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The Welfare of Farmed Animals (Scotland) Regulations 2000

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Regulation 6



1.—(1) Calves must not be confined in an individual stall or pen after the age of eight weeks unless a veterinary surgeon certifies that its health or behaviour requires it to be isolated in order to receive treatment.

(2) The width of any individual stall or pen for a calf must be at least equal to the height of the calf at the withers, measured in the standing position, and the length must be at least equal to the body length of the calf, measured from the tip of the nose to the caudal edge of the tuber ischii (pin bone), multiplied by 1.1.

(3) Individual stalls or pens for calves (except for those isolating sick animals) must have perforated walls which allow calves to have direct visual and tactile contact.

(4) For calves kept in groups, the unobstructed space allowance available to each calf must be–

(a)at least 1.5 square metres for each calf with a live weight of less than 150 kg;

(b)at least 2 square metres for each calf with a live weight of 150 kg or more but less than 200 kg; and

(c)at least 3 square metres for each calf with a live weight of 200 kg or more.

(5) Each calf must be able to stand up, turn around, lie down, rest and groom itself without hindrance.

(6) Subject to sub-paragraphs (7) and (8), each calf that is kept on a holding on which two or more calves are kept must be able to see at least one other calf.

(7) Sub-paragraph (6) does not apply to any calf that is kept in isolation on a holding on veterinary advice.

(8) For the purpose of calculating the number of calves being kept on a holding in order to determine whether sub-paragraph (6) applies, no account is to be taken of any calf that is being kept in isolation on that holding on veterinary advice.

Transitional provisions for accommodation

2.—(1) Until 1st January 2004 sub-paragraphs (1), (3) and (4) of paragraph 1 do not apply in relation to accommodation in use before 1st January 1998.

(2) Until 1st January 2004, in the case of accommodation brought into use after 1st January 1994 but before 1st January 1998–

(a)where calves are housed in groups, each calf of 150 kg or more live weight must have at least 1.5 square metres of unobstructed floor space, and

(b)where a calf is housed in an individual stall or pen, the stall or pen must have at least one perforated wall which enables the calf to see other animals in neighbouring stalls and pens unless isolated for veterinary reasons.


3.  All housed calves must be inspected by the owner or keeper of the calves at least twice a day.

4.  Calves which are kept outside must be inspected by the owner or keeper of the calves at least once a day.

5.  Where necessary, sick or injured calves must be isolated in suitable accommodation with dry comfortable bedding.


6.—(1) Calves must not be tethered, with the exception of group-housed calves which may be tethered for a period of not more than one hour when being fed milk or milk substitute.

(2) Where tethers are used in accordance with the preceding sub-paragraph, they must not cause pain or injury to the calves and must be inspected regularly and adjusted as necessary to ensure a comfortable fit.

(3) E ach tether must be designed to avoid the risk of strangulation or pain or injury and allow the calf to lie down, rest, stand up and groom itself without hindrance.

Artificially lit buildings

7.  Where calves are kept in an artificially lit building then, subject to paragraphs 14 and 16 of Schedule 1, artificial lighting must be provided for a period at least equivalent to the period of natural light normally available between 9.00 a.m. and 5.00 pm.

Cleaning and disinfection

8.—(1) Housing, stalls, pens, equipment and utensils used for calves must be properly cleaned and disinfected to prevent cross-infection and the build-up of disease-carrying organisms.

(2) Faeces, urine and uneaten or spilt food must be removed as often as necessary to minimise smell and to avoid attracting flies or rodents.


9.  Where calves are kept in a building, floors must–

(a)be smooth but not slippery so as to prevent injury to the calves;

(b)be so designed as not to cause injury or suffering to calves standing or lying on them;

(c)be suitable for the size and weight of the calves; and

(d)form a rigid, even and stable surface.

Bedding and lying area

10.—(1) All calves must be provided with appropriate well-maintained bedding.

(2) All calves must be kept on, or at all times have access to, a lying area which is clean, comfortable and does not adversely affect the calves and is well drained.

(3) All housed calves and calves kept in temporary structures must be kept on, or at all times have access to, a lying area which is well maintained with dry bedding.

Bovine colostrum

11.  Each calf must receive bovine colostrum as soon as possible after it is born and in any case within the first six hours of life.

Additional dietary requirements

12.—(1) All calves must be provided with food which contains sufficient iron to ensure a blood haemoglobin level of at least 4.5mmol/litre.

(2) A minimum daily ration of fibrous food must be provided for each calf over 2 weeks old, the quantity being raised in line with the growth of the calf from a minimum of 100 g at 2 weeks old to a minimum of 250 g at 20 weeks old.


13.  Calves must not be muzzled.


14.—(1) All calves must be fed at least twice a day.

(2) Where calves are housed in a group and do not have continuous access to feed, or are not fed by an automatic feeding system, each calf must have access to food at the same time as the others in the feeding group.

Drinking water

15.—(1) Subject to sub-paragraph (2), all calves must be provided with a sufficient quantity of fresh drinking water each day.

(2) Calves must be provided with fresh drinking water at all times–

(a)in hot weather conditions; or

(b)when they are ill.

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