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Highways Act 1980

Status:

This is the original version (as it was originally enacted).

Part IXLawful and Unlawful Interference With Highways and Streets

Protection of public rights

130Protection of public rights

(1)It is the duty of the highway authority to assert and protect the rights of the public to the use and enjoyment of any highway for which they are the highway authority, including any roadside waste which forms part of it.

(2)Any council may assert and protect the rights of the public to the use and enjoyment of any highway in their area for which they are not the highway authority, including any roadside waste which forms part of it.

(3)Without prejudice to subsections (1) and (2) above, it is the duty of a council who are a highway authority to prevent, as far as possible, the stopping up or obstruction of—

(a)the highways for which they are the highway authority,

and

(b)any highway for which they are not the highway authority, if, in their opinion, the stopping up or obstruction of that highway would be prejudicial to the interests of their area.

(4)Without prejudice to the foregoing provisions of this section, it is the duty of a local highway authority to prevent any unlawful encroachment on any roadside waste comprised in a highway for which they are the highway authority.

(5)Without prejudice to their powers under section 222 of the Local Government Act 1972, a council may, in the performance of their functions under the foregoing provisions of this section, institute legal proceedings in their own name, defend any legal proceedings and generally take such steps as they deem expedient.

(6)If the council of a parish or community or, in the case of a parish or community which does not have a separate parish or community council, the parish meeting or a community meeting, represent to a local highway authority—

(a)that a highway as to which the local highway authority have the duty imposed by subsection (3) above has been unlawfully stopped up or obstructed, or

(b)that an unlawful encroachment has taken place on a roadside waste comprised in a highway for which they are the highway authority,

it is the duty of the local highway authority, unless satisfied that the representations are incorrect, to take proper proceedings accordingly and they may do so in their own name.

(7)Proceedings or steps taken by a council in relation to an alleged right of way are not to be treated as unauthorised by reason only that the alleged right is found not to exist.

Damage to highways, streets etc.

131Penalty for damaging highway etc.

(1)If a person, without lawful authority or excuse—

(a)makes a ditch or excavation in a highway which consists of or comprises a carriageway, or

(b)removes any soil or turf from any part of a highway, except for the purpose of improving the highway and with the consent of the highway authority for the highway, or

(c)deposits anything whatsoever on a highway so as to damage the highway, or

(d)lights any fire, or discharges any firearm or firework,

within 50 feet from the centre of a highway which consists of or comprises a carriageway, and in consequence thereof the highway is damaged,

he is guilty of an offence.

(2)If a person without lawful authority or excuse pulls down or obliterates a traffic sign placed on or over a highway, or a milestone or direction post (not being a traffic sign) so placed, he is guilty of an offence; but it is a defence in any proceedings under this subsection to show that the traffic sign, milestone or post was not lawfully so placed.

(3)A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable to a fine not exceeding £20 or, in the case of a second or subsequent conviction under this section, to a fine not exceeding £50.

132Unauthorised marks on highways

(1)A person who, without either the consent of the highway authority for the highway in question or an authorisation given by or under an enactment or a reasonable excuse, paints or otherwise inscribes or affixes any picture, letter, sign or other mark upon the surface of a highway or upon any tree, structure or works on or in a highway is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £100 or, in the case of a second or subsequent conviction under this subsection, to a fine not exceeding £200.

(2)The highway authority for a highway may, without prejudice to their powers apart from this subsection and whether or not proceedings in respect of the matter have been taken in pursuance of subsection (1) above, remove any picture, letter, sign or other mark which has, without either the consent of the authority or an authorisation given by or under an enactment, been painted or otherwise inscribed or affixed upon the surface of the highway or upon any tree, structure or works on or in the highway.

133Damage to footways of streets by excavations

If the footway of a street that is a highway maintainable at the public expense is damaged by or in consequence of any excavation or other work on land adjoining the street, the highway authority for the highway may make good the damage and recover the expenses reasonably incurred by them in so doing from the owner of the land in question or the person causing or responsible for the damage.

134Ploughing of footpath or bridleway

(1)Where a footpath or bridleway crosses agricultural land or land which is being brought into use for agriculture, then, if—

(a)it is proposed in accordance with the rules of good husbandry to plough the land, and

(b)it is convenient, in so ploughing the land, to plough the path or way together with the rest of the land,

the public right of way shall be subject to the condition that the occupier shall have the right, subject to the following provisions of this section, to plough the path or way as well as the rest of the land.

(2)This section does not confer any right to plough so much of a footpath or bridleway as follows what are for the time being the headlands or sides of a field or enclosure.

(3)Before ploughing a footpath or bridleway in the exercise of the right conferred by this section the occupier shall give to the highway authority for the path or way not less than 7 days' notice of his intention to plough it.

(4)Subject to section 135 below, where a footpath or bridleway is ploughed in die exercise of the right conferred by this section the occupier of the land shall as soon as may be after the ploughing is completed and in any event—

(a)not later than 6 weeks from the date of giving notice of intention to plough under subsection (3) above, or

(b)if, in contravention of that subsection, no such notice was given, not later than 3 weeks from the time when the occupier began to plough the footpath or bridleway,

make good the surface of the path or way so as to make it reasonably convenient for the exercise of the public right of way.

(5)A person who fails to comply with subsection (3) or (4) above is guilty of an offence and liable—

(a)in the case of a failure to comply with subsection (3),

to a fine not exceeding £10,

(b)in the case of a failure to comply with subsection (4),

to a fine not exceeding £200;

and where a person is convicted of failing to comply with subsection (4) and the offence is continued after the conviction he is guilty of a further offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £1 for each day on which the offence is so continued.

(6)It is the duty of a highway authority to enforce the provisions of subsections (3) to (5) above as respects any footpath or bridleway for which they are the highway authority; and subject to subsection (7) below no proceedings in respect of an offence under those provisions shall be brought except by the authority required by this subsection to enforce those provisions as respects the path or way in question.

(7)Proceedings in respect of an offence under subsection (4) above may be brought by the council of the parish or community in which the path or way in question is situated or by the council of the district within whose area the path or way is situated.

(8)Without prejudice to subsections (6) and (7) above, if a footpath or bridleway is ploughed and the occupier has no right to plough it, or if there is a failure to comply with subsection (4) above, a competent authority, after giving to the occupier not less than 14 days' notice of their intention, may take all necessary steps for making good the surface of the path or way so as to make it reasonably convenient for the exercise of the public right of way.

(9)A competent authority may recover from the occupier the amount of any expenses reasonably incurred by the authority in and in connection with the exercise of their powers under subsection (8) above.

(10)For the purposes of subsections (8) and (9) above the following are competent authorities—

(a)in the case of a footpath or bridleway which is for the time being maintained by a district council by virtue of section 42 or 50 above, that council and also the highway authority, and

(b)in the case of any other footpath or bridleway, the highway authority.

(11)Nothing in this section prejudices any limitation or condition having effect apart from this section.

135Temporary diversion of path or way ploughed up under section 134

(1)If on the application of the occupier the highway authority are satisfied that it is expedient in the interests of good farming that the period of 6 or 3 weeks mentioned in section 134(4) above should be extended the highway authority may—

(a)order the temporary diversion of the path or way until such date as may be specified in the order, being a date not more than 3 months after the time when the occupier began to plough the footpath or bridleway, and

(b)by the order extend the period of 6 weeks or 3 weeks mentioned in section 134(4) so as to expire on that date.

(2)On the making of the order the highway authority shall forthwith cause a copy of it to be displayed in a prominent position at the ends of the diversion.

(3)In deciding whether to make an order under this section a highway authority shall take into account the interests of the users of the path or way.

(4)An order under this section diverting a path or way—

(a)shall not affect the line of a path or way on land now occupied by the applicant,

(b)shall not divert any part of the path or way on to land not occupied by the applicant, unless written consent to the making of the order has been given by the occupier of that land, and by any other person whose consent is needed to obtain access to the land,

(c)may require as a condition of the taking effect of the order the provision of any necessary facilities for the convenient use of the diversion,

and the highway authority may enter into an agreement with the applicant for the provision of any such facilities by the highway authority at the expense of the applicant.

136Damage to highway consequent on exclusion of sun and wind

(1)If a highway which consists of or comprises a carriageway is being damaged in consequence of the exclusion from it of the sun and wind by a hedge or tree (other than a tree planted for ornament or for shelter to a building, courtyard or hop ground), a magistrates' court may by order require the owner or occupier of the land on which the hedge or tree is growing, so to cut, prune or plash the hedge or prune or lop the tree as to remove the cause of damage.

(2)The power of a magistrates' court to make an order under subsection (1) above is exercisable on a complaint made by the highway authority for the highway, or, in the case of a highway maintainable by reason of tenure, enclosure or prescription, by the person liable to maintain the highway.

(3)If a person against whom an order under subsection (1) above is made fails to comply with it within 10 days from such date as may be specified in the order, he is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £25, and the highway authority or other person on whose complaint the order was made may carry out the work required by the order and may recover the expenses reasonably incurred by them or him in so doing from the person in default.

(4)No person shall be required by an order made under this section, nor is any person permitted by subsection (3) above, to cut or prune a hedge at any time between the last day of September and the first day of April.

Obstruction of highways and streets

137Penalty for wilful obstruction

(1)If a person, without lawful authority or excuse, in any way wilfully obstructs the free passage along a highway he is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £50.

(2)A constable may arrest without warrant any person whom he sees committing an offence against this section.

138Penalty for erecting building, etc., in highway

If a person, without lawful authority or excuse, erects a building or fence, or plants a hedge, in a highway which consists of or comprises a carriageway he is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £50.

139Control of builders' skips

(1)A builder's skip shall not be deposited on a highway without the permission of the highway authority for the highway.

(2)A permission under this section shall be a permission for a person to whom it is granted to deposit, or cause to be deposited, a skip on the highway specified in the permission, and a highway authority may grant such permission either unconditionally or subject to such conditions as may be specified in the permission including, in particular, conditions relating to—

(a)the siting of the skip;

(b)its dimensions;

(c)the manner in which it is to be coated with paint and other material for the purpose of making it immediately visible to oncoming traffic ;

(d)the care and disposal of its contents;

(e)the manner in which it is to be lighted or guarded;

(f)its removal at the end of the period of permission.

(3)If a builder's skip is deposited on a highway without a permission granted under this section, the owner of the skip is, subject to subsection (6) below, guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £100.

(4)Where a builder's skip has been deposited on a highway in accordance with a permission granted under this section, the owner of the skip shall secure—

(a)that the skip is properly lighted during the hours of darkness;

(b)that the skip is clearly and indelibly marked with the owner's name and with his telephone number or address;

(c)that the skip is removed as soon as practicable after it has been filled;

(d)that each of the conditions subject to which that permission was granted is complied with;

and, if he fails to do so, he is, subject to subsection (6) below, guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £100.

(5)Where the commission by any person of an offence under this section is due to the act or default of some other person, that other person is guilty of the offence, and a person may be charged with and convicted of the offence by virtue of this subsection whether or not proceedings are taken against the first-mentioned person.

(6)In any proceedings for an offence under this section it is a defence, subject to subsection (7) below, for the person charged to prove that the commission of the offence was due to the act or default of another person and that he took all reasonable precautions and exercised all due diligence to avoid the commission of such an offence by himself or any person under his control.

(7)A person charged with an offence under this section is not, without leave of the court, entitled to rely on the defence provided by subsection (6) above unless, within a period ending 7 clear days before the hearing, he has served on the prosecutor a notice in writing giving such information identifying or assisting in the identification of that other person as was then in his possession.

(8)Where any person is charged with an offence under any other enactment for failing to secure that a builder's skip which has been deposited on a highway in accordance with a permission granted under this section was properly lighted during the hours of darkness, it is a defence for the person charged to prove that the commission of the offence was due to the act or default of another person and that he took all reasonable precautions and exercised all due diligence to avoid the commission of such an offence by himself or any person under his control.

(9)Where a person is charged with obstructing, or interrupting any user of, a highway by depositing a builder's skip on it, it is a defence for the person charged to prove that the skip was deposited on it in accordance with a permission granted under this section and either—

(a)that each of the requirements of subsection (4) above had been complied with; or

(b)that the commission of any offence under that subsection was due to the act or default of another person and that he took all reasonable precautions and exercised all due diligence to avoid the commission of such an offence by himself or any person under his control.

