

Article 12E+W+S+N.I.

The provisions of this Section may be departed from only by an agreement on jurisdiction–

1.which is entered into after the dispute has arisen, or

2.which allows the policy-holder, the insured or a beneficiary to bring proceedings in courts other than those indicated in this Section, or

3.which is concluded between a policy-holder and an insurer, both of whom are domiciled in the same Contracting State, and which has the effect of conferring jurisdiction on the courts of that State even if the harmful event were to occur abroad, provided that such an agreement is not contrary to the law of that State, or

4.which is concluded with a policy-holder who is not domiciled in a Contracting State, except in so far as the insurance is compulsory or relates to immovable property in a Contracting State, or

5.which relates to a contract of insurance in so far as it covers one or more of the risks set out in Article 12a.

Article 12aE+W+S+N.I.

The following are the risks referred to in point 5 of Article 12–

1.Any loss of or damage to–

(a)sea-going ships, installations situated offshore or on the high seas, or aircraft, arising from perils which relate to their use for commercial purposes;

(b)goods in transit other than passengers’ baggage where the transit consists of or includes carriage by such ships or aircraft.

2.Any liability, other than for bodily injury to passengers or loss of or damage to their baggage–

(a)arising out of the use or operation of ships, installations or aircraft as referred to in point 1(a) above in so far as the law of the Contracting State in which such aircraft are registered does not prohibit agreements on jurisdiction regarding insurance of such risks;

(b)for loss or damage caused by goods in transit as described in point 1(b) above.

3.Any financial loss connected with the use or operation of ships, installations or aircraft as referred to in point 1(a) above, in particular loss of freight or charter-hire.

4.Any risk or interest connected with any of those referred to in points 1 to 3 above.

Section 4E+W+S+N.I.Jurisdiction over consumer contracts

Article 13E+W+S+N.I.

In proceedings concerning a contract concluded by a person for a purpose which can be regarded as being outside his trade or profession, hereinafter called “the consumer", jurisdiction shall be determined by this Section, without prejudice to the provisions of Article 4 and point 5 of Article 5, if it is–

1.a contract for the sale of goods on instalment credit terms, or

2.a contract for a loan repayable by instalments, or for any other form of credit, made to finance the sale of goods, or

3.any other contract for the supply of goods or a contract for the supply of services, and

(a)in the State of the consumer’s domicile the conclusion of the contract was preceded by a specific invitation addressed to him or by advertising; and

(b)the consumer took in that State the steps necessary for the conclusion of the contract.

  • Where a consumer enters into a contract with a party who is not domiciled in a Contracting State but has a branch, agency or other establishment in one of the Contracting States, that party shall, in disputes arising out of the operations of the branch, agency or establishment, be deemed to be domiciled in that State.

  • This Section shall not apply to contracts of transport.

Article 14E+W+S+N.I.

A consumer may bring proceedings against the other party to a contract either in the courts of the Contracting State in which that party is domiciled or in the courts of the Contracting State in which he is himself domiciled.

  • Proceedings may be brought against a consumer by the other party to the contract only in the courts of the Contracting State in which the consumer is domiciled.

  • These provisions shall not affect the right to bring a counter-claim in the court in which, in accordance with this Section, the original claim is pending.

Article 15E+W+S+N.I.

The provisions of this Section may be departed from only by an agreement–

1.which is entered into after the dispute has arisen, or

2.which allows the consumer to bring proceedings in courts other than those indicated in this Section, or

3.which is entered into by the consumer and the other party to the contract, both of whom are at the time of conclusion of the contract domiciled or habitually resident in the same Contracting State, and which confers jurisdiction on the courts of that State, provided that such an agreement is not contrary to the law of that State.

Section 5E+W+S+N.I.Exclusive jurisdiction

Article 16E+W+S+N.I.

The following courts shall have exclusive jurisdiction, regardless of domicile:

1.(a)in proceedings which have as their objects rightsin rem in immovable property or tenancies of immovable property, the courts of the Contracting State in which the property is situated;

(b)however, in proceedings which have as their object tenancies of immovable property concluded for temporary private use for a maximum period of six consecutive months, the courts of the Contracting State in which the defendant is domiciled shall also have jurisdiction, provided that the landlord and the tenant are natural persons and are domiciled in the same Contracting State.

2.In proceedings which have as their object the validity of the constitution, the nullity or the dissolution of companies or other legal persons or associations of natural or legal persons, or the decisions of their organs, the courts of the Contracting State in which the company, legal person or association has its seat.

3.In proceedings which have as their object the validity of entries in public registers, the courts of the Contracting State in which the register is kept.

4.In proceedings concerned with the registration or validity of patents, trade marks, designs, or other similar rights required to be deposited or registered, the courts of the Contracting State in which the deposit or registration has been applied for, has taken place or is under the terms of an international convention deemed to have taken place.

