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The Air Quality Standards (Scotland) Regulations 2010

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Regulation 7(1)

SCHEDULE 1Sampling points for measurement of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter, lead, benzene and carbon monoxide in ambient air

PART 1

General

1.  Ambient air quality must be assessed at sampling points located in accordance with this Schedule, except those listed in paragraph 2.

2.  Compliance with limit values directed at the protection of human health shall not be assessed at the following locations:—

(a)any location situated within areas where members of the public do not have access and there is no fixed habitation;

(b)on factory premises or at industrial locations to which all relevant provisions concerning health and safety at work apply;

(c)on the carriageway of roads and on the central reservations of roads except where there is normally pedestrian access to the central reservation.

3.  Insofar as they are relevant, the principles set out in this Schedule also apply to indicative measurement and modelling.

PART 2

Macroscale siting of sampling points (sampling points for the protection of human health)

1.  Sampling points directed at the protection of human health must be sited to provide data on—

(a)the areas within zones where the highest concentrations occur to which the population is likely to be directly or indirectly exposed for a period which is significant in relation to the averaging period of the limit value(s); and

(b)levels in other areas within the zones which are representative of the exposure of the general population.

2.  Sampling points must in general be sited to avoid measuring very small micro-environments in their immediate vicinity. Where feasible, sampling points must be located so as to be representative of air quality in a street segment of no less than 100m in length at traffic-orientated sites or an area of at least 250m x 250m at industrial sites.

3.  Sampling points in urban background locations must be located so that their pollution level is influenced by the combined contribution from all sources upwind of the station. The pollution level should not be dominated by a single source unless such a situation is typical for a larger urban area. Those sampling points must, as a general rule, be representative for several square kilometres.

4.  Where the objective is to assess rural background levels, the sampling point must not be influenced by agglomerations or industrial sites in its vicinity, i.e. closer than five kilometres.

5.  Where contributions from industrial sources are to be assessed, at least one sampling point must be installed downwind of the source in the nearest residential area. Where the background concentration is not known, an additional sampling point must be situated within the main wind direction.

6.  Sampling points must also, where possible, be representative of similar locations not in their immediate vicinity.

7.  Account must be taken of the need to locate sampling points on islands, where that is necessary for the protection of human health.

Macroscale siting of sampling points (sampling points for the protection of ecosystems and vegetation)

8.  Sampling points targeted at the protection of ecosystems or vegetation must be sited more than 20 km away from agglomerations or more than 5 km away from other built-up areas, industrial installations or motorways or major roads with traffic counts of more than 50,000 vehicles per day.

9.  Sampling points must be located so as to be representative of air quality in a surrounding area of at least 1000 km². A sampling point may be sited at a lesser distance or to be representative of air quality in a less extended area, taking account of geographical conditions or opportunities to protect particularly vulnerable areas. Account must be taken of the need to assess air quality on islands.

PART 3

Microscale siting of sampling points

1.  Insofar as is practicable, sampling points must be situated in accordance with the following criteria:—

(a)the flow around the inlet sampling probe must be unrestricted (free in an arc of at least 270°) without any obstructions affecting the airflow in the vicinity of the sampler and the inlet sampling probe must normally be some metres away from buildings, balconies, trees and other obstacles and at least 0.5 m from the nearest building in the case of sampling points representing air quality at the building line;

(b)in general, the inlet sampling point must be between 1.5 m (the breathing zone) and 4 m above the ground. However, higher positions (up to 8 m) may be necessary in some circumstances. Higher siting may also be appropriate if the station is representative of a large area;

(c)the inlet probe must not be positioned in the immediate vicinity of sources in order to avoid the direct intake of emissions unmixed with ambient air;

(d)the sampler’s exhaust outlet must be positioned so that recirculation of exhaust air to the sampler inlet is avoided;

(e)in relation to the location of traffic-orientated samplers sampling points must be at least 25 m from the edge of major junctions and no more than 10m from the kerbside.