(10)Nothing in this section is to be taken as authorising the creation of a nuisance or of a danger to users of a highway or as imposing on a highway authority by whom a permission has been granted under this section any liability for any injury, damage or loss resulting from the presence on a highway of the skip to which the permission relates.

(11)In this section and section 140 below—

  • " builder's skip " means a container designed to be carried on a road vehicle and to be placed on a highway or other land for the storage of builders' materials, or for the removal and disposal of builders' rubble, waste, household and other rubbish or earth ; and

  • " owner ", in relation to a builder's skip which is the subject of a hiring agreement, being an agreement for a hiring of not less than one month, or a hire purchase agreement, means the person in possession of the skip under that agreement.

140Removal of builders' skips

(1)The following provisions of this section have effect in relation to a builder's skip deposited on a highway notwithstanding that it was deposited on it in accordance with a permission granted under section 139 above.

(2)The highway authority for the highway or a constable in uniform may require the owner of the skip to remove or reposition it or cause it to be removed or repositioned.

(3)A person required to remove or reposition, or cause to be removed or repositioned, a skip under a requirement made by virtue of subsection (2) above shall comply with the requirement as soon as practicable, and if he fails to do so he is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £50.

(4)The highway authority for the highway or a constable in uniform may themselves remove or reposition the skip or cause it to be removed or repositioned.

(5)Where a skip is removed under subsection (4) above, the highway authority or, as the case may be, the chief officer of police shall, where practicable, notify the owner of its removal, but if the owner cannot be traced, or if after a reasonable period of time after being so notified he has not recovered the skip, the highway authority or chief officer of police may dispose of the skip and its contents.

(6)Any expenses reasonably incurred by a highway authority or chief officer of police in the removal or repositioning of a skip under subsection (4) above or the disposal of a skip under subsection (5) above may be recovered from the owner of the skip in any court of competent jurisdiction or summarily as a civil debt.

(7)Any proceeds of the disposal of a skip under subsection (5) above shall be used in the first place to meet the expenses reasonably incurred in the removal and disposal of the skip and thereafter any surplus shall be given to the person entitled to it if he can be traced and if not may be retained by the highway authority or the chief officer of police, as the case may be ; and any surplus so retained by a chief officer of police shall be paid into the police fund.

(8)References in this section to expenses incurred in the removal of a skip include references to expenses incurred in storing the skip until it is recovered by the owner or, as the case may be, disposed of.

(9)The owner of a skip is not guilty of an offence under section 139(4) above of failing to secure that a condition relating to the siting of the skip was complied with if the failure resulted from the repositioning of the skip under subsection (3) or (4) above.

141Restriction on planting of trees etc., in or near carriageway

(1)Subject to sections 64 and 96 above and section 142 below, no tree or shrub shall be planted in a made-up carriageway, or within 15 feet from the centre of a made-up carriageway.

(2)If a tree or shrub is planted in contravention of this section the highway authority for the highway or, in the case of a highway maintainable by reason of tenure, enclosure or prescription, the person liable to maintain the highway, may by notice given either to the owner or to the occupier of the land in which the tree or shrub is planted require him to remove it within 21 days from the date of service of the notice.

(3)If a person fails to comply with a notice under subsection (2) above he is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £25 and if the offence is continued after conviction he is guilty of a further offence and liable to a fine not exceeding 5 Op for each day on which the offence is so continued.

142Licence to plant trees, shrubs, etc. in a highway

(1)The highway authority for a highway may by a licence granted under this section permit the occupier or the owner of any premises adjoining the highway to plant and maintain, or to retain and maintain, trees, shrubs, plants or grass in such part of the highway as may be specified in the licence.

(2)The highway authority may, as they think fit—

(a)grant a licence under this section to the person who at the time of the grant is the occupier of such premises and insert in the licence provisions prohibiting assignment of the licence and providing for its duration; or

(b)grant such a licence to the owner of such premises and his successors in title and insert in the licence provisions providing for the licence to be annexed to those premises and providing for its duration;

and references in this section to the licensee are references to the person who is for the time being entitled by virtue of such a licence to do anything permitted by it to be done.

(3)No fine, rent or other sum of money is payable in respect of such a licence except—

(a)a reasonable sum in respect of legal or other expenses incurred in connection with the grant of the licence; and

(b)an annual charge of a reasonable amount for administering the licence;

and any such sum is recoverable from the licensee.

(4)It shall be a condition of every licence granted by virtue of subsection (2)(b) above that within one month after any change in the ownership of the premises in question takes place the licensee is to inform the highway authority of it.

(5)A highway authority may attach to any such licence such conditions as they consider necessary to ensure the safety and convenience of passengers in the highway and to prevent traffic therein being delayed, to prevent any nuisance or annoyance being caused to the owners or occupiers of other premises adjoining the highway and to protect the apparatus of statutory undertakers, sewerage authorities and the Post Office.

(6)A highway authority may by notice served on the licensee withdraw a licence granted by them under this section—

(a)on the expiration of such period as may be specified in the notice, being a period of not less than 7 days beginning with the date of service of the notice on the licensee, if any condition of the licence is contravened by the licensee;

(b)on the expiration of such period as may be so specified, being a period of not less than 3 months beginning with the said date, if the authority consider the withdrawal of the licence is necessary for the purpose of the exercise of their functions as a highway authority.

(7)Where a licence under this section expires or is withdrawn or surrendered, the highway authority by whom it was granted—

(a)may remove all or any of the trees, shrubs, plants or grass to which the licence relates and reinstate the highway and may recover the expenses reasonably incurred by them in so doing from the last licensee; or

(b)if satisfied that the last licensee can, within such reasonable time as they may specify, remove such trees, shrubs, plants or grass or such of them as they may specify and reinstate the highway, may authorise him to do so at his own expense. In this subsection " the last licensee " means the person who immediately before the expiration, withdrawal or surrender of the licence in question was the licensee or, if that person has died, his personal representatives.

(8)The licensee and the person who immediately before the expiration, withdrawal or surrender of a licence under this section was the licensee or, if that person has died, his personal representatives shall indemnify the highway authority against any claim in respect of injury, damage or loss arising out of—

(a)the planting or presence in a highway of trees, shrubs,

plants or grass to which the licence relates, or

(b)the execution by any person of any works authorised by the licence or by the highway authority under subsection (7) above, or

(c)the execution by or on behalf of the highway authority of any works under subsection (7) above ;

but this subsection is not to be taken as requiring any person to indemnify the highway authority against any claim in respect of injury, damage or loss which is attributable to the negligence of that authority.

(9)If any person plants a tree or shrub in a highway otherwise than in pursuance of a licence granted under this section, the tree or shrub is to be deemed, for the purposes of section 141 above, to have been planted in contravention of that section.

(10)Where the land on which a highway is situated is owned by the highway authority for the highway, nothing in subsection (3) above is to be taken as affecting the rights of that authority as the owner of that land to grant to any person, for such consideration as they think fit, the right to plant any thing in that land.

143Power to remove structures from highways

(1)Where a structure has been erected or set up on a highway otherwise than under a provision of this Act or some other enactment, a competent authority may by notice require the person having control or possession of the structure to remove it within such time as may be specified in the notice. For the purposes of this section the following are competent authorities—

(a)in the case of a highway which is for the time being maintained by a district council by virtue of section 42 or 50 above, that council and also the highway authority, and

(b)in the case of any other highway, the highway authority.

(2)If a structure in respect of which a notice is served under this section is not removed within the time specified in the notice, the competent authority serving the notice may, subject to subsection (3) below, remove the structure and recover the expenses reasonably incurred by them in so doing from the person having control or possession of the structure.

(3)The authority shall not exercise their power under subsection (2) above until the expiration of one month from the date of service of the notice.

(4)In this section " structure " includes any machine, pump, post or other object of such a nature as to be capable of causing obstruction, and a structure may be treated for the purposes of this section as having been erected or set up notwithstanding that it is on wheels.

144Power to erect flagpoles etc. on highways

(1)Subject to subsection (2) below, a local authority may—

(a)erect flagpoles, pylons and other structures on any highway in their area for the purpose of displaying decorations;

(b)make slots in such a highway for the purpose of erecting the structures; and

(c)remove any structure erected or slot made by the authority in pursuance of paragraph (a) or (b) above;

and any structures or slots which may be erected or made by virtue of this subsection are hereafter in this section referred to as " relevant works ".

(2)A local authority are not entitled to exercise the powers conferred on them by subsection (1) above in respect of a highway for which they are not the highway authority except with the consent in writing of the highway authority for the highway, and are not entitled to exercise those powers in respect of so much of a highway as—

(a)is carried by a bridge which a body other than the local authority and the highway authority has a duty to maintain; or

(b)forms part of the approaches to such a bridge and is supported or protected by works or materials which a body other than the local authority and the highway authority has a duty to maintain,

except with the consent in writing of that body. In this subsection " bridge " includes a structure which carries a highway superimposed over a cutting.

(3)A highway authority or other body may give their consent in pursuance of subsection (2) above on such terms as they think fit (including in particular, without prejudice to the generality of the preceding provisions of this subsection, terms providing for the highway authority or body to remove any of the relevant works and reinstate the highway and to recover the reasonable cost of doing so from the local authority to whom the consent was given).

(4)It is the duty of an authority by whom relevant works are erected or made by virtue of the preceding provisions of this section—

(a)to ensure that the works are erected or made so as to obstruct the highway in question as little as is reasonably possible, so as not to obscure or conflict with traffic signs connected with the highway and so as to interfere as little as is reasonably possible with the enjoyment of premises adjacent to the highway and with, and with access to, any apparatus in or on the highway which belongs to or is used or maintained by statutory undertakers; and

(b)to ensure that while the works are retained they are properly maintained and, so far as it is necessary to light them to avoid danger to users of the highway, are properly lit; and

(c)if the authority are not the highway authority for the highway, to indemnify the highway authority against any payments falling to be made by the highway authority in consequence of the works.

(5)A person who without lawful authority interferes with or removes any relevant works is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £50 or, in the case of a second or subsequent conviction under this subsection, to a fine not exceeding £100.

(6)In this section—

  • " local authority " means any of the following, namely, the council of a county, district or London borough, the Greater London Council, the Common Council, the Council of the Isles of Stilly and a parish or community council; and

  • " statutory undertakers" means any of the following, namely, any body which is a statutory undertaker within the meaning provided by section 329(1) below, the Post Office, any public authority exercising functions by virtue of any provision of sections 14 and 15 of the Water Act 1973 (which relate to sewerage) and any person entitled to the benefit of a licence in respect of the highway in question under section 181 below.

145Powers as to gates across highways

(1)Where there is a gate of less than the minimum width across so much of a highway as consists of a carriageway, or across a highway that is a bridleway, the highway authority for the highway may by notice to the owner of the gate require him to enlarge the gate to that width or remove it. In this subsection " the minimum width " means, in relation to a gate across so much of a highway as consists of a carriageway, 10 feet and, in relation to a gate across a bridleway, 5 feet, measured in either case between the posts of the gate.

(2)If a person on whom a notice under subsection (1) above is served fails to comply, within 21 days from the date of service of the notice on him, with a requirement of the notice, he is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding 50p for each day during which the failure continues.

146Duty to maintain stiles etc. on footpaths and bridleways

(1)Any stile, gate or other similar structure across a footpath or bridleway shall be maintained by the owner of the land in a safe condition, and to the standard of repair required to prevent unreasonable interference with the rights of the persons using the footpath or bridleway.

(2)If it appears to the appropriate authority that the duty imposed by subsection (1) above is not being complied with, they may, after giving to the owner and occupier not less than 14 days' notice of their intention, take all necessary steps for repairing and making good the stile, gate or other works. For the purposes of this section the appropriate authority is—

(a)in the case of a footpath or bridleway which is for the time being maintained by a district council by virtue of section 42 or 50 above, that council, and

(b)in the case of any other footpath or bridleway, the highway authority.

(3)The appropriate authority may recover from the owner of the land the amount of any expenses reasonably incurred by the authority in and in connection with the exercise of then-powers under subsection (2) above, or such part of those expenses as the authority think fit.

(4)The appropriate authority shall contribute not less than a quarter of any expenses shown to their satisfaction to have been reasonably incurred in compliance with subsection (1) above, and may make further contributions of such amount in each case as, having regard to all the circumstances, they consider reasonable.

