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Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1971

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2Neither the carrier nor the ship shall be responsible for loss or damage arising or resulting from—

(a)Act, neglect, or default of the master, mariner, pilot, or the servants of the carrier in the navigation or in the management of the ship.

(b)Fire, unless caused by the actual fault or privity of the carrier.

(c)Perils, dangers and accidents of the sea or other navigable waters.

(d)Act of God.

(e)Act of war.

(f)Act of public enemies.

(g)Arrest or restraint of princes, rulers or perople, or seizure under legal process.

(h)Quarantine restrictions.

(i)Act or omission of the shipper or owner of the goods, his agent or representative.

(j)Strikes or lockouts or stoppage or restraint of labour from whatever cause, whether partial or general.

(k)Riots and civil commotions.

(l)Saving or attempting to save life or property at sea.

(m)Wastage in bulk or weight or any other loss or damage arising from inherent defect, quality or vice of the goods.

(n)Insufficiency of packing.

(o)Insufficiency or inadequacy of marks.

(p)Latent defects not discoverable by due diligence.

(q)Any other cause arising without the actual fault or privity of the carrier, or without the fault or neglect of the agents or servants of the carrier, but the burden of proof shall be on the person claiming the benefit of this exception to show that neither the actual fault or privity of the carrier nor the fault or neglect of the agents or servants of the carrier contributed to the loss or damage.

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