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Companies Act 1948

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Directors and other Officers

176Directors

Every company registered on or after the first day of November, nineteen hundred and twenty-nine (other than a private company) shall have at least two directors, and every company registered before that date (other than a private company), and every private company, shall have a director.

177Secretary

(1)Every company shall have a secretary and a sole director shall not also be secretary.

(2)Anything required or authorised to be done by or to the secretary may, if the office is vacant or there is for any other reason no secretary capable of acting, be done by or to any assistant or deputy secretary or, if there is no assistant or deputy secretary capable of acting, by or to any officer of the company authorised generally or specially in that behalf by the directors.

178Prohibition .of certain persons being sole director or secretary

No company shall—

(a)have as secretary to the company a corporation the sole director of which is a sole director of the company; or

(b)have as sole director of the company a corporation the sole director of which is secretary to the company.

179Avoidance of acts done by person in dual capacity as director and secretary

A provision requiring or authorising a thing to be done by or to a director and the secretary shall not be satisfied by its being done by or to the same person acting both as director and as, or in place of, the secretary.

180Validity of acts of directors

The acts of a director or manager shall be valid notwithstanding any defect that may afterwards be discovered in his appointment or qualification.

181Restrictions on appointment or advertisement of director

(1)A person shall not be capable of being appointed director of a company by the articles, and shall not be named as a director or proposed director of a company in a prospectus issued by or on behalf of the company, or as proposed director of an intended company in a prospectus issued in relation to that intended company, or in a statement in lieu of prospectus delivered to the registrar by or on behalf of a company, unless, before the registration of the articles or the publication of the prospectus or the delivery of the statement in lieu of prospectus, as the case may be, he has by himself or by his agent authorised in writing—

(a)signed and delivered to the registrar of companies for registration a consent in writing to act as such director; and

(b)either—

(i)signed the memorandum for a number of shares not less than his qualification, if any; or

(ii)taken from the company and paid or agreed to pay for his qualification shares, if any; or

(iii)signed and delivered to the registrar for registration an undertaking in writing to take from the company and pay for his qualification shares, if any; or

(iv)made and delivered to the registrar for registration a statutory declaration to the effect that a number of shares, not less than his qualification, if any, are registered in his name.

(2)Where a person has signed and delivered as aforesaid an undertaking to take and pay for his qualification shares, he shall, as regards those shares, be in the same position as if he had signed the memorandum for that number of shares.

(3)References in this section to the share qualification of a director or proposed director shall be construed as including only a share qualification required on appointment or within a period determined by reference to the time of appointment, and references therein to qualification shares shall be construed accordingly.

(4)On the application for registration of the memorandum and articles of a company, the applicant shall deliver to the registrar a list of the persons who have consented to be directors of the company, and, if this list contains the name of any person who has not so consented, the applicant shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty pounds.

(5)This section shall not apply to—

(a)a company not having a share capital; or

(b)a private company; or

(c)a company which was a private company before becoming a public company; or

(d)a prospectus issued by or on behalf of a company after the expiration of one year from the date on which the company was entitled to commence business.

182Share qualifications of directors

(1)Without prejudice to the restrictions imposed by the last foregoing section, it shall be the duty of every director who is by the articles of the company required to hold a specified share qualification, and who is not already qualified, to obtain his qualification within two months after his appointment, or such shorter time as may be fixed by the articles.

(2)For the purpose of any provision in the articles requiring a director or manager to hold a specified share qualification, the bearer of a share warrant shall not be deemed to be the holder of the shares specified in the warrant.

(3)The office of director of a company shall be vacated if the director does not within two months from the date of his appointment, or within such shorter time as may be fixed by the articles, obtain his qualification, or if after the expiration of the said period or shorter time he ceases at any time to hold his qualification.

(4)A person vacating office under this section shall be incapable of being reappointed director of the company until he has obtained his qualification.

(5)If after the expiration of the said period or shorter time any unqualified person acts as a director of the company, he shall be liable to a fine not exceeding five pounds for every day between the expiration of the said period or shorter time or the day on which he ceased to be qualified, as the case may be, and the last day on which it is proved that he acted as a director.

183Appointment of directors to be voted on individually

(1)At a general meeting of a company other than a private company, a motion for the appointment of two or more persons as directors of the company by a single resolution shall not be made, unless a resolution that it shall be so made has first been agreed to by the meeting without any vote being given against it.

(2)A resolution moved in contravention of this section shall be void, whether or not its being so moved was objected to at the time:

Provided that—

(a)this subsection shall not be taken as excluding the operation of section one hundred and eighty of this Act; and

(b)where a resolution so moved is passed, no provision for the automatic reappointment of retiring directors in default of another appointment shall apply.

(3)For the purposes of this section, a motion for approving a person's appointment or for nominating a person for appointment shall be treated as a motion for his appointment.

(4)Nothing in this section shall apply to a resolution altering the company's articles.

184Removal of directors

(1)A company may by ordinary resolution remove a director before the expiration of his period of office, notwithstanding anything in its articles or in any agreement between it and him:

Provided that this subsection shall not, in the case of a private company, authorise the removal of a director holding office for life on the eighteenth day of July, nineteen hundred arid forty-five, whether or not subject to retirement under an age limit by virtue of the articles or otherwise.