(5)Subsection (1) above does not apply to any structure—

(a)if any conditions for the maintenance of the structure are for the time being in force under section 147 below, or

(b)if and so long as, under an agreement in writing with any other person, there is a liability to maintain the structure on the part of the appropriate authority or, where the appropriate authority are a district council, on the part of either the appropriate authority or the highway authority.

147Power to authorise erection of stiles etc. on footpath or bridleway

(1)The following provisions of this section apply where the owner, lessee or occupier of agricultural land, or of land which is being brought into use for agriculture, represents to a competent authority, as respects a footpath or bridleway that crosses the land, that for securing that the use, or any particular use, of the land for agriculture shall be efficiently carried on, it is expedient that stiles, gates or other works for preventing the ingress or egress of animals should be erected on the path or way. For the purposes of this section the following are competent authorities—

(a)in the case of a footpath or bridleway which is for the time being maintained by a district council by virtue of section 42 or 50 above, that council and also the highway authority, and

(b)in the case of any other footpath or bridleway, the highway authority.

(2)Where such a representation is made the authority to whom it is made may, subject to such conditions as they may impose for maintenance and for enabling the right of way to be exercised without undue inconvenience to the public, authorise the erection of the stiles, gates or other works.

(3)Where an authorisation in respect of a footpath or bridleway is granted under this section the public right of way is to be deemed to be subject to a condition that the stiles, gates or works may be erected and maintained in accordance with the authorisation and so long as the conditions attached to it are complied with.

(4)For the purposes of section 143 above, any stile, gate or works erected in pursuance of an authorisation under this section is to be deemed to be erected under this section only if the provisions of the authorisation and any conditions attached to it are complied with.

(5)In this section references to agricultural land and to land being brought into use for agriculture include references to land used or, as the case may be, land being brought into use, for forestry.

(6)Nothing in this section prejudices any limitation or condition having effect apart from this section.

148Penalty for depositing things or pitching booths etc. on highway

If, without lawful authority or excuse—

(a)a person deposits on a made-up carriageway any dung,

compost or other material for dressing land, or any rubbish, or

(b)a person deposits on any highway that consists of or comprises a made-up carriageway any dung, compost or other material for dressing land, or any rubbish, within 15 feet from the centre of that carriageway, or

(c)a person deposits any thing whatsoever on a highway to the interruption of any user of the highway, or

(d)a hawker or other itinerant trader pitches a booth, stall or stand, or encamps, on a highway,

he is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £50.

149Removal of things so deposited on highways as to be a nuisance etc.

(1)If any thing is so deposited on a highway as to constitute a nuisance, the highway authority for the highway may by notice require the person who deposited it there to remove it forthwith and if he fails to comply with the notice the authority may make a complaint to a magistrates' court for a removal and disposal order under this section.

(2)If the highway authority for any highway have reasonable grounds for considering—

(a)that any thing unlawfully deposited on the highway constitutes a danger (including a danger caused by obstructing the view) to users of the highway, and

(b)that the thing in question ought to be removed without the delay involved in giving notice or obtaining a removal and disposal order from a magistrates' court under this section,

the authority may remove the thing forthwith.

(3)The highway authority by whom a thing is removed in pursuance of subsection (2) above may either—

(a)recover from the person by whom it was deposited on the highway, or from any person claiming to be entitled to it, any expenses reasonably incurred by the authority in removing it, or

(b)make a complaint to a magistrates' court for a disposal order under this section.

(4)A magistrates' court may, on a complaint made under this section, make an order authorising the complainant authority—

(a)either to remove the thing in question and dispose of it or, as the case may be, to dispose of the thing in question, and

(b)after payment out of any proceeds arising from the disposal of the expenses incurred in the removal and disposal, to apply the balance, if any, of the proceeds to the maintenance of highways maintainable at the public expense by them.

(5)If the thing in question is not of sufficient value to defray the expenses of removing it, the complainant authority may recover from the person who deposited it on the highway the expenses, or the balance of the expenses, reasonably incurred by them in removing it.

(6)A magistrates' court composed of a single justice may hear a complaint under this section.

150Duty to remove snow, soil etc. from highway

(1)If an obstruction arises in a highway from accumulation of snow or from the falling down of banks on the side of the highway, or from any other cause, the highway authority shall remove the obstruction.

(2)If a highway authority fail to remove an obstruction which it is their duty under this section to remove, a magistrates' court may, on a complaint made by any person, by order require the authority to remove the obstruction within such period (not being less than 24 hours) from the making of the order as the court thinks reasonable, having regard to all the circumstances of the case.

(3)In considering whether to make an order under this section and, if so, what period to allow for the removal of the obstruction, the court shall in particular have regard to—

(a)the character of the highway to which the complaint relates, and the nature and amount of the traffic by which it is ordinarily used,

(b)the nature and extent of the obstruction, and

(c)the resources of manpower, vehicles and equipment for the time being available to the highway authority for work on highways and the extent to which those resources are being, or need to be, employed elsewhere by that authority on such work.

(4)Where they are under a duty to remove an obstruction under subsection (1) above, a highway authority may—

(a)take any reasonable steps (including the placing of lights,

signs and fences on the highway) for warning users of the highway of the obstruction;

(b)sell any thing removed in carrying out the duty, unless the thing is claimed by its owner before the expiration of 7 days from the date of its removal;

(c)recover from the owner of the thing which caused or contributed to the obstruction, or where the thing has been sold under paragraph (b) above, from its previous owner, the expenses reasonably incurred as respects the obstruction in carrying out the duty and in exercising any powers conferred by this subsection, but so that no such expenses are recoverable from a person who proves that he took reasonable care to secure that the thing in question did not cause or contribute to the obstruction.

(5)Where a highway authority sell any thing in exercise of their powers under subsection (4) above, then—

(a)if any expenses are recoverable under that subsection by the authority from the previous owner of the thing, they may set off the expenses against the proceeds of sale (without prejudice to the recovery of any balance of the expenses from the previous owner) and shall pay over any balance of the proceeds to the previous owner; and

(b)if no expenses are so recoverable, they shall pay over the whole of the proceeds of sale to the previous owner.

(6)The foregoing provisions of this section apply to a person liable to maintain a highway by reason of tenure, enclosure or prescription as they apply to the highway authority for that highway, and references in those provisions to a highway authority are to be construed accordingly.

151Prevention of soil etc. being washed on to street

(1)A competent authority may, by notice to the owner or occupier of any land adjoining a street which is a highway maintainable at the public expense, require him, within 28 days from the date of service of the notice, to execute such works as will prevent soil or refuse from that land from falling, or being washed or carried, on to the street or into any sewer or gully in it in such quantities as to obstruct the street or choke the sewer or gully. For the purposes of this section the following are competent authorities—

(a)in relation to a street outside Greater London, the highway authority for the street and also the council of the district in which the street is situated; and

(b)in relation to a street within Greater London, the council of the London borough in which the street is situated or, if it is situated in the City of London, the Common Council and also, if the street is a metropolitan road, the Greater London Council.

(2)A person aggrieved by a requirement under this section may appeal to a magistrates' court.

(3)Subject to any order made on appeal, if a person on whom a notice is served under this section fails to comply with it within the period specified in subsection (1) above, he is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £20 for a first offence and £50 for a second or subsequent offence; and if the offence is continued after conviction, he is guilty of a further offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £1 for each day on which the offence is so continued.

152Powers as to removal of projections from buildings

(1)A competent authority may by notice to the occupier of any building require him to remove or alter any porch, shed, projecting window, step, cellar, cellar door, cellar window, sign, signpost, sign iron, showboard, window shutter, wall, gate, fence or other obstruction or projection which has been erected or placed against or in front of the building and is an obstruction to safe or convenient passage along a street.

(2)A notice under subsection (1) above may, at the option of the authority, be served on the owner of the building instead of on the occupier or may be served on both the owner and the occupier.

(3)A person aggrieved by a requirement under subsection (1) above may appeal to a magistrates' court.

(4)Subject to any order made on appeal, if a person on whom a notice under subsection (1) above is served fails to comply, within 14 days from the date of service of the notice on him, with a requirement of the notice, he is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £25.

(5)Where an authority serve a notice under subsection (1) above on any person and he is guilty of an offence by reason of his failure to comply with a requirement of the notice within the time specified in subsection (4) above then, whether or not proceedings are taken against him in respect of the offence, the authority may remove the obstruction or projection to which the notice relates and may recover the expenses reasonably incurred by them in so doing from the owner or occupier of the building if, in either case, he is a person on whom the notice was served.

(6)In a case where a requirement under subsection (1) above is made in connection with an obstruction or projection not erected or placed by the occupier of the relevant building Schedule 13 to this Act applies in relation to any sum paid by the occupier in complying with a requirement under that subsection or, where the requirement is not complied with, in reimbursing the relevant authority for expenses reasonably incurred by them under subsection (5) above.

(7)Subsection (1) above does not apply in respect of any such obstruction or projection as is there mentioned if it was erected or placed before the date when section 69 of the Towns Improvement Clauses Act 1847 first applied in the area in which the building in question is situated.

(8)If any such obstruction or projection was erected or placed before that date against or in front of a building in a street, a competent authority may, on the expiration of 30 days from the date of service on either the owner or the occupier of the building of a notice of their intention, remove or alter the obstruction or projection as they think fit, and, if the obstruction or projection was lawfully erected or placed, the authority shall pay reasonable compensation to every person who suffers damage by reason of its removal or alteration.

(9)For the purposes of this section—

(a)the competent authorities are the local authority in whose area the street is situated and also, where the street is a highway, the highway authority for it;

(b)a projection which is erected or placed against or in front of a building, and which by reason of its being insecurely fixed or of defective construction or otherwise is a source of danger to persons lawfully using a street, is to be deemed to be an obstruction to safe or convenient passage along the street.

153Doors etc. in streets not to open outwards

(1)A door, gate or bar which is put up on any premises and opens on a street shall be so put up as not to open outwards unless, in the case of a door, gate or bar put up on a public building, the local authority for the area in which the building is situated and also, if the street is a highway, the highway authority consent to its being otherwise put up.

(2)Where a door, gate or bar is put up on any premises in contravention of subsection (1) above the local authority for the area in which the premises are situated or alternatively, if the street concerned is a highway, the highway authority may, by notice to the occupier, require him to alter, so as not to open outwards, the door, gate or bar.

(3)A notice under subsection (2) above may, at the option of the highway authority or local authority, be served on the owner of the premises instead of on the occupier or may be served on both the owner and the occupier of the premises.

(4)A person aggrieved by the refusal of a consent under subsection (1) above or by a requirement under subsection (2) above may appeal to a magistrates' court.

(5)Subject to any order made on appeal, if a person on whom a notice under subsection (2) above is served fails to comply, within 8 days from the date of service of the notice on him, with a requirement of the notice, he is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £25.

(6)Where a highway authority or local authority serve a notice under subsection (2) above on any person and he is guilty of an offence by reason of his failure to comply with a requirement of the notice within the time specified in subsection (5) above, then, whether or not proceedings are taken against him in respect of the offence, the authority may do the work required by the notice and recover the expenses reasonably incurred by them in so doing from the owner or occupier of the premises if, in either case, he is a person on whom the notice was served.

(7)Where a requirement under subsection (2) above is made in connection with a door, gate or bar not put up by the occupier of the premises Schedule 13 to this Act applies in relation to any sum paid by the occupier in complying with a requirement under subsection (2) above or, where the requirement is not complied with, in reimbursing the authority for expenses reasonably incurred by them under subsection (6) above.

154Cutting or felling etc. trees etc. that overhang or are a danger to roads or footpaths

(1)Where a hedge, tree or shrub overhangs a highway or any other road or footpath to which the public has access so as to endanger or obstruct the passage of vehicles or pedestrians, or obstructs or interferes with the view of drivers of vehicles or the light from a public lamp, a competent authority may, by notice either to the owner of the hedge, tree or shrub or to the occupier of the land on which it is growing, require him within 14 days from the date of service of the notice so to lop or cut it as to remove the cause of the danger, obstruction or interference. For the purposes of this section the following are competent authorities—

(a)in relation to a highway for which the Minister is the highway authority and which is in a district or London borough, the Minister and also the council of the district or, as the case may be, borough;

(b)in relation to a highway for which a local highway authority are the highway authority, that authority and also (outside Greater London) the council of the district in which the highway is situated;

(c)in relation to a road or footpath that is not a highway,

the local authority in whose area the road or footpath is situated;

and " hedge, tree or shrub" includes vegetation of any description.

