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Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982

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Provisions relating to recognition and enforcement of judgmentsE+W+S+N.I.

31 Overseas judgments given against states, etc.E+W+S+N.I.

(1)A judgement given by a court of an overseas country against a state other than the United Kingdom or the state to which that court belongs shall be recognised and enforced in the United Kingdom if, and only if—

(a)it would be so recognised and enforced if it had not been given against a state; and

(b)that court would have had jurisdiction in the matter if it had applied rules corresponding to those applicable to such matters in the United Kingdom in accordance with sections 2 to 11 of the M1State Immunity Act 1978.

(2)References in subsection (1) to a judgment given against a state include references to judgments of any of the following descriptions given in relation to a state—

(a)judgments against the government, or a department of the government, of the state but not (except as mentioned in paragraph (c)) judgments against an entity which is distinct from the executive organs of government;

(b)judgments against the sovereign or head of state in his public capacity;

(c)judgments against any such separate entity as is mentioned in paragraph (a) given in proceedings relating to anything done by it in the exercise of the sovereign authority of the state.

(3)Nothing in subsection (1) shall affect the recognition or enforcement in the United Kingdom of a judgment to which Part I of the M2Foreign Judgments (Reciprocal Enforcement) Act 1933 applies by virtue of section 4 of the M3Carriage of Goods by Road Act 1965, section 17(4) of the M4Nuclear Installations Act 1965, section [F1166(4) of the Merchant Shipping Act 1995], [F2regulation 8 of the Railways (Convention on International Carriage by Rail) Regulations 2005]F3. . . .

(4)Sections 12, 13 and 14(3) and (4) of the State Immunity Act 1978 (service of process and procedural privileges) shall apply to proceedings for the recognition or enforcement in the United Kingdom of a judgment given by a court of an overseas country (whether or not that judgment is within subsection (1) of this section) as they apply to other proceedings.

(5)In this section “state", in the case of a federal state, includes any of its constituent territories.

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Amendments (Textual)

F1Words in s. 31(3) substituted (1.1.1996) by 1995 c. 21, ss. 314(2), 316(2), Sch. 13 para. 66(a) (with s. 312(1))

Marginal Citations

32 Overseas judgments given in proceedings brought in breach of agreement for settlement of disputes.E+W+S+N.I.

(1)Subject to the following provisions of this section, a judgment given by a court of an overseas country in any proceedings shall not be recognised or enforced in the United Kingdom if—

(a)the bringing of those proceedings in that court was contrary to an agreement under which the dispute in question was to be settled otherwise than by proceedings in the courts of that country; and

(b)those proceedings were not brought in that court by, or with the agreement of, the person against whom the judgment was given; and

(c)that person did not counterclaim in the proceedings or otherwise submit to the jurisdiction of that court.

(2)Subsection (1) does not apply where the agreement referred to in paragraph (a) of that subsection was illegal, void or unenforceable or was incapable of being performed for reasons not attributable to the fault of the party bringing the proceedings in which the judgment was given.

(3)In determining whether a judgment given by a court of an overseas country should be recognised or enforced in the United Kingdom, a court in the United Kingdom shall not be bound by any decision of the overseas court relating to any of the matters mentioned in subsection (1) or (2).

(4)Nothing in subsection (1) shall affect the recognition or enforcement in the United Kingdom of—

(a)a judgment which is required to be recognised or enforced there under the 1968 Convention [F4or the Lugano Convention][F5or the Regulation][F6or the Maintenance Regulation];

(b)a judgment to which Part I of the M5Foreign Judgments (Reciprocal Enforcement) Act 1933 applies by virtue of section 4 of the M6Carriage of Goods by Road Act 1965, section 17(4) of the M7Nuclear Installations Act 1965, F7 . . . [F8regulation 8 of the Railways (Convention on International Carriage by Rail) Regulations 2005]F9. . . or [F10section 177(4) of the Merchant Shipping Act 1995].