(2)Special notice shall be required of any resolution to remove a director under this section or to appoint somebody instead of a director so removed at the meeting at which he is removed, and on receipt of notice of an intended resolution to remove a director under this section the company shall forthwith send a copy thereof to the director concerned, and the director (whether or not he is a member of the company) shall be entitled to be heard on the resolution at the meeting.

(3)Where notice is given of an intended resolution to remove a director under this section and the director concerned makes with respect thereto representations in writing to the company (not exceeding a reasonable length) and requests their notification to members of the company, the company shall, unless the representations are received by it too late for it to do so,—

(a)in any notice of the resolution given to members of the company state the fact of the representations having been made; and

(b)send a copy of the representations to every member of the company to whom notice of the meeting is sent (whether before or after receipt of the representations by the company);

and if a copy of the representations is not sent as aforesaid because received too late or because of the company's default, the director may (without prejudice to his right to be heard orally) require that the representations shall be read out at the meeting:

Provided that copies of the representations need not be sent out and the representations need not be read out at the meeting if, on the application either of the company or of any other person who claims to be aggrieved, the court is satisfied that the rights conferred by this section are being abused to secure needless publicity for defamatory matter; and the court may order the company's costs on an application under this section to be paid in whole or in part by the director, notwithstanding that he is not a party to the application.

(4)A vacancy created by the removal of a director under this section, if not filled at the meeting at which he is removed, may be filled as a casual vacancy.

(5)A person appointed director in place of a person removed under this section shall be treated, for the purpose of determining the time at which he or any other director is to retire, as if he had become director on the day on which the person in whose place he is appointed was last appointed a director.

(6)Nothing in this section shall be taken as depriving a person removed thereunder of compensation or damages payable to him in respect of the termination of his appointment as director or of any appointment terminating with that as director or as derogating from any power to remove a director which may exist apart from this section.

185Retirement of directors under age limit

(1)Subject to the provisions of this section, no person shall be capable of being appointed a director of a company which is subject to this section if at the time of his appointment he has attained the age of seventy.

(2)Subject as aforesaid, a director of a company which is subject to this section shall vacate his office at the conclusion of the annual general meeting commencing next after he attains the age of seventy:

Provided that acts done by a person as director shall be valid notwithstanding that it is afterwards discovered that his appointment had terminated by virtue of this subsection.

(3)Where a person retires by virtue of the last foregoing subsection, no provision for the automatic reappointment of retiring directors in default of another appointment shall apply; and if at the meeting at which he retires the vacancy is not filled it may be filled as a casual vacancy.

(4)Subsection (2) of this section shall not apply to a' director who is in office at the commencement of this Act so as to terminate his then appointment before the conclusion of the third annual general meeting commencing after the commencement of this Act, but shall apply so as to terminate it at the conclusion of that meeting if he has attained the age of seventy before the commencement of the meeting.

(5)Nothing in the foregoing provisions of this section shall prevent the appointment of a director at any age, or require a director to retire at any time, if his appointment is or was made or approved by the company in general meeting, but special notice shall be required of any resolution appointing or approving the appointment of a director for it to have effect for the purposes of this subsection and the notice thereof given to the company and by the company to its members must state or must have stated the age of the person to whom it relates.

(6)A person reappointed director on retiring by virtue of subsection (2) of this section, or appointed in place of a director so retiring, shall be treated, for the purpose of determining the time at which he or any other director is to retire, as if he had become director on the day on which the retiring director was last appointed before his retirement; but, except as provided by this subsection, the retirement of a director out of turn by virtue of the said subsection (2) shall be disregarded in determining when any other directors are to retire.

(7)In the case of a company first registered after the beginning of the year nineteen hundred and forty-seven, this section shall have effect subject to the provisions of the company's articles; and in the case of a company first registered before the beginning of that year—

(a)this section shall have effect subject to any alterations of the company's articles made after the beginning thereof; and

(b)if at the beginning thereof the company's articles contained provision for retirement of directors under an age limit or for preventing or restricting appointments of directors over a given age this section shall not apply to directors to whom that provision applies.

(8)A company shall be subject to this section if it is not a private company or if, being a private company, it is the subsidiary of a body corporate incorporated in the United Kingdom which is neither a private company nor a company registered under the law relating to companies for the time being in force in Northern Ireland and having provisions in its constitution which would, if it had been registered in Great Britain, entitle it to rank as a private company; and for the purposes of any other section of this Act which refers to a company subject to this section, a company shall be deemed to be subject to this section notwithstanding that all or any of the provisions thereof are excluded or modified by the company's articles.

186Duty of directors to disclose age to company

(1)Any person who is appointed or to his knowledge proposed to be appointed director of a company subject to the last foregoing section at a time when he has attained any retiring age applicable to him as director either under this Act or under the company's articles shall give notice of his age to the company:

Provided that this subsection shall not apply in relation to a person's reappointment on the termination of a previous appointment as director of the company.