(2)Where it appears to a competent authority for any highway, or for any other road or footpath to which the public has access—

(a)that any hedge, tree or shrub is dead, diseased, damaged or insecurely rooted, and

(b)that by reason of its condition it, or part of it, is likely to cause danger by falling on the highway, road or footpath,

the authority may, by notice either to the owner of the hedge, tree or shrub or to the occupier of the land on which it is situated, require him within 14 days from the date of service of the notice so to cut or fell it as to remove the likelihood of danger.

(3)A person aggrieved by a requirement under subsection (1) or (2) above may appeal to a magistrates' court.

(4)Subject to any order made on appeal, if a person on whom a notice is served under subsection (1) or (2) above fails to comply with it within the period specified in those subsections, the authority who served the notice may carry out the work required by the notice and recover the expenses reasonably incurred by them in so doing from the person in default.

155Penalties in connection with straying animals

(1)If any horses, cattle, sheep, goats or swine are at any time found straying or lying on or at the side of a highway then-keeper is guilty of an offence; but this subsection does not apply in relation to a part of a highway passing over any common, waste or unenclosed ground. In this section " keeper ", in relation to any animals, means a person in whose possession they are.

(2)A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable to a fine not exceeding £20 for a first offence and £50 for a second or subsequent offence.

(3)A person guilty of an offence under this section is also liable to pay the reasonable expenses of removing any animal so found straying or lying to the premises of their keeper, or to the common pound, or to such other place as may have been provided for the purpose, and any person who incurs such expenses is entitled to recover them summarily as a civil debt. For the purposes of this subsection " expenses", in a case where an animal has been removed to the common pound, includes the usual fees and charges of the authorised keeper of the pound.

(4)If a person, without lawful authority or excuse, releases any animal seized for the purpose of being impounded under this section from the pound or other place where it is impounded, or on the way to or from any such place, or damages any such place, he is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £50.

(5)Nothing in this section prejudices or affects any right of pasture on the side of a highway.

156Restriction on breaking up by undertakers of maintainable highways recently closed or re-surfaced

(1)Subject to the provisions of this section, a statutory power of undertakers to break up or open a highway maintainable at the public expense which consists of or comprises a carriageway, being a power conferred for any purpose other than road purposes or purposes of a railway undertaking or a tramway undertaking, is not exercisable in the highway during the 12 months following either—

(a)the end of any period during which the use by vehicles of the carriageway has been prohibited, or the width of the carriageway available for vehicular traffic has been reduced to less than two-thirds of its width, for the purposes of the execution of works for road purposes or of such works and other works, or

(b)the completion of a re-surfacing extending to one-third or more of the width of the carriageway,

if the conditions specified in subsection (2) below are satisfied.

(2)The conditions referred to in subsection (1) above are—

(a)that a competent authority had given to the undertakers, more than 3 months before the date on which the works for road purposes, or the re-surfacing works, as the case may be, were substantially begun, a notice stating that works for road purposes, or re-surfacing works, relevant for the purposes of this section were in prospect and specifying a date intended for beginning them, and

(b)that the works for road purposes, or the re-surfacing works, as the case may be, were substantially begun on, or within one month from, the date so specified or, if any undertakers' works were in progress in, under, over, across, along or upon the highway on that date, within one month from the completion of those undertakers' works, or in either case within some extended period agreed between a competent authority and the undertakers for the purposes of the operation of this subsection in relation to the works for road purposes, or the re-surfacing works, as the case may be. For the purposes of this subsection the following are competent authorities:—

(i)in the case of a highway which is for the time being maintained by a district council by virtue of section 42 or 50 above, that council and also the highway authority, and

(ii)in the case of any other highway, the highway authority.

(3)Subsection (1) above does not apply to breaking up or opening for the purposes of emergency works.

(4)Subsection (1) above does not apply to breaking up or opening a part of the highway other than a carriageway for the purposes of—

(a)works relating only to a service pipe or service line or an overhead telegraphic line or an overhead electric line, or

(b)works required for satisfaction by the undertakers of an obligation of theirs created by an enactment, or created by an agreement made before the giving of the notice referred to in subsection (1) above, which it is not reasonably practicable for them to satisfy without the breaking up or opening in question;

but the exception in paragraph (a) above applies, in the case of a placing of a service pipe or service line, only if it is for affording a supply or service to premises to which it is not already afforded.

(5)Subsection (1) above does not apply to breaking up or opening done with the consent of the highway authority, and a consent for this purpose shall not be unreasonably withheld. Any question whether the withholding of such a consent is unreasonable shall be determined by the Minister and the Minister of the Crown in charge of the department concerned with the purposes for which the power to break up or open is conferred acting jointly (any question which is the department so concerned being determined by the Treasury), and such a determination of the said Ministers shall not be impugned on the ground that either of them is himself the highway authority or the authority by whom the power is exercisable.

(6)Subsection (1) above does not apply to breaking up or opening a highway to which section 157 below applies.

(7)If undertakers break up or open a highway in any case in which it is unlawful by virtue of subsection (1) above for them to do so—

(a)they shall pay to the highway authority an amount equal to any cost reasonably incurred by the authority of reinstating and making good the highway; and

(b)without prejudice to their liability under paragraph (a) above, they are guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £50. If any question arises in relation to a claim made for a payment under paragraph (a) above the question shall be determined by a single arbitrator appointed, in default of agreement between the parties concerned, by the President of the Institution of Civil Engineers.

(8)Proceedings for the enforcement of the obligation imposed by subsection (1) above shall not, without the written consent of the Attorney-General, be taken by any person other than a person having an interest in the performance of the obligation.

(9)In so far as any failure of undertakers to satisfy an obligation to which they are subject by virtue of any enactment is attributable to the prohibition by this section of breaking up or opening for which the undertakers have duly sought the consent of the highway authority and for which consent has been withheld and (where the withholding has been questioned) has been determined to have been reasonably withheld, the failure shall not be treated as a contravention of that enactment.

(10)In this section—

(a)the reference to a power conferred for the purposes of a railway undertaking or a tramway undertaking includes a reference to a power conferred primarily for those purposes but for other purposes also;

(b)"emergency works", "railway", "reinstatement and making good ", " road purposes ", " service line ", " service pipe ", " telegraphic line ", " tramway ", "undertakers" and "undertakers' works" have the same meaning respectively as in the Public Utilities Street Works Act 1950.

157Half-yearly programmes to be prepared of repair and improvement works in Greater London

(1)With a view to securing that the times for the execution of works of road maintenance and improvement by various highway authorities within Greater London may be so arranged as to mitigate as far as possible the congestion of traffic due to the closing of highways for the purposes of the execution of such works, every highway authority for highways within Greater London have the duty imposed by subsection (2) below.

(2)The duty referred to in subsection (1) above is a duty to prepare and, except in the case of the Greater London Council, to submit to that Council in accordance with subsections (3) and (4) below statements of works of road maintenance and road improvement.

(3)The statements required by subsection (2) above of highway authorities, other than the Greater London Council, shall be submitted to the Council, and the statements required by the Council shall be prepared by them, on or before such half-yearly dates in each year as the Council may by order fix and shall be in such form and shall contain such particulars as the Council may require, or in the case of a statement prepared by them, think fit, of the works specified in subsection (4) below.

(4)The works referred to in subsection (3) above are all works of road maintenance and improvement proposed to be begun or continued by the authority during the period of 6 months commencing at the expiration of such interval, not being less than 2 months, from the half-yearly dates referred to in subsection (3) above as the Council may by order fix, being works of such a nature as will involve the closing to vehicular traffic of any part of any highway to which this section applies either absolutely or to the extent of one-third or more of the width of the carriageway.

(5)The Council shall consider in relation to one another the proposals contained in the statements submitted to, or prepared by, them under this section and after consultation with the appropriate commissioner of police and the London Transport Executive shall draw up schemes prescribing the times during which the several works are to be begun and the order in which they are to be executed, or prohibiting or restricting the execution of any of the works.

(6)The Council shall send copies of each such scheme drawn up by them to all highway authorities and undertakers affected by it, and—

(a)if, within 14 days from the date on which copies of any scheme have been so sent, no objection in writing to the scheme has been received by the Council from any highway authority or undertakers affected by it, or every objection so made has been withdrawn, the Council may by order confirm the scheme;

(b)if any objection so made to a scheme has been received by the Council within that time and has not been withdrawn, the Council may, after considering the objection, either by order confirm the scheme, with or without amendments, or revoke the scheme;

and upon the confirmation of a scheme drawn up by the Council under this section it shall, subject to subsection (7) below, become final and binding on all the highway authorities affected, other than the Minister of Transport, and shall not be subject to appeal to any court.

(7)Nothing in this section—

(a)prevents a highway authority from carrying out works in a highway in the case of emergency, or

(b)empowers the Council to impose any obligation on a highway authority to incur any expenditure on or in connection with the construction or improvement of a highway without the consent of that authority.

(8)The highways to which this section applies are such highways, or highways of such classes, being in either case highways maintainable at the public expense within Greater London and consisting of or comprising a carriageway, as may be prescribed by an order made by the Council.

(9)In this section and sections 158 to 160 below " undertakers" means the Post Office and persons having powers to break up or open highways in Greater London for the purposes of any sewerage system, or any water, gas, electricity, tramway or other undertaking.

158Relaxation of section 157 in certain cases

(1)Where, with a view to facilitating the movement of traffic, it is proposed to execute in Greater London works of road improvement of such a nature as will involve the closing to vehicular traffic as mentioned in subsection (4) of section 157 above of a part of a highway to which that section applies, the Greater London Council may, in accordance with subsection (2) below, if on grounds of urgency they consider it expedient, authorise those works—

(a)to be begun without being included in the scheme in force under that section, or

(b)(if they are so included) to be begun otherwise than in accordance with the scheme.

(2)An authorisation under subsection (1) above may be granted by the Council—

(a)in the case of any highway for which they are the highway authority, or

(b)on the application of the council of a London borough or the Common Council, in the case of any highway for which the borough council or Common Council, as the case may be, are the highway authority.

(3)Where the Council give authority under subsection (1) above for the execution of any works of road improvement, or receive notice from the Minister of Transport that such works of road improvement as are mentioned in that subsection are to be executed in the case of a highway for which he is the highway authority, they may by order modify in such manner as appears to them to be expedient the scheme under section 157 above.

(4)The Council shall send copies of any such order to all undertakers whose powers extend to highways to which the order relates and if the highway authority one month or more before they begin the works give to any such undertakers a notice containing the like particulars of the proposed works as would be required in a statement under section 157 above, section 159(2) to (4) below shall apply as if the undertakers had been sent copies of the proposals under section 159(1).

(5)In this section " undertakers " has the meaning provided by section 157(9) above.

159Restrictions on breaking up by undertakers of highways in Greater London recently closed for repair

(1)With a view to securing that, so far as possible, all works involving breaking up or opening of highways to which section 157 above applies by undertakers are carried out at the same time as or in connection with works of road maintenance and improvement, the Greater London Council shall send to all undertakers copies of—

(a)the proposals of other highway authorities when submitted to them under section 157 above, and

(b)the proposals prepared by them under that section,

so far as the proposals relate to highways to which the powers of the undertakers extend and shall consider any representations made to them by those undertakers.

(2)Where works of road maintenance and improvement involving the closing to vehicular traffic of any part of a highway either absolutely or to the extent of one-third or more of the width of the carriageway have been executed in accordance with a scheme confirmed under section 157 above, it shall not be lawful for any undertakers during the 12 months following the completion of those works to break up or open the highway so closed without the previous consent of the Greater London Council and unless they prove to the satisfaction of the Council—

(a)that there were reasonable grounds for their failure or omission to execute, while the highway or part of it was closed, the works for the execution of which they require to break up or open the highway; and

(b)that it is essential that the works should be executed or begun during the said 12 months.

(3)The Council may, if they think fit, make it a condition of giving their consent under subsection (2) above to breaking up or opening a highway that all works in connection with it are carried out at night by beginning them after 8 p.m. and completing them by 8 a.m., and if not then completed by carrying on the work continuously by day and night.

(4)The consent of the Council for the purposes of subsection (2) above shall not be unreasonably withheld and any question whether the withholding of such consent is unreasonable shall be determined in like manner as any similar question arising under section 156(5) above; and section 156(7) and (8) have effect as if the references therein to section 156(1) included references to subsection (2) above.