2.  The following factors may also be taken into account:—

(a)interfering sources;

(b)security;

(c)access;

(d)availability of electrical power and telephone communications;

(e)visibility of the site in relation to its surroundings;

(f)safety of public and operators;

(g)the desirability of co-locating sampling points for different pollutants;

(h)planning requirements.

Regulations 17(1) and (2),19(2), 24(1) and (4), 25(5), 28(2)

SCHEDULE 2Limit values

Sulphur dioxide

Averaging periodLimit value
One hour350 μg/m3 not to be exceeded more than 24 times a calendar year
One day125 μg/m3 not to be exceeded more than 3 times a calendar year

Nitrogen dioxide

Averaging periodLimit value
One hour200 μg/m3 not to be exceeded more than 18 times a calendar year
Calendar year40 μg/m3

Benzene

Averaging periodLimit value
Calendar year5 µg/m3

Carbon monoxide

Averaging periodLimit value
The maximum daily eight hour mean concentration of carbon monoxide must be selected by examining eight hour running averages, calculated from hourly data and updated each hour. Each eight hour average so calculated will be assigned to the day on which it ends, i.e. the first calculation period for any one day will be the period from 1700 hours on the previous day to 0100 hours on that day, the last calculation period for any one day will be the period from 1600 hours to 2400 hours on that day.
Maximum daily eight hour mean10 mg/m3

Lead

Averaging periodLimit value
Calendar year0.5 µg/m3

PM10

Averaging periodLimit value
One day50 µg/m3, not to be exceeded more than 35 times a calendar year
Calendar year40 µg/m3

PM2.5

Averaging periodLimit valueMargin of toleranceDate by which limit value is to be met
Calendar year25 µg/m320% on 11th June 2008, decreasing on the next 1st January and every 12 months thereafter by equal annual percentages to reach 0% by 1st January 20151st January 2015

Regulations 18(1), 24(1) and (3),25(5), 28(2)

SCHEDULE 3Target values

Arsenic, cadmium, nickel and benzo(a)pyrene

PollutantTarget value for the total content in the PM10 fraction averaged over a calendar yearDate by which target value should be met
Arsenic6 ng/m3

31st December 2012

Cadmium5 ng/m3

31st December 2012

Nickel20 ng/m3

31st December 2012

Benzo(a)pyrene1 ng/m3

31st December 2012

Ozone

ObjectiveAveraging periodTarget value
(a)

The maximum daily eight hour mean concentration must be selected by examining eight hour running averages, calculated from hourly data and updated each hour. Each eight hour average so calculated must be assigned to the day on which it ends, that is, the first calculation period for any one day will be the period from 1700 hours on the previous day to 0100 hours on that day; the last calculation period for any one day will be the period from 1600 hours to 2400 hours on the day.

(b)

If the three or five year averages cannot be determined on the basis of a full and consecutive set of annual data, the minimum annual data required for checking compliance with target values will be as follows:—

(i)

for the target value for the protection of human health: valid data for one year; and

(ii)

for the target value for the protection of vegetation: valid data for three years.

Protection of human healthMaximum daily eight hour mean(a)120 µg/m3 not to be exceeded on more than 25 days per calendar year averaged over three years(b)
Protection of vegetationMay to JulyAOT 40 (calculated from 1h values) 18,000 µg/m3 .h averaged over five years(b)

PM2.5

Averaging periodTarget value
Calendar year25 µg/m3

Regulations 8(2), 20(1), 28(2)

SCHEDULE 4Long term objectives for ozone

ObjectiveAveraging periodLong term objective
Protection of human healthMaximum daily eight hour mean within a calendar year120 µg/m3
Protection of vegetationMay to JulyAOT 40 (calculated from 1h values) 6000 μg/m3.h.