(2)Any person who—

(a)fails to give notice of his age as required by this section; or

(b)acts as director under any appointment which is invalid or has terminated by reason of his age;

shall be liable to a fine not exceeding five pounds for every day during which the failure continues or during which he continues to act as aforesaid.

(3)For the purposes of the last foregoing subsection, a person who has acted as director under an appointment which is invalid or has terminated shall be deemed to have continued so to act throughout the period from the invalid appointment or the date on which the appointment terminated, as the case may be, until the last day on which he is shown to have acted thereunder.

187Provisions as to undischarged bankrupts acting as directors

(1)If any person being an undischarged bankrupt acts as director of, or directly or indirectly takes part in or is concerned in the management of, any company except with the leave of the court by which he was adjudged bankrupt, he shall be liable on conviction on indictment to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years, or on summary conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or to a fine not exceeding five hundred pounds or to both such imprisonment and fine:

Provided that a person shall not be guilty of an offence under this section by reason that he, being an undischarged bankrupt, has acted as director of, or taken part or been concerned in the management of, a company, if he was on the third day of August, nineteen hundred and twenty-eight, acting as director of, or taking part or being concerned in the management of, that company and has continuously so acted, taken part or been concerned since that date and the bankruptcy was prior to that date.

(2)In England the leave of the court for the purposes of this section shall not be given unless notice of intention to apply therefor has been served on the official receiver, and it shall be the duty of the official receiver, if he is of opinion that it is contrary to the public interest that any such application should be granted, to attend on the hearing of and oppose the granting of the application.

(3)In this section the expression " company " includes an unregistered company and a company incorporated outside Great Britain which has an established place of business within Great Britain, and the expression " official receiver " means the official receiver in bankruptcy.

(4)Subsection (1) of this section in its application to Scotland shall have effect as if the words " sequestration of his estates was awarded " were substituted for the words

he was adjudged bankrupt.

188Power to restrain fraudulent persons from managing companies

(1)Where—

(a)a person is convicted on indictment of any offence in connection with the promotion, formation or management of a company; or

(b)in the course of winding up a company it appears that a person—

(i)has been guilty of any offence for which he is liable (whether he has been convicted or not) under section three hundred and thirty-two of this Act; or

(ii)has otherwise been guilty, while an officer of the company, of any fraud in relation to the company or of any breach of his duty to the company;

the court may make an order that that person shall not, without the leave of the court, be a director of or in any way, whether directly or indirectly, be concerned or take part, in the management of a company for such period not exceeding five years as may be specified in the order.

(2)In the foregoing subsection the expression " the court ", in relation to the making of an order against any person by virtue of paragraph (a) thereof, includes the court before which he is convicted, as well as any court having jurisdiction to wind up the company, and in relation to the granting of leave means any court having jurisdiction to wind up the company as respects which leave is sought.

(3)A person intending to apply for the making of an order under this section by the court having jurisdiction to wind up a company shall give not less than ten days' notice of his intention to the person against whom the order is sought, and on the hearing of the application the last-mentioned person may appear and himself give evidence or call witnesses.

(4)An application for the making of an order under this section by the court having jurisdiction to wind up a company may be made by the official receiver, or by the liquidator of the company or by any person who is or has been a member or creditor of the company; and on the hearing of any application for an order under this section by the official receiver or the liquidator, or of any application for leave under this section by a person against whom an order has been made on the application of the official receiver or the liquidator, the official receiver or liquidator shall appear and call the attention of the court to any matters which seem to him to be relevant, and may himself give evidence or call witnesses.

(5)An order may be made by virtue of sub-paragraph (ii) of paragraph (b) of subsection (1) of this section notwithstanding that the person concerned may be criminally liable in respect of the matters on the ground of which the order is to be made, and for the purposes of the said sub-paragraph (ii) the expression " officer " shall include any person in accordance with whose directions or instructions the directors of the company have been accustomed to act.

(6)If any person acts in contravention of an order made under this section, he shall, in respect of each offence, be liable on conviction on indictment to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years, or on summary conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or to a fine not exceeding five hundred pounds or to both.

189Prohibition of tax-free payments to directors

(1)It shall not be lawful for a company to pay a director remuneration (whether as director or otherwise) free of income tax or of income tax other than surtax, or otherwise calculated by reference to or varying with the amount of his income tax or his income tax other than surtax, or to or with the rate or standard rate of income tax, except under a contract which was in force on the eighteenth day of July, nineteen hundred and forty-five, and provides expressly, and not by reference to the articles, for payment of remuneration as aforesaid.

(2)Any provision contained in a company's articles, or in any contract other than such a contract as aforesaid, or in any resolution of a company or a company's directors, for payment to a director of remuneration as aforesaid shall have effect as if it provided for payment, as a gross sum subject to income tax and surtax, of the net sum for which it actually provides.

(3)This section shall not apply to remuneration due before the commencement of this Act or in respect of a period before the commencement of this Act.