(5)Nothing in this section prevents any undertakers from carrying out works in a highway in a case of emergency or from making, altering, repairing or disconnecting service connections.

(6)In this section " undertakers " has the meaning provided by section 157(9) above.

160Powers as respects certain unnecessary obstructions of highways in Greater London

(1)If, in the case of any highway in Greater London other than a metropolitan road, it appears to an officer of police authorised for the purpose that any of the following persons, namely—

(a)any undertakers acting in the exercise of a statutory power to break up or open that highway, or

(b)any person acting in the exercise of the power conferred by section 15(1) of the Pipelines Act 1962, or

(c)any person acting in the exercise of the power conferred by section 34(2) of the Public Health Act 1936,

has caused an unnecessary obstruction for the purposes of this section, he shall report the matter to the highway authority for the highway and that authority shall cause an inspection to be made. If on the inspection it appears to the highway authority that the allegation is well founded they may proceed as provided by subsection (4) below.

(2)If, in the case of any highway in Greater London other than one for which the Minister of Transport is the highway authority, it appears to the Greater London Council that any of the following persons, namely—

(a)any person mentioned in paragraph (a), (b) or (c) of subsection (1) above, or

(b)where the highway is not a metropolitan road, the highway authority acting in the exercise of a statutory power to break up or open the highway,

has caused an unnecessary obstruction for the purposes of this section, the Council may proceed as provided by subsection (4) below.

(3)For the purposes of this section a person causes an unnecessary obstruction where by the deposit of excavated matter or other material, or by means of the erection of barriers, or otherwise, he creates an obstruction in a highway to a greater extent or for a longer period than is reasonably necessary.

(4)In the circumstances mentioned in subsection (1) or (2) above the highway authority or, as the case may be, the Greater London Council may by notice require the person causing the obstruction to take such steps as may appear to the highway authority or, as the case may be, the Council to be necessary, and as are specified in the notice, to mitigate or discontinue the obstruction.

(5)Subject to subsection (6) below, if the person causing the obstruction (" the defaulter") fails to comply with such requirement within 24 hours of the receipt of the notice the enforcing authority (that is to say, the highway authority or, as the case may be, the Greater London Council) may take the necessary steps and may recover any expenses reasonably incurred by them in connection therewith from the defaulter.

(6)If within 24 hours of receiving such a notice the defaulter, in a case where the obstructed highway is not one for which the Minister of Transport is the highway authority, makes representations to that Minister that the obstruction is not greater, or has not been continued for a longer period, than is reasonably necessary, and sends to the enforcing authority a copy of the representations so made, the enforcing authority shall not take any such steps as are authorised by subsection (5) above without the consent of that Minister.

(7)A highway authority may, if they think fit, delegate to an officer of the authority their powers under this section of causing inspection to be made and of making requirements, and the Greater London Council may, if they think fit, delegate to an officer of the Council their powers under this section of making requirements.

(8)In this section " undertakers " has the meaning provided by section 157(9) above.

Danger or annoyance to users of highways and streets

161Penalties for causing certain kinds of danger or annoyance

(1)If a person, without lawful authority or excuse, deposits any thing whatsoever on a highway in consequence of which a user of the highway is injured or endangered, that person is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £100.

(2)If a person, without lawful authority or excuse, lights any fire, or discharges any firearm or firework, within 50 feet of the centre of a highway which consists of or comprises a carriageway, and in consequence a user of the highway is injured, interrupted or endangered, that person is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £20 for a first offence and £50 for a second or subsequent offence.

(3)If a person plays at football or any other game on a highway to the annoyance of a user of the highway he is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £10.

(4)If a person, without lawful authority or excuse, allows any filth, dirt, lime or other offensive matter or thing to run or flow on to a highway from any adjoining premises, he is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £10.

162Penalty for placing rope, etc. across highway

A person who for any purpose places any rope, wire or other apparatus across a highway in such a manner as to be likely to cause danger to persons using the highway is, unless he proves that he had taken all necessary means to give adequate warning of the danger, guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £50.

163Prevention of water falling on or flowing on to highway

(1)A competent authority may, by notice to the occupier of premises adjoining a highway, require him within 28 days from the date of service of the notice to construct or erect and thereafter to maintain such channels, gutters or downpipes as may be necessary to prevent—

(a)water from the roof or any other part of the premises falling upon persons using the highway, or

(b)so far as is reasonably practicable, surface water from the premises flowing on to, or over, the footway of the highway. For the purposes of this section the competent authorities, in relation to any highway, are the highway authority and also (where they are not the highway authority) the local authority for the area in which the highway is situated.

(2)A notice under subsection (1) above may, at the option of the authority, be served on the owner of the premises in question instead of on the occupier or may be served on both the owner and the occupier of the premises.

(3)A person aggrieved by a requirement under this section may appeal to a magistrates' court.

(4)Subject to any order made on appeal, if a person on whom a notice is served under this section fails to comply with the requirement of the notice within the period specified in subsection (1) above he is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £20 ; and if the offence is continued after conviction he is guilty of a further offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £2 for each day on which the offence is so continued.

164Power to require removal of barbed wire

(1)Where on land adjoining a highway there is a fence made with barbed wire, or having barbed wire in or on it, and the wire is a nuisance to the highway, a competent authority may by notice served on the occupier of the land require him to abate the nuisance within such time, not being less than one month nor more than 6 months from the date of service of the notice, as may be specified in it. For the purposes of this section—

(a)the competent authorities, in relation to any highway,

are the highway authority and also (where they are not the highway authority) the local authority for the area in which the highway is situated;

(b)" barbed wire " means wire with spikes or jagged projections, and barbed wire is to be deemed to be a nuisance to a highway if it is likely to be injurious to persons or animals lawfully using the highway.

(2)If at the expiration of the time specified in the notice the occupier has failed to comply with the notice, a magistrates' court, if satisfied on complaint made by the authority that the wire is a nuisance to the highway, may order the occupier to abate the nuisance and, if he fails to comply with the order within a reasonable time, the authority may do whatever may be necessary in execution of the order and recover from him the expenses reasonably incurred by them in so doing.

(3)If the local authority who are a competent authority in relation to the highway concerned are the occupiers of the land in question proceedings under this section may be taken against them by any ratepayer within the area of that local authority and the foregoing provisions apply accordingly in relation to him and to the authority as they apply in relation to an authority and to an occupier of land.

165Dangerous land adjoining street

(1)If, in or on any land adjoining a street, there is an unfenced or inadequately fenced source of danger to persons using the street, the local authority in whose area the street is situated may, by notice to the owner or occupier of that land, require him within such time as may be specified in the notice to execute such works of repair, protection, removal or enclosure as will obviate the danger.

(2)A person aggrieved by a requirement under subsection (1) above may appeal to a magistrates' court.

(3)Subject to any order made on appeal, if a person on whom a notice is served under this section fails to comply with the notice within the time specified in it, the authority by whom the notice was served may execute such works as are necessary to comply with the notice and may recover the expenses reasonably incurred by them in so doing from that person.

(4)Where the power conferred by subsection (1) above is exercisable in relation to land adjoining a street and has not been exercised by the local authority empowered to exercise it, then, if that authority are not the highway authority for the street, the highway authority for the street may request the local authority to exercise the power.

(5)If the local authority refuse to comply with a request made under subsection (4) above or fail within a reasonable time after the request is made to them to do so, the highway authority may exercise the power (and where they do so subsections (2) and (3) above apply accordingly).

166Forecourt abutting on streets

(1)If it appears to a competent authority that the forecourt of premises abutting on a street, or any steps or projection or goods (whether for sale or not) placed in such a forecourt, is or are a source of danger, obstruction or inconvenience to the public, the authority may by notice require the owner or occupier of the forecourt to fence the forecourt from the street or, at his election, to take such other steps as may be specified in the notice to obviate the danger, obstruction or inconvenience to the public. For the purposes of this section the following are competent authorities—

(a)in the case of a street outside Greater London which is a highway, a local authority and also the highway authority;

(b)in the case of any other street, a local authority.

(2)If it appears to a competent authority that a stall or other erection on a forecourt of premises abutting on a street is by reason of its character injurious to the amenities of the street, the authority may by notice require the owner or occupier of the forecourt to make such alterations in the stall or other erection as may be necessary to prevent its being injurious to the amenities of the street or, at his election, to remove it. This subsection does not apply to any erection which has been in position in the forecourt of any premises at all times since 10th November 1960.

(3)A competent authority does not have power under subsection (1) or (2) above to give a notice applying to any advertisement as defined in section 290(1) of the Town and Country Planning Act 1971, or under subsection (2) above to give a notice applying to anything erected in conformity with planning permission granted on an application under Part III of that Act.

(4)The provisions of Part XII of the Public Health Act 1936 with respect to appeals against, and the enforcement of, notices requiring the execution of works apply in relation to any notice under this section as if this section were contained in that Act (and as if the references to the local authority included references to the highway authority); and section 290(6) of that Act shall authorise the authority at their election to take either of the courses which were open to the person on whom the notice was served in order to comply with it.

(5)In this section, "local authority" means any of the following, namely, the council of a district or London borough, the Common Council, the sub-treasurer of the Inner Temple, the under-treasurer of the Middle Temple, and the Council of the Isles of Scilly.

167Powers relating to retaining walls near streets

(1)This section applies to any length of a retaining wall, being a length—

(a)any cross-section of which is wholly or partly within 4 yards of a street; and

(b)which is at any point of a greater height than 4 feet 6 inches above the level of the ground at the boundary of the street nearest that point;

but does not apply to any length of a retaining wall erected on land belonging to any transport undertakers so long as that land is used by them primarily for the purpose of their undertaking or to any length of a retaining wall for the maintenance of which a highway authority are responsible.

(2)No length of retaining wall, being a length which when erected will be a length of retaining wall to which this section applies, shall be erected otherwise than in accordance with plans, sections and specifications approved by the local authority in whose area the street is situated; and before giving such approval that authority, if they are not the highway authority for the street, shall consult the highway authority.

(3)Any person aggrieved by the refusal of a local authority to approve any plans, sections and specifications submitted to them under this section may appeal to a magistrates' court.

(4)If a person erects a length of retaining wall in contravention of this section, he is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £100.

(5)If a length of retaining wall to which this section applies is in such condition (whether for want of repair or some other reason) as to be liable to endanger persons using the street, the local authority in whose area the street is situated may, by notice served on the owner or occupier of the land on which that length of wall is, require him to execute such works as will obviate the danger.

(6)Where the power conferred by subsection (5) above is exercisable in relation to a length of wall and has not been exercised by the local authority empowered to exercise it, then, if that authority are not the highway authority for the street in question, the highway authority may request the local authority to exercise the power; and if the local authority refuse to comply with the request or fail within a reasonable time after the request is made to them to do so, the highway authority may exercise the power.

(7)Subsections (2) to (7) of section 290 of the Public Health Act 1936 (appeals against and the enforcement of, certain notices under that Act) apply to any notice served under subsection (5) above as they apply to such notices as are mentioned in subsection (1) of that section, but subject to the following modifications:—

(a)references to the local authority are to be construed as including references to the highway authority ;

(b)for paragraph (f) of subsection (3) there is substituted the following paragraph—

" (f) that some other person ought to contribute towards the expense of executing any works required by the notice ".

(8)Sections 300 to 302 of the Public Health Act 1936 (supplementary provisions relating to appeals under the said section 290) apply, with the necessary modifications, to appeals brought by virtue of subsection (7) above.

(9)In this section " retaining wall" means a wall, not forming part of a permanent building, which serves, or is intended to serve, as a support for earth or other material on one side only.

Precautions to be taken in doing certain works in or near streets or highways

168Building operations affecting public safety

(1)If in the course of the carrying out of any building operation in or near a street there occurs an accident which—

(a)gives rise to the risk of serious bodily injury to a person in the street, whether or not the death or disablement of any person is caused thereby; or

(b)would have given rise to such risk but for the fact that a local authority or highway authority had in the exercise of their powers under section 25 of the Public Health Act 1961 (emergency measures to deal with dangerous buildings) or any other enactment taken steps to ensure that if an accident occurred it would not give rise to such risk,

then, subject to the provisions of this section, the owner of the land or building on which the building operation is being carried out is, without prejudice to any liability to which he or any other person may be subject apart from this section, guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £500.