5.In proceedings concerned with the enforcement of judgments, the courts of the Contracting State in which the judgment has been or is to be enforced.

Section 6E+W+S+N.I.Prorogation of jurisdiction

Article 17E+W+S+N.I.

If the parties, one or more of whom is domiciled in a Contracting State, have agreed that a court or the courts of a Contracting State are to have jurisdiction to settle any disputes which have arisen or which may arise in connection with a particular legal relationship, that court or those courts shall have exclusive jurisdiction. Such an agreement conferring jurisdiction shall be either–

(a)in writing or evidenced in writing, or

(b)in a form which accords with practices which the parties have established between themselves or,

(c)in international trade or commerce, in a form which accords with a usage of which the parties are or ought to have been aware and which in such trade or commerce is widely known to, and regularly observed by, parties to contracts of the type involved in the particular trade or commerce concerned.

  • Where such an agreement is concluded by parties, none of whom is domiciled in a Contracting State, the courts of other Contracting States shall have no jurisdiction over their disputes unless the court or courts chosen have declined jurisdiction.

  • The court or courts of a Contracting State on which a trust instrument has conferred jurisdiction shall have exclusive jurisdiction in any proceedings brought against a settlor, trustee or beneficiary, if relations between these persons or their rights or obligations under the trust are involved.

  • Agreements or provisions of a trust instrument conferring jurisdiction shall have no legal force if they are contrary to the provisions of Articles 12 or 15, or if the courts whose jurisdiction they purport to exclude have exclusive jurisdiction by virtue of Article 16.

  • If an agreement conferring jurisdiction was concluded for the benefit of only one of the parties, that party shall retain the right to bring proceedings in any other court which has jurisdiction by virtue of this Convention.

  • In matters relating to individual contracts of employment an agreement conferring jurisdiction shall have legal force only if it is entered into after the dispute has arisen or if the employee invokes it to seise courts other than those for the defendant’s domicile or those specified in Article 5(1).

Article 18E+W+S+N.I.

Apart from jurisdiction derived from other provisions of the Convention, a court of a Contracting State before whom a defendant enters an appearance shall have jurisdiction. This rule shall not apply where appearance was entered solely to contest the jurisdiction, or where another court has exclusive jurisdiction by virtue of Article 16.

Section 7E+W+S+N.I.Examination as to jurisdiction and admissibility

Article 19E+W+S+N.I.

Where a court of a Contracting State is seised of a claim which is principally concerned with a matter over which the courts of another Contracting State have exclusive jurisdiction by virtue of Article 16, it shall declare of its own motion that it has no jurisdiction.

Article 20E+W+S+N.I.

Where a defendant domiciled in one Contracting State is sued in a court of another Contracting State and does not enter an appearance, the court shall declare of its own motion that it has no jurisdiction unless its jurisdiction is derived from the provisions of the Convention.

  • The court shall stay the proceedings so long as it is not shown that the defendant has been able to receive the document instituting the proceedings or an equivalent document in sufficient time to enable him to arrange for his defence, or that all necessary steps have been taken to this end.

  • The provisions of the foregoing paragraph shall be replaced by those of Article 15 of the Hague Convention of 15th November 1965 on the service abroad of judicial and extrajudicial documents in civil or commercial matters, if the document instituting the proceedings or notice thereof had to be transmitted abroad in accordance with that Convention.

Section 8E+W+S+N.I.Lis pendens—related actions

Article 21E+W+S+N.I.

Where proceedings involving the same cause of action and between the same parties are brought in the courts of different Contracting States, any court other than the court first seised shall of its own motion stay its proceedings until such time as the jurisdiction of the court first seised is established.

Where the jurisdiction of the court first seised is established, any court other than the court first seised shall decline jurisdiction in favour of that court.

Article 22E+W+S+N.I.

Where related actions are brought in the courts of different Contracting States, any court other than the court first seised may, while the actions are pending at first instance, stay its proceedings.

  • A court other than the court first seised may also, on the application of one of the parties, decline jurisdiction if the law of that court permits the consolidation of related actions and the court first seised has jurisdiction over both actions.

  • For the purposes of this Article, actions are deemed to be related where they are so closely connected that it is expedient to hear and determine them together to avoid the risk of irreconcilable judgments resulting from separate proceedings.

Article 23E+W+S+N.I.

Where actions come within the exclusive jurisdiction of several courts, any court other than the court first seised shall decline jurisdiction in favour of that court.

Section 9E+W+S+N.I.Provisional, including protective, measures

Article 24E+W+S+N.I.

Application may be made to the courts of a Contracting State for such provisional, including protective, measures as may be available under the law of that State, even if, under this Convention, the courts of another Contracting State have jurisdiction as to the substance of the matter.]

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