190Prohibition of loans to directors

(1)It shall not be lawful for a company to make a loan to any person who is its director or a director of its holding company, or to enter into any guarantee or provide any security in connection with a loan made to such a person as aforesaid by any other person: Provided that nothing in this section shall apply either—

(a)to anything done by a company which is for the time being an exempt private company; or

(b)to anything done by a subsidiary, where the director is its holding company; or

(c)subject to the next following subsection, to anything done to provide any such person as aforesaid with funds to meet expenditure incurred or to be incurred by him for the purposes of the company or for the purpose of enabling him properly to perform is duties as an officer of the company; or

(d)in the case of a company whose ordinary business includes the lending of money or the giving of guarantees in connection with loans made by other persons, to anything done by the company in the ordinary course of that business.

(2)Proviso (c) to the foregoing subsection shall not authorise the making of any loan, or the entering into any guarantee, or the provision of any security, except either—

(a)with the prior approval of the company given at a general meeting at which the purposes of the expenditure and the amount of the loan or the extent of the guarantee or security, as the case may be, are disclosed; or

(b)on condition that, if the approval of the company is not given as aforesaid at or before the next following annual general meeting, the loan shall be repaid or the liability under the guarantee or security shall be discharged, as the case may be, within six months from the conclusion of that meeting.

(3)Where the approval of the company is not given as required by any such condition, the directors authorising the making of the loan, or the entering into the guarantee, or the provision of the security, shall be jointly and severally liable to indemnify the company against any loss arising therefrom.

191Approval of company requisite for payment by it to director for loss of office, &c

It shall hot be lawful for a company to make to any director of the company any payment by way of compensation for loss of office, or as consideration for or in connection with his retirement from office, without particulars with respect to the proposed payment (including the amount thereof) being disclosed to members of the company and the proposal being approved by the company.

192Approval of company requisite for any payment, in connection with transfer of its property, to director for loss of office, &c

(1)It is hereby declared that it is not lawful in connection with the transfer of the whole or any part of the undertaking or property of a company for any payment to be made to any director of the company by way of compensation for loss of office, or as consideration for or in connection with his retirement from office, unless particulars with respect to the proposed payment (including the amount thereof) have been disclosed to the members of the company and the proposal approved by the company.

(2)Where a payment which is hereby declared to be illegal is made to a director of the company, the amount received shall be deemed to have been received by him in trust for the company.

193Duty of director to disclose payment for loss of office, &c, made in connection with transfer of shares in company

(1)Where, in connection with the transfer to any persons of all or any of the shares in a company, being a transfer resulting from—

(a)an offer made to the general body of shareholders;

(b)an offer made by or on behalf of some other body corporate with a view to the company becoming its subsidiary or a subsidiary of its holding company;

(c)an offer made by or on behalf of an individual with a view to his obtaining the right to exercise or control the exercise of not less than one third of the voting power at any general meeting of the company; or

(d)any other offer which is conditional on acceptance to a given extent;

a payment is to be made to a director of the company by way of compensation for loss of office, or as consideration for or in connection with his retirement from office, it shall be the duty of that director to take all reasonable steps to secure that particulars with respect to the proposed payment (including the amount thereof) shall be included in or sent with any notice of the offer made for their shares which is given to any shareholders.

(2)If—

(a)any such director fails to take reasonable steps as aforesaid; or

(b)any person who has been properly required by any such director to include the said particulars in or send them with any such notice as aforesaid fails so to do;

he shall be liable to a fine not exceeding twenty-five pounds.

(3)If—

(a)the requirements of subsection (1) of this section are not complied with in relation to any such payment as is therein mentioned; or

(b)the making of the proposed payment is not, before the transfer of any shares in pursuance of the offer, approved by a meeting summoned for the purpose of the holders of the shares to which the offer relates and of other holders of shares of the same class as any of the said shares,

any sum received by the director on account of the payment shall be deemed to have been received by him in trust for any persons who have sold their shares as a result of the offer made, and the expenses incurred by him in distributing that sum amongst those persons shall be borne by him and not retained out of that sum.

(4)Where the shareholders referred to in paragraph (b) of the last foregoing subsection are not all the members of the company and no provision is made by the articles for summoning or regulating such a meeting as is mentioned in that paragraph, the provisions of this Act and of the company's articles relating to general meetings of the company shall, for that purpose, apply to the meeting either without modification or with such modifications as the Board of Trade on the application of any person concerned may direct for the purpose of adapting them to the circumstances of the meeting.

(5)If at a meeting summoned for the purpose of approving any payment as required by paragraph (b) of subsection (3) of this section a quorum is not present and, after the meeting has been adjourned to a later date, a quorum is again not present, the payment shall be deemed for the purposes of that subsection to have been approved.

194Provisions supplementary to three foregoing sections

(1)Where in proceedings for the recovery of any payment as having, by virtue of subsections (1) and (2) of the last but one foregoing section or subsections (1) and (3) of the last foregoing section, been received by any person in trust, it is shown that—

(a)the payment was made in pursuance of any arrangement entered into as part of the agreement for the transfer in question, or within one year before or two years after that agreement or the offer leading thereto; and

(b)the company or any person to whom the transfer was made was privy to that arrangement;

the payment shall be deemed, except in so far as the contrary is shown, to be one to which the subsections apply.