(2)Where the commission by any person of an offence under this section is due to the act or default of some other person, that other person is guilty of the offence, and a person may be charged with and convicted of the offence by virtue of this subsection whether or not proceedings are taken against the first-mentioned person.

(3)In any proceedings for an offence under this section it is a defence, subject to subsection (4) below, for the person charged to prove—

(a)that he took all reasonable precautions to secure that the building operation was so carried out as to avoid causing danger to persons in a street; or

(b)that the commission of the offence was due to the act or default of another person and that he took all reasonable precautions and exercised all due diligence to avoid the commission of such an offence by himself or any person under his control.

(4)A person charged with an offence under this section is not, without leave of the court, entitled to rely on the defence provided by subsection (3)(b) above unless, within a period ending 7 clear days before the hearing, he has served on the prosecutor a notice in writing giving such information identifying or assisting in the identification of that other person as was then in his possession.

(5)In this section " building operation " means the construction, structural alteration, repair or maintenance of a building (including re-pointing, external re-decoration and external cleaning), the demolition of a building, the preparation for, and laying the foundations of, an intended building and the erection or dismantling of cranes or scaffolding.

169Control of scaffolding on highways

(1)Subject to subsection (6) below no person shall, in connection with any building or demolition work or the alteration, repair, maintenance or cleaning of any building, erect or retain on or over a highway any scaffolding or other structure which obstructs the highway (hereafter in this section referred to as a " relevant structure ") unless he is authorised to do so by a licence in writing issued for the purposes of this section by the highway authority (hereafter in this section referred to as "a licence ") and complies with the terms of the licence; and a licence may contain such terms as the authority issuing it minks fit.

(2)If a person applies to a highway authority for a licence in respect of any relevant structure and furnishes the authority with such particulars in connection with the structure as the authority reasonably demand, it is the duty of the authority to issue a licence to him in respect of the structure unless the authority consider—

(a)that the structure would cause unreasonable obstruction of a highway ; or

(b)that a relevant structure erected otherwise than as proposed by the applicant would cause less obstruction of a highway man the structure proposed by him and could conveniently be used for the work in question.

(3)If on an application for a licence in connection with a highway the highway authority refuse to issue a licence or issue a licence containing terms to which the applicant objects, the applicant may appeal to a magistrates' court against the refusal or terms ; and on such an appeal the court may—

(a)in the case of an appeal against a refusal, direct' the highway authority to issue a licence in pursuance of the application;

(b)in the case of an appeal against the terms of the licence, alter the terms.

(4)Subject to subsection (6) below, it is the duty of a person to whom a licence is issued by a highway authority in respect of a relevant structure—

(a)to ensure that the structure is adequately lit at all times between half an hour after sunset and half an hour before sunrise;

(b)to comply with any directions given to him in writing by the authority with respect to the erection and maintenance of traffic signs in connection with the structure; and

(c)to do such things in connection with the structure as any statutory undertakers reasonably request him to do for the purpose of protecting or giving access to any apparatus belonging to or used or maintained by the undertakers. In this subsection and in section 171(2) below "statutory undertakers " means any of the following, namely, any body who are statutory undertakers within the meaning provided by section 329(1) below, the Post Office, any public authority exercising functions by virtue of any provision of sections 14 and 15 of the Water Act 1973 (which relate to sewerage) and any person entitled to the benefit of a licence in respect of the highway in question under section 181 below.

(5)A person who contravenes the provisions of subsection (1) above otherwise than by failing to comply with the terms of a licence or who fails without reasonable excuse to comply with the terms of a licence or to perform a duty imposed on him by subsection (4) above, is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £400.

(6)Nothing in the preceding provisions of this section applies to a relevant structure erected before 14th February 1977 or erected or retained by the British Railways Board, the British Waterways Board or the London Transport Executive in the exercise of powers conferred on the body in question by any enactment; and nothing in paragraph (a) or (b) of subsection (4) above applies to a relevant structure if no part of it is less than 18 inches in a horizontal direction from a carriageway of the relevant highway and no part of it over a footway of the relevant highway is less than 8 feet in a vertical direction above the footway.

(7)No civil or criminal proceedings lie in respect of any obstruction of a highway which is caused by a relevant structure if the structure is on or over the highway in accordance with a licence and the person to whom the licence is issued performs the duties imposed on him in respect of the structure by subsection (4) above ; and a highway authority by whom a licence is issued do not incur any liability by reason of the issue of the licence.

170Control of mixing of mortar etc. on highways

(1)Subject to subsection (2) below, a person who mixes or deposits on a highway any mortar or cement or any other substance which is likely to stick to the surface of the highway or which, if it enters drains or sewers connected with the highway, is likely to solidify in the drains or sewers is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £200.

(2)Nothing in subsection (1) above applies to any mixing or deposit—

(a)in a receptacle or on a plate which prevents the substance in question from coming into contact with the highway and from entering any drains and sewers connected with the highway;

(b)by the highway authority or a local authority in connection with the maintenance or alteration of the highway or a bridge over which or a tunnel through which the highway passes;

(c)by a body having a duty under an enactment to maintain—

(i)a bridge over which or a tunnel through which the highway passes, or

(ii)works or materials supporting or protecting the highway where it forms part of the approaches to such a bridge or tunnel,

if the mixing or deposit is in connection with the maintenance or alteration of the bridge, tunnel, works or materials;

(d)by statutory undertakers in connection with apparatus in or the placing of apparatus in the highway;

(e)by a person entitled to the benefit of a licence in respect of the highway under section 181 below if the mixing or deposit cannot reasonably be done elsewhere than on the highway.

(3)In subsection (2) above—

  • " local authority " means any of the following, namely, the council of a county, district or London borough, the Greater London Council, the Common Council and the Council of the Isles of Scilly ; and

  • " statutory undertakers" means any of the following, namely, any body who are statutory undertakers within the meaning provided by section 329(1) below, the Post Office and any public authority exercising functions by virtue of any provision of sections 14 and 15 of the Water Act 1973 (which relate to sewerage).

171Control of deposit of building materials and making of excavations in streets

(1)A person may, with the consent of the highway authority for a street that is a highway maintainable at the public expense, temporarily deposit building materials, rubbish or other things in the street or make a temporary excavation in it.

(2)A highway authority may give their consent under subsection (1) above subject to such conditions as they think fit including in particular, without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, conditions for preventing damage or ensuring access to apparatus of statutory undertakers. In this subsection " statutory undertakers " has the meaning provided by section 169(4) above.

(3)A person aggrieved by the refusal of consent under subsection (1) above, and a person to whom such a consent is given subject to conditions, may appeal to a magistrates' court against the refusal or, as the case may be, the conditions.

(4)It is the duty of a person who makes such a deposit or excavation as is mentioned in subsection (1) above to comply with any directions given to him in writing by the highway authority with respect to the erection and maintenance of traffic signs in connection with the deposit or excavation.

(5)Where a person places any building materials, rubbish or other thing in, or makes an excavation in, a street he shall—

(a)cause the obstruction or excavation to be properly fenced and during the hours of darkness to be properly lighted, and

(b)if required so to do by the highway authority for the street or, in the case of a street that is not a highway, by the local authority in whose area the street is situated, remove the obstruction or, as the case may be, fill in the excavation;

and in any case he shall not allow the obstruction or excavation to remain in the street longer than is necessary.

(6)A person who—

(a)without reasonable excuse contravenes any condition subject to which a consent is given to him under subsection (1) above, or

(b)without reasonable excuse fails to perform the duty imposed on him by subsection (4) above, or

(c)fails to perform a duty imposed on him by subsection (5) above,

is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £10 in respect of each day on which the contravention or failure occurs. The liability of any person to a fine under this subsection by virtue of paragraph (b) or (c) above is without prejudice to any other liability to which he may be subject apart from this subsection.

(7)Where an offence under this section by virtue of subsection (6)(c) above is committed in a street, the highway authority for the street or, in the case of a street that is not a highway, the local authority in whose area the street is situated, may remove the obstruction or, as the case may be, fill in the excavation and recover the expenses reasonably incurred by them in so doing from the person convicted of the offence.

172Hoardings to be set up during building etc.

(1)Subject to subsection (2) below, a person proposing to erect or take down a building in a street or court, or to alter or repair the outside of a building in a street or court, shall, before beginning the work, erect a close boarded hoarding or fence to the satisfaction of the appropriate authority so as to separate the building from the street or court. For the purposes of this section the appropriate authority, in relation to any street or court, is the council of the county or London borough in which it is situated or, if it is situated in the City, the Common Council.

(2)The obligation to erect a hoarding or fence imposed by subsection (1) above may be dispensed with if the appropriate authority so consent.

(3)Where a person has erected a hoarding or fence in compliance with subsection (1) above, he shall—

(a)if the appropriate authority so require, make a convenient covered platform and handrail to serve as a footway for pedestrians outside the hoarding or fence;

(b)maintain the hoarding or fence and any such platform and handrail in good condition to the satisfaction of the authority during such time as the authority may require;

(c)if the authority so require, sufficiently light the hoarding or fence and any such platform and handrail during the hours of darkness ; and

(d)remove the hoarding or fence and any such platform and handrail when required by the authority.

(4)A person aggrieved by the refusal of a consent under subsection (2) above or by a requirement under subsection (3) above may appeal to a magistrates' court.

(5)Subject to any order made on appeal, if a person contravenes this section he is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £100; and if the offence is continued after conviction he is guilty of a further offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £2 for each day on which the offence is so continued.

173Hoardings to be securely erected

(1)No person shall use for any purpose a hoarding or similar structure that is in, or adjoins, any street unless it is securely fixed to the satisfaction of the council who, in relation to that street, are the appropriate authority for the purposes of section 172 above.

(2)If a person contravenes this section he is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £25 ; and if the offence is continued after conviction he is guilty of a further offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £1 for each day on which the offence is so continued.

174Precautions to be taken by persons executing works in streets

(1)Without prejudice to section 8 of the Public Utilities Street Works Act 1950 (requirements as to safety, obstruction and other matters to be observed during and in connection with the execution of certain works in streets and in controlled land within the meaning of that Act), where in the exercise of a power conferred by or under any enactment or otherwise any person is executing works in any street he—

(a)shall erect such barriers and traffic signs for preventing danger to traffic, for regulating traffic, and for warning traffic of danger, as may be necessary and remove them as soon as they cease to be needed for any of those purposes;

(b)shall cause the works to be properly guarded and lighted during the hours of darkness; and

(c)where the nature of the works so requires, shall cause any building adjoining the street to be shored up or otherwise protected.

(2)Subject to subsection (3) below, if any person fails to satisfy an obligation to which he is subject by virtue of subsection (1) above he is guilty of an offence and, without prejudice to any other liability to which he may be subject apart from this subsection, is liable to a fine not exceeding £10 in respect of each day of such failure.

(3)Where a person is subject to the same obligation by virtue of subsection (1) above and by virtue of some other enactment, then, without prejudice to section 18 of the Interpretation Act 1978 (offences under two or more laws), if a failure by him to satisfy that obligation is an offence under an enactment other than subsection (2) above, subsection (2) above does not apply in relation to a failure by him to satisfy that obligation.

(4)If a person, without lawful authority or excuse,—

(a)takes down, alters or removes any barrier, traffic sign,

support or light erected or placed in pursuance of subsection (1) above or any fence, barrier, traffic sign or light erected or placed on or near a street in pursuance of any other enactment for the purpose of warning users of the street of any obstruction, whether caused by the execution of works in or near the street or otherwise, or of protecting them from danger arising out of such an obstruction, or

(b)extinguishes any light so placed,

he is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £100.

(5)For the purposes of section 312 below in its application to an offence under this section statutory undertakers and the Post Office are each to be deemed to be a person aggrieved.

175Liability of certain persons in respect of materials left on highway

If—

(a)any officer or servant of the highway authority for a highway, or

(b)any officer or servant of a district council maintaining a highway by virtue of section 42 or 50 above, or

(c)a person liable to maintain a highway by reason of tenure, enclosure or prescription,

causes any heap of materials or any other object to be laid on the highway, he is, if he allows it to remain there at night to the danger of traffic without taking all reasonable precautions for the prevention of accidents, guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £25.

Miscellaneous

176Restriction on construction of bridges over highways

(1)The highway authority for a highway may grant to the owner or occupier of any premises adjoining the highway a licence to construct a bridge over the highway on such terms and conditions, and to use it for such period and on such terms and conditions, as the authority think fit.

