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Companies Act 1948

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Contributories

212Liability as contributories of present and past members

(1)In the event of a company being wound up, every present and past member shall be liable to contribute to the assets of the company, to an amount sufficient for payment of its debts and liabilities, and the costs, charges and expenses of the winding up, and for the adjustment of the rights of the contributories among themselves, subject to the provisions of subsection (2) of this section and the following qualifications:—

(a)a past member shall not be liable to contribute if he has ceased to be a member for one year or upwards before the commencement of the winding up;

(b)a past member shall not be liable to contribute in respect of any debt or liability of the company contracted after he ceased to be a member;

(c)a past member shall not be liable to contribute unless it appears to the court that the existing members are unable to satisfy the contributions required to be made by them in pursuance of this Act;

(d)in the case of a company limited by shares, no contribution shall be required from any member exceeding the amount, if any, unpaid on the shares in respect of which he is liable as a present or past member;

(e)in the case of a company limited by guarantee, no contribution shall, subject to the provisions of subsection (3) of this section, be required from any member exceeding the amount undertaken to be contributed by him to the assets of the company in the event of its being wound up;

(f)nothing in this Act shall invalidate any provision contained in any policy of insurance or other contract whereby the liability of individual members on the policy or contract is restricted, or whereby the funds of the company are alone made liable in respect of the policy or contract;

(g)a sum due to any member of a company, in his character of a member, by way of dividends, profits or otherwise shall not be deemed to be a debt of the company, payable to that member in a case of competition between himself and any other creditor not a member of the company, but any such sum may be taken into account for the purpose of the final adjustment of the rights of the contributories among themselves.

(2)In the winding up of a limited company, any director or manager, whether past or present, whose liability is, under the provisions of this Act, unlimited, shall, in addition to his liability (if any) to contribute as an ordinary member, be liable to make a further contribution as if he were at the commencement of the winding up a member of an unlimited company:

Provided that—

(a)a past director or manager shall not be liable to make such further contribution if he has ceased to hold office for a year or upwards before the commencement of the winding up;

(b)a past director or manager shall not be liable to make such further contribution in respect of any debt or liability of the company contracted after he ceased to hold office;

(c)subject to the articles of the company, a director or manager shall not be liable to make such further contribution unless the court deems it necessary to require that contribution in order to satisfy the debts and liabilities of the company and the costs, charges and expenses of the winding up.

(3)In the winding up of a company limited by guarantee which has a share capital, every member of the company shall be liable, in addition to the amount undertaken to be contributed by him to the assets of the company in the event of its being wound up, to contribute to the extent of any sums unpaid on any shares held by him.

213Definition of "contributory"

The term " contributory " means every person liable to contribute to the assets of a company in the event of its being wound up, and for the purposes of all proceedings for determining, and all proceedings prior to the final determination of, the persons who are to be deemed contributories, includes any person alleged to be a contributory.

214Nature of liability of contributory

The liability of a contributory shall create a debt (in England of the nature of a specialty) accruing due from him at the time when his liability commenced, but payable at the times when calls are made for enforcing the liability.

215Contributories in case of death, of member

(1)If a contributory dies either before or after he has been placed on the list of contributories, his personal representatives, and the heirs and legatees of heritage of his heritable estate in Scotland, shall be liable in a due course of administration to contribute to the assets of the company in discharge of his liability and shall be contributories accordingly.

(2)Where the personal representatives are placed on the list of contributories, the heirs or legatees of heritage need not be added, but they may be added as and when the court thinks fit.

(3)If in England the personal representatives make default in paying any money ordered to be paid by them, proceedings may be taken for administering the estate of the deceased contributory and for compelling payment thereout of the money due.

216Contributories in case of bankruptcy of member

If a contributory becomes bankrupt, either before or after he has been placed on the list of contributories,—

(a)his trustee in bankruptcy shall represent him for all the purposes of the winding up, and shall be a contributory accordingly, and may be called on to admit to proof against the estate of the bankrupt, or otherwise to allow to be paid out of his assets in due course of law, any money due from the bankrupt in respect of his liability to contribute to the assets of the company; and

(b)there may be proved against the estate of the bankrupt the estimated value of his liability to future calls as well as calls already made.

217Provision as to married women

(1)The husband of a female contributory married before the date of the commencement of the Married Women's Property Act, 1882, or the Married Women's Property (Scotland) Act, 1881, as the case may be, shall, during the continuance of the marriage, be liable, as respects any liability attaching to any shares acquired by her before that date, to contribute to the assets of the company the same sum as she would have been liable to contribute if she had not married, and he shall be a contributory accordingly.

(2)Subject as aforesaid, nothing in this Act shall affect the provisions of the Married' Women's Property Act, 1882, or the Married Women's Property (Scotland) Act, 1881.

(ii)Winding Up by the Court

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