(2)If in connection with any such transfer as is mentioned in either of the two last foregoing sections—

(a)the price to be paid to a director of the company whose office is to be abolished or who is to retire from office for any shares in the company held by him is in excess of the price which could at the time have been obtained by other holders of the like shares; or

(b)any valuable consideration is given to any such director;

the excess or the money value of the consideration, as the case may be, shall, for the purposes of that section, be deemed to have been a payment made to him by way of compensation for loss of office or as consideration for or in connection with his retirement from office.

(3)It is hereby declared that references in the three last foregoing sections to payments made to any director of a company by way of compensation for loss of office, or as consideration for or in connection with his retirement from office, do not include any bona fide payment by way of damages for breach of contract or by way of pension in respect of past services, and for the purposes of this subsection the expression " pension " includes any superannuation allowance, superannuation gratuity or similar payment.

(4)Nothing in the two last foregoing sections shall be taken to prejudice the operation of any rule of law requiring disclosure to be made with respect to any such payments as are therein mentioned or with respect to any other like payments made or to be made to the directors of a company.

195Register of directors' shareholdings, &c

(1)Every company shall keep a register showing as respects each director of the company (not being its holding company) the number, description and amount of any shares in or debentures of the company or any other body corporate, being the company's subsidiary or holding company, or a subsidiary of the company's holding company, which are held by or in trust for him or of which he has any right to become the holder (whether on payment or not):

Provided that the register need not include shares in any body corporate which is the wholly-owned subsidiary of another body corporate, and for this purpose a body corporate shall be deemed to be the wholly-owned subsidiary of another if it has no members but that other and that other's wholly-owned subsidiaries and its or their nominees.

(2)Where any shares or debentures fall to be or cease to be recorded in the said register in relation to any director by reason of a transaction entered into after the commencement of this Act and while he is a director, the register shall also show the date of, and price or other consideration for, the transaction:

Provided that where there is an interval between the agreement for any such transaction and the completion thereof, the date shall be that of the agreement.

(3)The nature and extent of a director's interest or right in or over any shares or debentures recorded in relation to him in the said register shall, if he so requires, be indicated in the register.

(4)The company shall not, by virtue of anything done for the purposes of this section, be affected with notice of, or put upon inquiry as to, the rights of any person in relation to any shares or debentures.

(5)The said register shall, subject to the provisions of this section, be kept at the company's registered office and shall be open to inspection during business hours (subject to such reasonable restrictions as the company may by its articles or in general meeting impose, so that not less than two hours in each day be allowed for inspection) as follows:—

(a)during the period beginning fourteen days before the date of the company's annual general meeting and ending three days after the date of its conclusion, it shall be open to the inspection of any member or holder of debentures of the company; and

(b)during that or any other period, it shall be open to the inspection of any person acting on behalf of the Board of Trade. In computing the fourteen days and the three days mentioned in this subsection, any day which is a Saturday or Sunday or a bank holiday shall be disregarded.

(6)Without prejudice to the rights conferred by the last foregoing subsection, the Board of Trade may at any time require a copy of the said register, or any part thereof.

(7)The said register shall also be produced at the commencement of the company's annual general meeting and remain open and accessible during the continuance of the meeting to any person attending the meeting.

(8)If default is made in complying with the last foregoing subsection the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty pounds; and if default is made in complying with subsection (1) or (2) of this section, or if any inspection required under this section is refused or any copy required thereunder is not sent within a reasonable time, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable to a fine not exceeding five hundred pounds and further to a default fine of two pounds.

(9)In the case of any such refusal, the court may by order compel an immediate inspection of the register.

(10)For the purposes of this section—

(a)any person in accordance with whose directions or-instructions the directors of a company are accustomed to act shall be deemed to be a director of the company; and

(b)a director of a company shall be deemed to hold, or to have any interest or right in or over, any shares or debentures if a body corporate other than the company holds them or has that interest or right in or over them, and either—

(i)that body corporate or its directors are accustomed to act in accordance with his directions or instructions; or

(ii)he is entitled to exercise or control the exercise of one third or more of the voting power at any general meeting of that body corporate.

196Particulars in accounts of directors' salaries, pensions, &c

(1)In any accounts of a company laid before it in general meeting, or in a statement annexed thereto, there shall, subject to and in accordance with the provisions of this section, be shown so far as the information is contained in the company's books and papers or the company has the right to obtain it from the persons concerned—

(a)the aggregate amount of the directors' emoluments;

(b)the aggregate amount of directors' or past directors' pensions; and

(c)the aggregate amount of any compensation to directors or past directors in respect of loss of office.

(2)The amount to be shown under paragraph (a) of subsection (1) of this section—

(a)shall include any emoluments paid to or receivable by any person in respect of his services as director of the company or in respect of his services, while director of the company, as director of any subsidiary thereof or otherwise in connection with the management of the affairs of the company or any subsidiary thereof; and

(b)shall distinguish between emoluments in respect of services as director, whether of the company or its subsidiary, and other emoluments;

and for the purposes of this section the expression " emoluments ", in relation to a director, includes fees and percentages, any sums paid by way of expenses allowance in so far as those sums are charged to United Kingdom income tax, any contribution paid in respect of him under any pension scheme and the estimated money value of any other benefits received by him otherwise than in cash.