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Amendments (Textual)

F5Words in s. 32(4)(a) inserted (1.3.2002) by S.I. 2001/3929, arts. 1(b), 4, Sch. 2 para. 14

F10Words in s. 32(4)(b) substituted (1.1.1996) by 1995 c. 21, ss. 314(2), Sch. 13 para. 66(b)(ii) (with s. 312(1))

Marginal Citations

33 Certain steps not to amount to submission to jurisdiction of overseas court.E+W+S+N.I.

(1)For the purposes of determining whether a judgment given by a court of an overseas country should be recognised or enforced in England and Wales or Northern Ireland, the person against whom the judgment was given shall not be regarded as having submitted to the jurisdiction of the court by reason only of the fact that he appeared (conditionally or otherwise) in the proceedings for all or any one or more of the following purposes, namely—

(a)to contest the jurisdiction of the court;

(b)to ask the court to dismiss or stay the proceedings on the ground that the dispute in question should be submitted to arbitration or to the determination of the courts of another country;

(c)to protect, or obtain the release of, property seized or threatened with seizure in the proceedings.

(2)Nothing in this section shall affect the recognition or enforcement in England and Wales or Northern Ireland of a judgment which is required to be recognised or enforced there under the 1968 Convention [F11or the Lugano Convention][F12or the Regulation][F13or the Maintenance Regulation].

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Amendments (Textual)

F12Words in s. 33(2) added (1.3.2002) by S.I. 2001/3929, arts. 1(b), 4, Sch. 2 para. 15

34 Certain judgments a bar to further proceedings on the same cause of action.E+W+S+N.I.

No proceedings may be brought by a person in England and Wales or Northern Ireland on a cause of action in respect of which a judgment has been given in his favour in proceedings between the same parties, or their privies, in a court in another part of the United Kingdom or in a court of an overseas country, unless that judgment is not enforceable or entitled to recognition in England and Wales or, as the case may be, in Northern Ireland.

35 Minor amendments relating to overseas judgments.E+W+S+N.I.

(1)The M8Foreign Judgments (Reciprocal Enforcement) Act 1933 shall have effect with the amendments specified in Schedule 10, being amendments whose main purpose is to enable Part I of that Act to be applied to judgments of courts other than superior courts, to judgments providing for interim payments and to certain arbitration awards.

X1(2)For section 10 of the M9Administration of Justice Act 1920 (issue of certificates of judgments obtained in the United Kingdom) there shall be substituted—

10(1)Where—

(a)a judgement has been obtained in the High Court in England or Northern Ireland, or in the Court of Session in Scotland, against any person ; and

(b)the judgments creditor wishes to secure the enforcement of the judgement in a part of Her Majesty’s dominions outside the United Kingdom to which this Part of this Act extends,

the court shall, on an application made by the judgement creditor, issue to him a certified copy of the judgement.

(2)The reference in the preceding subsection to Her Majesty’s dominions shall be construed as if that subsection had come into force in its present form at the commencement of this Act..

X1(3)In section 14 of the M10Administration of Justice Act 1920 (extent of Part II of that Act), after subsection (2) there shall be inserted—

(3)Her Majesty may by Order in Council under this section consolidate any Orders in Council under this section which are in force when the consolidating Order is made..

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Editorial Information

X1The text of ss. 15(4), 16(5), 23(2), 35(2)(3), 36(6), 37(2), 38, 40(3), 54, Schs. 10–12 and 14 is in the form in which it was originally enacted: it was not reproduced in Statutes in Force and does not reflect any amendments or repeals which may have been made prior to 1.2.1991.

Marginal Citations

36 Registration of maintenance orders in Northern Ireland.E+W+S+N.I.

(1)Where—

(a)a High Court order or a Court of Session order has been registered in the High Court of Justice in Northern Ireland (“the Northern Ireland High Court”) under Part II of the M11Maintenance Orders Act 1950; or

(b)a county court order, a magistrates’ court order or a sheriff court order has been registered in a court of summary jurisdiction in Northern Ireland under that Part,

an application may be made to the original court for the registration of the order in, respectively, a court of summary jurisdiction in Northern Ireland or the Northern Ireland High Court.

(2)In subsection (1) “the original court”, in relation to an order, means the court by which the order was made.