(2)No fine, rent or other sum of money, except a reasonable sum in respect of legal or other expenses, is payable in respect of a licence under this section.

(3)A licence under this section shall not authorise any interference with the convenience of persons using the highway, or affect the rights of owners of premises adjoining the highway, or the rights of tramway, railway, dock, harbour or electricity undertakers.

(4)It shall be a condition of every licence under this section that the person to whom it is granted is, at his own expense, to remove the bridge or alter it in such manner as the authority may require, if at any time they consider the removal or alteration necessary or desirable in connection with the carrying out of improvements to the highway. The decision of the authority that the removal or alteration is necessary or desirable in that connection shall be final, and the condition shall be enforceable by the authority against the owner for the time being of the premises.

(5)Subject to subsection (6) below, a person aggrieved by the refusal of an authority to grant a licence under this section or by the period for which the licence is granted or by a term or condition of the licence (other than the condition mentioned in subsection (4) above) may appeal to the Crown Court.

(6)No appeal lies under subsection (5) above against any term or condition of a licence granted by the Minister under this section if he declares the term or condition to be necessary for the purpose of securing the safety of persons using the highway or of preventing interference with traffic on it.

(7)If a person, except in the exercise of statutory powers—

(a)constructs a bridge over a highway without a licence under this section, or

(b)constructs or uses a bridge otherwise than in accordance with the terms and conditions of such a licence, or

(c)fails to remove or alter a bridge when required to do so in accordance with any condition of the licence or within one month from the date of the expiration of the licence,

he is guilty of an offence and is liable to a fine not exceeding £50, and if the offence is continued after conviction he is guilty of a further offence and is liable to a fine not exceeding £5 for each day on which the offence is so continued.

(8)In this section " bridge " means a structure the sole purpose of which is to provide a way over a highway.

177Restriction on construction of buildings over highways

(1)No person shall—

(a)except in the exercise of statutory powers, construct a building over any part of a highway maintainable at the public expense (whether it is intended to span the highway or not), or alter a building so constructed, without a licence granted under this section by the highway authority for that highway or otherwise than in accordance with the terms and conditions of a licence so granted;

(b)use a building so constructed or altered in pursuance of a licence so granted otherwise than in accordance with the terms and conditions thereof: and any person who contravenes any provision of this subsection is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £400; and if the offence is continued after conviction, he is guilty of a further offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £50 for each day on which the offence is so continued.

(2)Subject to subsections (3) and (4) below, a licence under this section may contain such terms and conditions, including terms and conditions with respect to the construction (including the headway over the highway), maintenance, lighting and use of the building, as the highway authority think fit; and, any such term or condition is binding on the successor in title to every owner, and every lessee and occupier, of the building.

(3)No fine, rent or other sum of money is payable in respect of a licence granted under this section except—

(a)a reasonable sum in respect of legal or other expenses incurred in connection with the grant of the licence; and

(b)an annual charge of a reasonable amount for administering the licence;

and any sum payable by virtue of paragraph (a) above is recoverable from the applicant for the licence and any sum payable by virtue of paragraph (b) above is recoverable from the owner of the building.

(4)No such licence shall authorise any interference with the convenience of persons using the highway, or affect the rights of the owners of premises adjoining the highway, or the rights of statutory undertakers or of the Post Office.

(5)Where a licence under this section makes provision for the execution of any works or the provision of any facilities which in the opinion of the highway authority require to be executed or provided by them in connection with the building or its construction or alteration, the authority may execute those works or, as the case may be, provide those facilities and may recover the expenses reasonably incurred by them in so doing from the licensee or from the owner of the building.

(6)A person aggrieved by the refusal of a highway authority to grant a licence under this section or by a term or condition of the licence may appeal to the Crown Court, except that no such appeal lies—

(a)if the land on which the highway in question is situated is owned by the highway authority, or

(b)against any term or condition which the highway authority declare to be necessary for the purpose of securing the safety of persons using the highway or of preventing interference with traffic thereon.

(7)Where a person has constructed or altered a building for the construction, or, as the case may be, alteration, of which a licence is required by this section without such a licence or otherwise than in accordance with the terms and conditions of the licence, the highway authority may by notice served on the licensee or the owner of the building require him to demolish the building within such time as may be specified in the notice or, as the case may be, to make such alterations therein and within such time as may be so specified.

(8)Where there has been a failure to comply with any terms or conditions of a licence under this section with respect to the maintenance or use of a building, the highway authority may by notice served on the licensee or the owner of the building require him to execute such works or take such steps as are necessary to secure compliance with those terms or conditions within such time as may be specified in the notice.

(9)If a person on whom a notice is served under subsection (7) or (8) above fails to comply with the notice within the time specified in it, the highway authority may demolish the building or, as the case may be, execute such works or take such steps as are necessary to comply with the notice and may recover the expenses reasonably incurred by them in so doing from that person.

(10)Where by virtue of subsection (9) above a highway authority demolish a building, they may dispose of the materials resulting from the demolition.

(11)In relation to any prohibition or restriction on the use of a building imposed by the Minister by virtue of any term or condition contained in a licence granted by him under this section, section 1(1)(c) of the Local Land Charges Act 1975 has effect as if the references to the date of the commencement of that Act were references to 1st November 1971.

(12)Any work authorised or required by a licence under this section to be executed by the licensee is for the purpose of section 7 of the Telegraph Act 1878 (alteration of the telegraphic lines of the Post Office) to be deemed to be work done in the execution of an undertaking authorised by an Act of Parliament and the person executing the work is to be deemed to be the undertakers.

(13)This section does not apply to a building which constitutes a bridge within the meaning of section 176 above, but subject to that in this section " building " includes any structure and any part of a building.

(14)Where the land on which a highway is situated is owned by the highway authority, nothing in subsection (3) above is to be taken as affecting the rights of that authority as the owner of that land to sell or lease the air-space above the surface of that land or grant any rights in relation to it.

178Restriction on placing rails, beams etc. over highways

(1)No person shall fix or place any overhead beam, rail, pipe, cable, wire or other similar apparatus over, along or across a highway without the consent of the highway authority for the highway, and the highway authority may attach to their consent such reasonable terms and conditions as they think fit.

(2)Subject to subsection (3) below, a person aggrieved by the refusal of a consent under subsection (1) above, or by any terms or conditions attached to such a consent, may appeal to a magistrates' court.

(3)No appeal lies under subsection (2) above against any term or condition attached by the Minister to a consent given by him under this section if he declares the term or condition to be necessary for the purpose of securing the safety of persons using the highway to which the consent relates or of preventing interference with traffic on it.

(4)If a person contravenes subsection (1) above, or the terms or conditions of any consent given under that subsection, he is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £25 ; and if the offence is continued after conviction he is guilty of a further offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £1 for each day on which the offence is so continued.

(5)This section does not apply to any works or apparatus belonging to any statutory undertakers, and for this purpose the Civil Aviation Authority and the Post Office are to be deemed to be statutory undertakers.

179Control of construction of cellars etc. under street

(1)No person shall construct a vault, arch or cellar under—

(a)any street in Greater London, or

(b)the carriageway of any street outside Greater London,

without the consent of the appropriate authority, and the authority may by notice served on a person who has constructed a vault, arch or cellar in contravention of this section require him to remove it, or to alter or deal with it in such manner as may be specified in the notice. For the purposes of this section the appropriate authority is—

(i)in relation to a street outside Greater London which is a highway, the highway authority for the street; and

(ii)in relation to any other street, the local authority in whose area the street is situated.

(2)A person aggrieved by the refusal of a consent, or by a requirement of a notice, under subsection (1) above may appeal to a magistrates' court.

(3)A person who constructs a vault, arch or cellar in contravention of this section is guilty of an offence and is liable to a fine not exceeding £25; and, subject to any order made on appeal, if he fails to comply with a requirement of a notice served on him under subsection (1) above he is guilty of a further offence and is liable to a fine not exceeding £2 for each day during which the failure continues.

(4)The appropriate authority' may also cause a vault, arch or cellar constructed in contravention of this section to be removed, altered or otherwise dealt with as they think fit, and may recover the expenses reasonably incurred by them in so doing from the offender.

(5)As soon as may be after an authority consent to the construction of a vault, arch or cellar under a street they shall give notice thereof to any public utility undertakers having any apparatus under the street.

180Control of openings into cellars etc. under streets, and pavement lights and ventilators

(1)No person shall make an opening in the footway of a street as an entrance to a cellar or vault thereunder without the consent of the appropriate authority, and where an authority give consent under this subsection they shall require the person to whom the consent is given to provide a door or covering constructed in such manner and of such materials as they direct. For the purposes of this section the appropriate authority is the same as for the purposes of section 179 above.

(2)No person shall carry out any works in a street to provide means for the admission of air or light to premises situated under, or abutting on, the street without the consent of the local authority, and the local authority in giving any consent under this subsection may impose any requirement as to the construction of the works.

(3)A person aggrieved by the refusal of a consent, or by a requirement, under subsection (1) above may appeal to a magistrates' court and a person who applies for consent under subsection (2) above may appeal to such a court against a refusal of consent, or a requirement, under subsection (2).

(4)Subject to any order made on appeal—

(a)a person who—

(i)makes an opening in the footway of a street in contravention of subsection (1) above, or

(ii)fails to comply with a requirement made to him under that subsection,

is guilty of an offence and, without prejudice to any other liability to which he may be subject, liable to a fine not exceeding £25 ;

(b)a person who—

(i)carries out any works in contravention of subsection (2) above, or

(ii)fails to comply with a requirement made to him under that subsection,

is guilty of an offence and, without prejudice to any other liability to which he may be subject, liable to a fine not exceeding £5.

(5)As soon as may be after an authority give consent under either subsection (1) or subsection (2) above they shall give notice thereof to any public utility undertakers having any apparatus under the street.

(6)The following, namely—

(a)every vault, arch and cellar under a street,

(b)every opening in the surface of any street into any such vault, arch or cellar,

(c)every door or covering to any such opening,

(d)every cellar-head, grating, light and coal hole in the surface of a street, and

(e)all landings, flags or stones of the street by which any of the above are supported,

shall be kept in good condition and repair by the owner or occupier of the vault, arch or cellar, or of the premises to which it belongs.

(7)If default is made in complying with subsection (6) above, the appropriate authority may, after the expiration of 24 hours from the service of a notice of their intention to do so on any person in default, cause any thing as respects which there has been such a default to be repaired or put into good condition, and may recover the expenses reasonably incurred by them in so doing from the owner or occupier thereof or of the premises to which it belongs.

181Provisions relating to placing, etc. of certain apparatus in or under a highway

(1)If a person, without lawful authority or excuse, places any apparatus in or under a highway or breaks open a highway for the purpose of placing, maintaining, repairing or reinstating any apparatus in or under it, he is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £20 or, in the case of a second or subsequent offence, to a fine not exceeding £50.

(2)The highway authority for a highway may by a licence granted under this section permit any person to place and leave, or to retain, and thereafter (in either case) to maintain, repair and reinstate, apparatus in or under the highway and to break open and to have access to the highway for those purposes.

(3)The highway authority may, as they think fit—

(a)grant a licence under this section to any person and insert in the licence a provision prohibiting assignment of the licence ; or

(b)grant a licence to any person and insert in the licence a provision permitting assignment of the licence; or

(c)grant such a licence to the owner of any premises ad joining the highway and his successors in title, the licence, unless and until withdrawn or surrendered, to be annexed to those premises;

and references in this section and section 182 below to the licensee are references to the person who is for the time being entitled by virtue of such a licence to do anything permitted by it to be done.

(4)No fine, rent or other sum of money is payable in respect of such a licence except—

(a)a reasonable sum in respect of legal or other expenses incurred in connection with the grant of the licence; and

(b)an annual charge of a reasonable amount for administering the licence;

and any such sum is recoverable from the licensee.

(5)Before granting a licence under this section a highway authority shall give not less than 14 days' notice of their intention so to do to any statutory undertakers or sewerage authority whose apparatus or plans for the installation of apparatus are likely to be affected by the works to be authorised by the licence.

(6)The licensee is not for the purposes of section 17 of the Schedule to the Electric Lighting (Clauses) Act 1899 (power to alter apparatus under streets, etc.) a person in whom powers in relation to a street or place are vested nor are any works carried out by the licensee in pursuance of a licence under this section undertakers' works within the meaning of section 1 of the Public Utilities Street Works Act 1950.