(3)The amount to be shown under paragraph (b) of the said subsection (1)—

(a)shall not include any pension paid or receivable under a pension scheme if the scheme is such that the contributions thereunder are substantially adequate for the maintenance of the scheme, but save as aforesaid shall include any pension paid or receivable in respect of any such services of a director or past director of the company as are mentioned in the last foregoing subsection, whether to or by him or, on his nomination or by virtue of dependence on or other connection with him, to or by any other person; and

(b)shall distinguish between pensions in respect of services as director, whether of the company or its subsidiary, and other pensions;

and for the purposes of this section the expression " pension " includes any superannuation allowance, superannuation gratuity or similar payment, and the expression " pension scheme " means a scheme for the provision of pensions in respect of services as director or otherwise which is maintained in whole or in part by means of contributions, and the expression "contribution" in relation to a pension scheme means any payment (including an insurance premium) paid for the purposes of the scheme by or in respect of persons rendering services in respect of which pensions will or may become payable under the scheme, except that it does not include any payment in respect of two or more persons if the amount paid in respect of each of them is not ascertainable.

(4)The amount to be shown under paragraph (c) of the said subsection (1)—

(a)shall include any sums paid to or receivable by a director or past director by way of compensation for the loss of office as director of the company or for the loss, while director of the company or on or in connection with his ceasing to be a director of the company, of any other office in connection with the management of the company's affairs or of any office as director or otherwise in connection with the management of the affairs of any subsidiary thereof; and

(b)shall distinguish between compensation in respect of the office of director, whether of the company or its subsidiary, and compensation in respect of other offices;

and for the purposes of this section references to compensation for loss of office shall include sums paid as consideration for or in connection with a person's retirement from office.

(5)The amounts to be shown under each paragraph of the said subsection (1)—

(a)shall include all relevant sums paid by or receivable from—

(i)the company; and

(ii)the company's subsidiaries; and

(iii)any other person;

except sums to be accounted for to the company or any of its subsidiaries or, by virtue of section one hundred and ninety-three of this Act, to past or present members of the company or any of its subsidiaries or any class of those members; and

(b)shall distinguish, in the case of the amount to be shown under paragraph (c) of the said subsection (1), between the sums respectively paid by or receivable from the company, the company's subsidiaries and persons other than the company and its subsidiaries.

(6)The amounts to be shown under this section for any financial year shall be the sums receivable in respect of that year, whenever paid, or, in the case of sums not receivable in respect of a period, the sums paid during that year, so, however, that where—

(a)any sums are not shown in the accounts for the relevant financial year on the ground that the person receiving them is liable to account therefor as mentioned in paragraph (a) of the last foregoing subsection, but the liability is thereafter wholly or partly released or is not enforced within a period of two years; or

(b)any sums paid by way of expenses allowance are charged to United Kingdom income tax after the end of the relevant financial year;

those sums shall, to the extent to which the liability is released or not enforced or they are charged as aforesaid, as the case may be, be shown in the first accounts in which it is practicable to show them or in a statement annexed thereto, and shall be distinguished from the amounts to be shown therein apart from this provision.

(7)Where it is necessary so to do for the purpose of making any distinction required by this section in any amount to be shown thereunder, the directors may apportion any payments between the matters in respect of which they have been paid or are receivable in such manner as they think appropriate.

(8)If in the case of any accounts the requirements of this section are not complied with, it shall be the duty of the auditors of the company by whom the accounts are examined to include in their report thereon, so far as they are reasonably able to do so, a statement giving the required particulars.

(9)In this section any reference to a company's subsidiary—

(a)in relation to a person who is or was, while a director of the company, a director also, by virtue of the company's nomination, direct or indirect, of any other body corporate, shall, subject to the following paragraph, include that body corporate, whether or not it is or was in fact the company's subsidiary; and

(b)shall for the purposes of subsections (2) and (3) be taken as referring to a subsidiary at the time the services were rendered, and for the purposes of subsection (4) be taken as referring to a subsidiary immediately before the loss of office as director of the company.

197Particulars in accounts of loans to officers, &c

(1)The accounts which, in pursuance of this Act, are to be laid before every company in general meeting shall, subject to the provisions of this section, contain particulars showing—

(a)the amount of any loans made during the company's financial year to—

(i)any officer of the company; or

(ii)any person who, after the making of the loan, became during that year an officer of the company;

by the company or a subsidiary thereof or by any other person under a guarantee from or on a security provided by the company or a subsidiary thereof (including any such loans -which were repaid during that year); and

(b)the amount of any loans made in manner aforesaid to any such officer or person as aforesaid at any time before the company's financial year and outstanding at the expiration thereof.