(3)Section 2 (except subsection (6A)) and section 2A of the M12Maintenance Orders Act 1958 shall have effect for the purposes of an application under subsection (1), and subsections (2), (3), (4) and (4A) of section 5 of that Act shall have effect for the purposes of the cancellation of a registration made on such an application, as if—

(a)“registration” in those provisions included registration in the appropriate Northern Ireland court (“registered” being construed accordingly);

(b)any reference in those provisions to a High Court order or a magistrates’ court order included, respectively, a Court of Session order or a sheriff court order; and

(c)any other reference in those provisions to the High Court or a magistrates’ court included the Northern Ireland High Court or a court of summary jurisdiction in Northern Ireland;

[F14(d)for section 2(6), there were substituted the following subsections—

(6)Where a magistrates’ court order is registered under this Part of this Act in the High Court, then—

(a)if payments under the magistrates’ court order are required to be made (otherwise than to a collecting officer) by any method of payment falling within Article 85(7) of the Magistrates’ Courts (Northern Ireland) Order 1981 (standing order, etc.), any order requiring payment by that method shall continue to have effect after registration;

(b)any order by virtue of which sums payable under the magistrates’ court order are required to be paid to the collecting officer (whether or not by any method of payment falling within Article 85(7) of that Order) on behalf of the person entitled thereto shall cease to have effect.

(6ZA)Where a High Court or county court order is registered under this Part of this Act in a magistrates’ court, then—

(a)if a means of payment order (within the meaning of Article 96A(7) of the Judgments Enforcement (Northern Ireland) Order 1981) has effect in relation to the order in question, it shall continue to have effect after registration; and

(b)in any other case, the magistrates’ court shall order that all payments to be made under the order in question (including any arrears accrued before registration) shall be made to the collecting officer.

(6ZB)Any such order as to payment—

(a)as is referred to in paragraph (a) of subsection (6) of this section may be revoked, suspended, revived or varied by an exercise of the powers conferred by section 13A of the Maintenance and Affiliation Orders Act (Northern Ireland) 1966; and

(b)as is referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) of subsection (6ZA) of this section may be varied or revoked by an exercise of the powers conferred by section 12(2) or 13(2A) or (5A) of that Act of 1966.

(6ZC)Where by virtue of the provisions of this section or any order under subsection (6ZA)(b) of this section payments under an order cease to be or become payable to the collecting officer, the person liable to make the payments shall, until he is given the prescribed notice to that effect, be deemed to comply with the order if he makes payments in accordance with the order and any order under subsection (6ZA)(b) of this section of which he has received such notice.

(6ZD)In subsections (6), (6ZA) and (6ZC) of this section “collecting officer” means the officer mentioned in Article 85(4) of the Magistrates’ Courts (Northern Ireland) Order 1981.]

(4)Where an order is registered in Northern Ireland under this section, Part II of the M13Maintenance and Affiliation Orders Act (Northern Ireland) 1966, except sections 11, 11A and 14(2) and (3), shall apply as if the order had been registered in accordance with the provisions of that Part [F15, as if—

(a)in section 12(2), for modifications of Article 98(8B) to (8D) of the Magistrates’ Courts (Northern Ireland) Order 1981 specified in that subsection there were substituted the modifications specified in section 18(3ZA) of the Maintenance Orders Act 1950 (enforcement of registered orders); and

(b)for section 13(5A), there were substituted the following subsection—

“(5A)Subject to the following provisions of this section, paragraphs (4) to (11) of Article 86 of the Magistrates’ Courts (Northern Ireland) Order 1981 (power of clerk and court to vary maintenance orders) shall apply in relation to a registered order as they apply in relation to a maintenance order made by a court of summary jurisdiction (disregarding Article 25(2) of the Domestic Proceedings (Northern Ireland) Order 1980) but—

(a)as if for paragraph (4)(b) there were substituted—

(b)payments under the order are required to be made to the collecting officer, by any method of payment falling within Article 85(7) (standing order, etc.);

and as if after the words “petty sessions” there were inserted “for the petty sessions district for which the court which made the order acts”;

(b) as if in paragraph (5) for the words “to the collecting officer” there were substituted “in accordance with sub-paragraph (a) of paragraph (9)”;

(c)as if in paragraph (7), sub-paragraph (c) and the word “and” immediately preceding it were omitted;

(d)as if in paragraph (8) for the words “sub-paragraphs (a) to (d) of Article 85(3)” there were substituted “paragraph (9)”;

(e)as if for paragraphs (9) and (10) there were substituted the following paragraphs—

“(9)The powers of the court are—

(a)the power to order that payments under the order be made directly to the collecting officer;

(b)the power to order that payments under the order be made to the collecting officer, by such method of payment falling within Article 85(7) (standing order, etc.) as may be specified;

(c)the power to make an attachment of earnings order under Part IX to secure payments under the order.