Regulations 21, 25(1) and (3),28(2)

SCHEDULE 5Information and alert thresholds

Alert thresholds for Sulphur dioxide and Nitrogen dioxide

PollutantAlert threshold(a)
(a)

To be measured over three consecutive hours at locations representative of air quality over at least 100 km2 or an entire zone, whichever is smaller.

Sulphur dioxide500 µg/m3
Nitrogen dioxide400 µg/m3

Information and alert thresholds for ozone

PurposeAveraging periodThreshold
Information1 hour180 µg/m3
Alert1 hour240 µg/m3

Regulation 22

SCHEDULE 6Critical levels for the protection of vegetation

Sulphur dioxide

Averaging periodCritical level
Calendar year and winter (1 October to 31 March)20 µg/m3

Oxides of Nitrogen

Averaging periodCritical level
Calendar year30 µg/m3 NOx

Regulation 24(6)

SCHEDULE 7Information to be included in air quality plans

1.  Localisation of excess pollution—

(a)region;

(b)city (map);

(c)measuring station (map, geographical co-ordinates).

2.  General information—

(a)type of zone (city, industrial, rural);

(b)estimate of the polluted area (km2) and of the population exposed to the pollution;

(c)useful climatic data;

(d)relevant data on topography; and

(e)sufficient information on the type of targets requiring protection in the zone.

3.  Responsible authorities (names and addresses of persons responsible for the development and implementation of air quality plans).

4.  Nature and assessment of pollution—

(a)concentrations observed over previous years (before the implementation of the improvement measures);

(b)concentrations measured since the beginning of the project; and

(c)techniques used for the assessment.

5.  Origin of pollution—

(a)list of the main emission sources responsible for pollution (map);

(b)total quantity of emissions from these sources (tonnes per year); and

(c)information on pollution imported from other regions.

6.  Analysis of the situation—

(a)details of those factors responsible for exceeding the limit value or target value (transport, including cross-border transport, formation of secondary pollutants in the atmosphere); and

(b)details of possible measures for improvement of air quality.

7.  Details of those measures or projects for improvements which existed prior to 11th June 2008—

(a)local, regional, national and international measures; and

(b)observed effects of those measures.

8.  Details of those measures or projects adopted with a view to reducing pollution following 11th June 2008—

(a)listing and description of all the measures set out in the project;

(b)timetable for implementation;

(c)estimate of the improvement of air quality planned and of the expected time required to attain these objectives.

9.  Details of the measures or projects planned or being researched for the long term.

10.  List of the publications, documents and work etc. used to supplement information required by this Schedule.

Regulation 27(2)

SCHEDULE 8Public information in relation to information and alert thresholds for nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and ozone

1.  In cases where either the information threshold or the alert threshold for nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide or ozone are exceeded the details set out in paragraphs 3 to 6 must, as a minimum, be made available to the public.

2.  In cases where either the information or alert thresholds are predicted to be exceeded, the information set out in paragraphs 3 to 6 must be provided where practicable.

3.  Information on any incident where information or alert thresholds are exceeded—

(a)the location or area where thresholds are exceeded;

(b)the type of threshold exceeded (information or alert threshold);

(c)the time at which the threshold was exceeded and the duration of the incident; and

(d)the highest 1-hour and (in the case of ozone) 8-hour mean concentration.

4.  Forecast for the following afternoon, day and days—

(a)the geographical area in which it is expected that an information or alert threshold will be exceeded; and

(b)the expected changes in pollution (that is, improvement, stabilisation or deterioration), together with the reasons for those changes.

5.  Information on the type of population concerned, possible health effects and recommended conduct in particular—

(a)information on the population groups at risk;

(b)description of likely symptoms;

(c)recommended precautions to be taken by the population concerned; and

(d)where to find further information.

6.  Information provided under this Schedule must also include—

(a)information on preventive action to reduce pollution or exposure to it;

(b)an indication of main source sectors; and

(c)recommendations for action to reduce emissions.

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