(2)The foregoing subsection shall not require the inclusion in accounts of particulars of—

(a)a loan made in the ordinary course of its business by the company or a subsidiary thereof, where the ordinary business of the company or, as the case may be, the subsidiary, includes the lending of money; or

(b)a loan made by the company or a subsidiary thereof to an employee of the company or subsidiary, as the case may be, if the loan does not exceed two thousand pounds and is certified by the directors of the company or subsidiary, as the case may be, to have been made in accordance with any practice adopted or about to be adopted by the company or subsidiary with respect to loans to its employees;

not being, in either case, a loan made by the company under a guarantee from or on a security provided by a subsidiary thereof or a loan made by a subsidiary of the company under a guarantee from or on a security provided by the company or any other subsidiary thereof.

(3)If in the case of any such accounts as aforesaid the requirements of this section are not complied with, it shall be the duty of the auditors of the company by whom the accounts are examined to include in their report on the balance sheet of the company, so far as they are reasonably able to do so, a statement giving the required particulars.

(4)References in this section to a subsidiary shall be taken as referring to a subsidiary at the end of the company's financial year (whether or not a subsidiary at the date of the loan).

198General duty to make disclosure for purposes of three foregoing sections

(1)It shall be the duty of any director of a company to give notice to the company of such matters relating to himself as may be necessary for the purposes of sections one hundred and ninety-five and one hundred and ninety-six of this Act and of the last foregoing section except so far as it relates to loans made, by the company or by any other person under a guarantee from or on a security provided by the company, to an officer thereof.

(2)Any such notice given for the purposes of the said section one hundred and ninety-five shall be in writing and, if it is not given at a meeting of the directors, the director giving it shall take reasonable steps to secure that it is brought up and read at the next meeting of directors after it is given.

(3)Subsection (1) of this section shall apply—

(a)for the purposes of the last foregoing section, in relation to officers other than directors; and

(b)for the purposes of the said section one hundred and ninety-six and the last foregoing section, in relation to persons who are or have at any time during the preceding five years been officers;

as it applies in relation to directors.

(4)Any person who makes default in complying with the foregoing provisions of this section shall be liable to a fine not exceeding fifty pounds.

199Disclosure by directors of interests in contracts

(1)Subject to the provisions of this section, it shall be the duty of a director of a company who is in any way, whether directly or indirectly, interested in a contract or proposed contract with the company to declare the nature of his interest at a meeting of the directors of the company.

(2)In the case of a proposed contract the declaration required by this section to be made by a director shall be made at the meeting of the directors at which the question of entering into the contract is first taken into consideration, or if the director was not at the date of that meeting interested in the proposed contract, at the next meeting of the directors held after he became so interested, and in a case where the director becomes interested in a contract after it is made, the said declaration shall be made at the first meeting of the directors held after the director becomes so interested.

(3)For the purpose of this section, a general notice given to the directors of a company by a director to the effect that he is a member of a specified company or firm and is to be regarded as interested in any contract which may, after the date of the notice, be made with that company or firm, shall be deemed to be a sufficient declaration of interest in relation to any contract so made:

Provided that no such notice shall be of effect unless either it is given at a meeting of the directors or the director takes reasonable steps to secure that it is brought up and read at the next meeting of the directors after it is given.

(4)Any director who fails to comply with the provisions of this section shall be liable to a fine not exceeding one hundred pounds.

(5)Nothing in this section shall be taken to prejudice the operation of any rule of law restricting directors of a company from having any interest in contracts with the company.

200Register of directors and secretaries

(1)Every company shall keep at its registered office a register of its directors and secretaries.

(2)The said register shall contain the following particulars with respect to each director, that is to say,—

(a)in the case of an individual, his present Christian name and surname, any former Christian name or surname, his usual residential address, his nationality, his business occupation, if any, particulars of any other directorships held by him and, in the case of a company subject to section one hundred and eighty-five of this Act, the date of his birth; and

(b)in the case of a corporation, its corporate name and registered or principal office:

Provided that it shall not be necessary for the register to contain particulars of directorships held by a director in companies of which the company is the wholly-owned subsidiary, or which are the wholly-owned subsidiaries either of the company or of another company of which the company is the wholly-owned subsidiary, and for the purposes of this proviso—

(i)the expression " company " shall include any body corporate incorporated in Great Britain; and

(ii)a body corporate shall be deemed to be the wholly-owned subsidiary of another if it has no members except that other and that other's wholly-owned subsidiaries and its or their nominees.

(3)The said register shall contain the following particulars with respect to the secretary or, where there are joint secretaries, with respect to each of them, that is to say,—

(a)in the case of an individual, his present Christian name and. surname, any former Christian name and surname and his usual residential address; and

(b)in the case of a corporation or a Scottish firm, its corporate or firm name and registered or principal office:

Provided that, where all the partners in a firm are joint secretaries, the name and principal office of the firm may be stated instead of the said particulars.

(4)The company shall, within the periods respectively mentioned in the next following subsection, send to the registrar of companies a return in the prescribed form containing the particulars specified in the said register and a notification in the prescribed form of any change among its directors or in its secretary or in any of the particulars contained in the register, specifying the date of the change.