(10)In deciding which of the powers under paragraph (9) above it is to exercise, the court shall have regard to any representations made by the debtor.

(10A)Paragraph (5) of Article 85 (power of court to require debtor to open account) shall apply for the purposes of paragraph (9) as it applies for the purposes of that Article but as if for sub-paragraph (a) there were substituted—

“(a)the court proposes to exercise its power under sub-paragraph (b) of Article 86(9).]

(5)A court of summary jurisdiction in Northern Ireland shall have jurisdiction to hear [F16an application] by or against a person residing outside Northern Ireland for the discharge or variation of an order registered in Northern Ireland under this section; and where such [F16an application] is made against a person residing outside Northern Ireland, then, if he resides in England and Wales or Scotland, section 15 of the M14Maintenance Orders Act 1950 (which relates to the service of process on persons residing in those countries) shall have effect in relation to [F16the application] as it has effect in relation to the proceedings therein mentioned.

[F17(5A)Article 165 of the Children (Northern Ireland) Order 1995 (provision which may be made by magistrates’ courts rules, etc.) shall apply for the purpose of giving effect to subsection (5) above as it applies for the purpose of giving effect to that Order, except that in the application of that Article by virtue of this subsection “relevant proceedings” means any application made, or proceedings brought, by virtue of that subsection and any part of such proceedings.]

X2(6)The enactments specified in Part III of Schedule 12 shall have effect with the amendments specified there, being amendments consequential on this section.

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Editorial Information

X2The text of ss. 15(4), 16(5), 23(2), 35(2)(3), 36(6), 37(2), 38, 40(3), 54, Schs. 10–12 and 14 is in the form in which it was originally enacted: it was not reproduced in Statutes in Force and does not reflect any amendments or repeals which may have been made prior to 1.2.1991.

Amendments (Textual)

F15S. 36(4)(a)-(e) and preceding words inserted (N.I.) (4.11.1996) by S.I. 1993/1576 (N.I. 6), art. 11, Sch. 1 para. 17(b); S.R. 1996/454, art. 3

Marginal Citations

37 Minor amendments relating to maintenance orders.E+W+S+N.I.

(1)The enactments specified in Schedule 11 shall have effect with the amendments specified there, being amendments whose main purpose is as follows—

  • Part I—to extend certain enforcement provisions to lump sum maintenance orders;

  • Part II—to provide for the recovery of interest according to the law of the country of origin in the case of maintenance orders made in other jurisdictions and registered in the High Court;

  • Part III—to extend the M15Maintenance Orders (Reciprocal Enforcement) Act 1972 to cases where the payer under a maintenance order is not resident within the jurisdiction but has assets there.

F18(2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Amendments (Textual)

Marginal Citations

X338 Overseas judgments counteracting an award of multiple damages.E+W+S+N.I.

(1)Section 7 of the M16Protection of Trading Interests Act 1980 (which enables provision to be made by Order in Council for the enforcement in the United Kingdom on a reciprocal basis of overseas judgments directed to counteracting a judgement for multiple dammages given in the third country) shall be amended as follows.

(2)In subsection (1) for “judgements given under any provision of the law of that country corresponding to that section” there shall be substituted “ judgments of any description specified in the Order which are given under any provision of the law of that country relating to the recovery of sums paid or obtained pursuant to a judgement for multiple damages within the meaning of section 5(3) above, whether or not that provision corresponds to section 6 above ”.

(3)After subsection (1) there shall be inserted—

(1A)Such an Order in Council may, as respects judgments to which it relates—

(a)make different provisions for different descriptions of judgments ; and

(b)impose conditions or restrictions on the enforcement of judgments of any description..

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Editorial Information

X3The text of ss. 15(4), 16(5), 23(2), 35(2)(3), 36(6), 37(2), 38, 40(3), 54, Schs. 10–12 and 14 is in the form in which it was originally enacted: it was not reproduced in Statutes in Force and does not reflect any amendments or repeals which may have been made prior to 1.2.1991.

Marginal Citations

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