(7)A licence under this section shall not authorise any interference with the apparatus or works of any statutory undertakers or sewerage authority without the consent of those undertakers or that authority, as the case may be, nor shall such a licence authorise the installation of any apparatus for the installation or use of which the licence of the Secretary of State or the Post Office, or of both the Secretary of State and the Post Office, is required by virtue of any enactment unless and until that licence has been granted.

(8)This section does not apply to the apparatus of statutory undertakers or sewerage authorities.

(9)In this section and section 182 below references to statutory undertakers include references to the Post Office.

(10)Where the land on which a highway is situated is owned by the highway authority for the highway, nothing in subsection (4) above is to be taken as affecting the rights of that authority as the owner of that land to grant any person, for such consideration as they think fit, the right to place any thing in or under that land.

182Supplementary provisions as to licences under section 181

(1)A highway authority may attach to any licence granted under section 181 above such conditions as they consider necessary to protect the apparatus of statutory undertakers and sewerage authorities, to ensure the safety and convenience of passengers in the highway and to prevent traffic therein being delayed, and it shall be a condition of every such licence that—

(a)before executing any works for the purpose of placing apparatus in or under the highway or for the purpose of the maintenance, repair or reinstatement thereof (except works for the purpose of carrying out emergency repairs), the licensee is to give not less than 7 days' notice in writing, stating the nature and place of the works proposed, to the highway authority and to any statutory undertakers or sewerage authority whose apparatus is likely to be affected, and is to satisfy their requirements as to the method of executing the works and as to the supervision thereof by them;

(b)as soon as reasonably practicable after executing works for the purpose of carrying out emergency repairs to any apparatus placed and left in or under the highway the licensee is to inform any statutory undertakers or sewerage authority whose apparatus may have been affected;

(c)any apparatus is, wherever practicable, to be laid by thrust boring;

(d)while executing any works in or under the highway the licensee is to cause the works to be properly fenced and guarded and to be properly lighted during the hours of darkness;

(e)as soon as reasonably practicable after executing any such works as are mentioned in paragraph

(a)or (b) above, the licensee is to make good any damage to the highway occasioned by those works ;

(f)the licensee is to give the authority not less than 6 weeks' notice of his intention to cease using or abandon the apparatus or, if the licence is one the assignment of which is prohibited, of his intention to part with his interest in the apparatus.

(2)A highway authority may attach to a licence granted by them by virtue of section 181(3)(b) above a condition that before assigning the licence to any other person the licensee is to obtain the consent of the authority to the assignment; and it shall be a condition of every licence granted by virtue of section 181(3)(c) above that within one month after any change in the ownership of the premises in question takes place the licensee is to inform the highway authority of it.

(3)A highway authority may by notice served on the licensee withdraw a licence granted by them under section 181 above—

(a)on the expiration of such period as may be specified in the notice, being a period of not less than 7 days beginning with the date of service of the notice on the licensee, if any condition of the licence is contravened by the licensee, or if the highway authority become aware of the fact that the licensee intends to cease using or abandon the apparatus or (if the licence is one the assignment of which is prohibited) that the licensee intends to part with his interest in the apparatus;

(b)on the expiration of such period as may be so specified, being a period of not less than 3 months beginning with the said date, if the authority consider the withdrawal of the licence is necessary for the purpose of the exercise of their functions as a highway authority.

(4)Where a licence under scetion 181 above expires or is withdrawn or surrendered, the highway authority by whom it was granted—

(a)may remove the apparatus to which the licence relates or alter it in such manner as they think fit and reinstate the highway and may recover the expenses reasonably incurred by them in so doing from the last licensee ; or

(b)if satisfied that the last licensee can, within such reasonable time as they may specify, remove such apparatus or alter it in such manner as they may require and reinstate the highway, may authorise him to do so at his own expense. In this subsection and subsection (5) below " the last licensee " means the person who immediately before the expiration, withdrawal or surrender of the licence in question was the licensee or, if that person has died, his personal representatives.

(5)Before executing any works under subsection (4) above a highway authority or the last licensee, as the case may be, shall give not less than 7 days' notice to any statutory undertakers or sewerage authority whose apparatus is likely to be affected and shall satisfy their requirements as to the method of executing the works and as to the supervision thereof by them.

(6)The licensee and the person who immediately before the expiration, withdrawal or surrender of a licence under this section was the licensee or, if that person has died, his personal representatives shall indemnify the highway authority against any claim in respect of injury, damage or loss arising out of—

(a)the placing or presence in or under a highway of apparatus to which the licence relates, or

(b)the execution by any person of any works authorised by the licence or by the highway authority under subsection (4) above, or

(c)the execution by or on behalf of the highway authority of any works under that subsection;

but the foregoing provision is not to be taken as requiring any person to indemnify the highway authority against any claim in respect of injury, damage or loss which is attributable to the negligence of that authority.

183Appeal against certain decisions of local highway authority under section 181

(1)Where the apparatus in respect of which an application for a licence under section 181 above is made to a local highway authority is to be placed or retained along a line crossing a highway, other than a special road, and not along the line of that highway, any person aggrieved—

(a)by the refusal of that authority to grant him the licence,

or

(b)by their refusal to grant him a licence on the application other than a licence containing such a provision as is mentioned in section 181(3(a) above, or

(c)where the application is granted, by any term or condition of the licence granted to him, other than a compulsory condition,

may appeal to the Minister.

(2)Before determining an appeal under this section the Minister may consult any person whose interests are in the opinion of the Minister liable to be affected by anything done in pursuance of the licence to which the appeal relates and shall consider any representations made by the local highway authority.

(3)Where on an appeal under this section the Minister reverses or varies any decision of a local highway authority, it shall be the duty of that authority to give effect to the decision of the Minister.

(4)In this section " compulsory condition " means a condition specified in any paragraph of section 182(1) above and, in the case of a licence granted by virtue of section 181(3)(c) above, the condition which section 182(2) above provides shall be a condition of every such licence.

184Vehicle crossings over footways and verges

(1)Where the occupier of any premises adjoining or having access to a highway maintainable at the public expense habitually takes or permits to be taken a mechanically propelled vehicle across a kerbed footway or a verge in the highway to or from those premises, the highway authority for the highway may, subject to subsection (2) below, serve a notice on the owner and the occupier of the premises—

(a)stating that they propose to execute such works for the construction of a vehicle crossing over the footway or verge as may be specified in the notice; or

(b)imposing such reasonable conditions on the use of the footway or verge as a crossing as may be so specified.

(2)A highway authority is not entitled by virtue of subsection (1) above to construct a vehicle crossing on, or on any part of, the site of a made-up vehicle crossing which has been constructed either under this section or under section 40 of the Highways Act 1971 (which this section replaces) or before the commencement of the said section 40, or to impose conditions on the use of such a crossing.

(3)Where any land is being, or is to be, developed in accordance with a planning permission granted, or deemed to have been granted, under the Town and Country Planning Act 1971, and it appears to the highway authority for a highway maintainable at the public expense that the development makes it necessary—

(a)to construct a crossing over a kerbed footway or a verge in the highway so as to provide an access for mechanically propelled vehicles to or from the carriageway of the highway from or to premises adjoining or having access to the highway ; or

(b)to improve or otherwise alter a made-up vehicle crossing that provides such an access as is mentioned in paragraph (a) above (whenever constructed),

that authority may serve on the owner and the occupier of the premises a notice stating that they propose to execute such works for the construction or, as the case may be, alteration of the crossing as may be specified in the notice.

(4)Unless the development giving rise to a notice under subsection (3) above consists solely of the provision of a new means of access to or from a highway from or to premises, there may be specified in a notice under that subsection works for the construction as part of the vehicle crossing proposed to be constructed or altered, as the case may be, of acceleration and deceleration lanes.

(5)In determining whether to exercise their powers under subsection (1) or (3) above, a highway authority shall have regard to the need to prevent damage to a footway or verge, and in determining the works to be specified in a notice under subsection (1)(a) or (3) an authority shall have regard to that and the following other matters, namely—

(a)the need to ensure, so far as practicable, safe access to and egress from premises; and

(b)the need to facilitate, so far as practicable, the passage of vehicular traffic in highways.

(6)Schedule 14 to this Act has effect with respect to the making of objections to a notice under subsection (1) or (3) above and to the date on which such a notice becomes effective.

(7)Where a notice under subsection (1)(a) or (3) above has become effective, the highway authority by whom the notice was served may execute such works as are specified in the notice, subject to such modifications (if any) as may have been made by the Minister, and may recover the expenses reasonably incurred by them in so doing from the owner or occupier of the premises in question.

(8)A notice under subsection (1) or (3) above shall inform the person on whom it is served of his right to object to the notice and (except in the case of a notice under subsection (1)(b)) shall state the effect of subsection (7) above.

(9)Where a person who is carrying out, or proposes to carry out, such a development as is referred to in subsection (3) above offers to execute the works specified in a notice under that subsection, the highway authority by whom the notice was served may authorise him to execute those works in accordance with plans approved by them. In relation to works executed under this subsection, Part II of the Public Utilities Street Works Act 1950 (code which has effect where undertakers' apparatus is affected by certain works) applies as if the works were executed for road purposes and were mentioned in section 21(1)(a) of that Act and as if the person executing them were the promoting authority within the meaning of the said Part II.

(10)If a person authorised under subsection (9) above to execute any works fails to execute them to the satisfaction of the highway authority before the development is completed, the authority may execute the works or alter the works executed by that person and recover the expenses reasonably incurred by them in so doing from him.

(11)Any person may request the highway authority for a highway maintainable at the public expense to execute such works as are specified in the request for constructing a vehicle crossing over a footway or verge in the highway, and the authority may approve the request with or without modification, or may propose alternative works or reject the request; and in determining how to exercise their powers under this subsection an authority shall have regard to the matters mentioned in subsection (5) above.

(12)An authority to whom a request under subsection (11) above is made shall notify the person making the request of their decision and if they approve, with or without modification, the works proposed in the request or propose alternative works, they shall supply him with a quotation of the cost of the works as approved or proposed by them, and he may, on depositing with them the amount quoted, require them to execute those works.

(13)As soon as practicable after such a deposit has been made with an authority the authority shall execute the works as approved or proposed by them.

(14)If apart from this subsection Part II of the Public Utilities Street Works Act 1950 would not apply in relation to works executed by a highway authority under any provision of this section, the said Part II shall apply as if the works were executed for road purposes and were mentioned in section 21(1)(a) of that Act.

(15)The expenses recoverable under subsection (7) or (10) above and the cost of the works for the purposes of subsection (12) above include the cost of any works which are required by the said Act of 1950 to be executed in consequence of the construction of the crossing.

(16)Nothing in this section imposes on any person other than a highway authority any obligation to maintain a vehicle crossing.

(17)If a person knowingly uses a footway or verge as a crossing in contravention of any condition imposed under subsection (1)(b) above, or knowingly permits it to be so used, he is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding £20 or, in the case of a second or subsequent offence, to a fine not exceeding £50.

185Power to install refuse or storage bins in streets

(1)Subject to the provisions of this section, a competent authority may provide and maintain in or under a street orderly bins or other receptacles, of such dimensions and in such positions as the authority may determine, for the collection and temporary deposit of street refuse and waste paper, or the storage of sand, grit or other materials. For the purposes of this section the following are competent authorities—

(a)in relation to a street that is a highway, the highway authority for the highway and also the local authority in whose area it is situated acting with the consent of the highway authority;

(b)in relation to any other street, the local authority in whose area the street is situated.

(2)An authority does not have power by virtue of this section to place a bin or other receptacle on a bridge over a railway, or under a bridge carrying a railway over a street, or within 10 feet of the abutments of a bridge carrying a railway over a street, except with the consent of the railway undertakers concerned.

(3)An authority shall not exercise the power conferred by this section so as to obstruct or render less convenient the access to or exit from—

(a)a station or goods yard belonging to railway undertakers ; or

(b)premises belonging to canal, inland navigation, dock, harbour, tramway, electricity, gas or water undertakers, or to persons authorised by any enactment to carry on any other public undertaking, and used by those undertakers or persons for the purposes of their undertaking.

(4)Nothing in this section is to be taken as empowering an authority to hinder the reasonable use of a street by the public or any person entitled to use it or as empowering an authority to create a nuisance to the owner or occupier of premises adjacent to a street.

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