(5)The periods referred to in the last foregoing subsection are the following, namely,—

(a)the period within which the said return is to be sent shall "be a period of fourteen days from the appointment of the first directors of the company; and

(b)the period within which the said notification of a change is to be sent shall be fourteen days from the happening thereof: Provided that, in the case of a return containing particulars with respect to any person who is the company's secretary at the commencement of this Act, the period shall be fourteen days from the commencement of this Act.

(6)The register to be kept under this section shall during business hours (subject to such reasonable restrictions as the company may by its articles or in general meeting impose, so that not less than two hours in each day be allowed for inspection) be open to the inspection of any member of .the company without charge and of any other person on payment of one shilling, or such less sum as the company may prescribe, for each inspection.

(7)If any inspection required under this section is refused or if default is made in complying with subsection (1), (2), (3), or (4) of this section, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable to a default fine.

(8)In the case of any such refusal, the court may by order compel an immediate inspection of the register.

(9)For the purposes of this section—

(a)a person in accordance with whose directions or instructions the directors of a company are accustomed to act shall be deemed to be a director and officer of the company;

(b)the expression " Christian name " includes a forename;

(c)in the case of a peer or person usually known by a title different from his surname, the expression " surname " means that title;

(d)references to a former Christian name or surname do not include—

(i)in the case of a peer or a person usually known by a British title different from his surname, the name by which he was known previous to the adoption of or succession to the title; or

(ii)in the case of any person, a former Christian name or surname where that name or surname was changed or disused before the person bearing the name attained the age of eighteen years or has been changed or disused for a period of not less than twenty years; or

(iii)in the case of a married woman, the name or surname by which she was known previous to the marriage.

201Particulars with respect to directors in trade catalogues, circulars, &c

(1)Every company to which this section applies shall, in all trade catalogues, trade circulars, showcards and business letters on or in which the company's name appears and which are issued or sent by the company to any person in any part of His Majesty's dominions, state in legible characters with respect to every director being a corporation, the corporate name, and with respect to every director being an individual, the following particulars—

(a)his present Christian name, or the initials thereof, and present surname;

(b)any former Christian names and surnames;

(c)his nationality, if not British:

Provided that, if special circumstances exist which render it in the opinion of the Board of Trade expedient that such an exemption should be granted, the Board may by order grant, subject to such conditions as may be specified in the order, exemption from the obligations imposed by this subsection.

(2)This section shall apply to—

(a)every company registered under this Act or under the Companies Act, 1929, or the Acts repealed thereby unless it was registered before the twenty-third day of November, nineteen hundred and sixteen; and

(b)every company incorporated outside Great Britain which has an established place of business within Great Britain, unless it had established such a place of business before the said date; and

(c)every company licensed under the Moneylenders Act, 1927, whenever it was registered or whenever it established a place of business.

(3)If a company makes default in complying with this section every officer of the company who is hr default shall be liable on summary conviction for each offence to a fine not exceeding five pounds, and for the purposes of this subsection, where a corporation is an officer of the company, any officer of the corporation shall be deemed to be an officer of the company. Provided that in England no proceedings shall be instituted under this section except by, or with the consent of, the Board of Trade.

(4)For the purposes of this section—

(a)the expression " director " includes any person in accordance with whose directions or instructions the directors of the company are accustomed to act and the expression " officer " shah be construed accordingly;

(b)the expression " initials " includes a recognised abbreviation of a Christian name; and

(c)the expression " showcards " means cards containing or exhibiting articles dealt with, or samples or representations thereof;

and paragraphs (b), (c) and (d) of subsection (9) of the last foregoing section shall apply as they apply for the purposes of that section.

202Limited company may have directors with unlimited liability

(1)In a limited company the liability of the directors or managers, or of the managing director, may, if so provided by the memorandum, be unlimited.

(2)In a limited company in which the liability of a director or manager is unlimited, the directors and any managers of the company and the member who proposes a person for election or appointment to the office of director or manager, shall add to that proposal a statement that the liability of the person holding that office will be unlimited, and before the person accepts the office or acts therein, notice in writing that his liability will be unlimited shall be given to him by the following or one of the following persons, namely, the promoters of the company, the directors of the company, any managers of the company and the secretary of the company.

(3)If any director, manager or proposer makes default in adding such a statement, or if any promoter, director, manager or secretary makes default in giving such a notice, he shall be liable to a fine not exceeding one hundred pounds, and shall also be liable for any damage which the person so elected or appointed may sustain from the default, but the liability of the person elected or appointed shall not be affected by the default.

203Special resolution of limited company making liability of directors unlimited

(1)A limited company, if so authorised by its articles, may, by special resolution, alter its memorandum so as to render unlimited the liability of its directors or managers, or of any managing director.

(2)Upon the passing of any such special resolution the provisions thereof shall be as valid as if they had been originally contained in the memorandum.

204Provisions as to assignment of office by directors

If in the case of any company provision is made by the articles or by any agreement entered into between any person and the company for empowering a director or manager of the company to assign his office as such to another person, any assignment of office made in pursuance of the said provision shall, notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in the said provision, be of no effect unless and until it is approved by a special resolution of the company.

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