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The Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2018

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1.  Practitioners and operators must have successfully completed training, including theoretical knowledge and practical experience, in—

(a)such of the subjects detailed in Table 1 as are relevant to their functions as practitioner or operator; and

(b)such of the subjects detailed in Table 2 as are relevant to their specific area of practice.

Table 1

Radiation production, radiation protection and statutory obligations relating to ionising radiations

Fundamental Physics of Radiation
Properties of RadiationExcitation and ionisation
Attenuation of ionising radiation
Scattering and absorption
Radiation Hazards and DosimetryBiological effects of radiation – stochastic and deterministic
Risks and benefits of radiation
Absorbed dose, equivalent dose, effective dose, other dose indicators and their units
Management and Radiation Protection of the individual being exposed
Special Attention AreasPregnancy and potential pregnancy
Asymptomatic individuals
Breastfeeding
Infants and children
Medical and biomedical research
Health screening
Non-medical imaging
Carers and comforters
High dose techniques
JustificationJustification of the individual exposure
Use of existing appropriate radiological information
Alternative techniques
Radiation ProtectionDiagnostic reference levels
Dose constraints
Dose optimisation
Dose reduction devices and techniques
Dose recording and dose audit
General radiation protection
Quality assurance and quality control including routine inspection and testing of equipment
Risk communication
Use of radiation protection devices
Statutory Requirements and Non-Statutory Regulations
Regulations
Non-statutory guidance
Local procedures and protocols
Individual responsibilities relating to exposures
Responsibility for radiation safety
Clinical audit

Table 2

Diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine

All Modalities
GeneralFundamentals of radiological anatomy
Factors affecting radiation dose
Dosimetry
Fundamentals of clinical evaluation
Identification of the individual being exposed
Diagnostic radiology
GeneralPrinciples of radiological techniques
Production of X-rays
Equipment selection and use
Specialised TechniquesComputed Tomography: advanced applications
Interventional procedures
Cone Beam Computed Tomography
Hybrid imaging
Fundamentals of Image Acquisition etc.Optimisation of image quality and radiation dose
Image formats, acquisition, processing, display and storage
Contrast MediaUse and preparation
Contraindications
Use of contrast injection systems
Radiotherapy
GeneralProduction of ionising radiation
Treatment of malignant disease
Treatment of benign disease
Principles of external beam radiotherapy
Principles of brachytherapy
Specialised TechniquesIntra-operative radiotherapy
Stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery
Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy
Proton therapy
MR Linac therapy
Radiobiological Aspects for RadiotherapyFractionation
Dose rate
Radiosensitisation
Target volumes
Practical Aspects for RadiotherapyLocalisation equipment selection
Therapy equipment selection
Verification techniques including on-treatment imaging
Treatment planning systems
Radiation Protection Specific to RadiotherapySide effects – early and late
Toxicity
Assessment of efficacy
Nuclear Medicine
GeneralAtomic structure and radioactivity
Radioactive decay
Principles of molecular imaging and non-imaging exposures
Principles of molecular radiotherapy
Molecular RadiotherapyDose rate
Fractionation
Radiobiology aspects
Radiosensitisation
Specialised TechniquesQuantative imaging – advanced applications
Hybrid imaging – advanced applications
Selective Internal Radiation Therapy
Principles of Radiation Detection, Instrumentation and EquipmentTypes of detection systems
Optimisation of image quality and radiation dose
Image acquisition, artefacts, processing, display and storage
RadiopharmaceuticalsCalibration
Working practices in the radiopharmacy
Preparation of individual doses
Radiation Protection Specific to Nuclear MedicineConception, pregnancy and breastfeeding
Arrangements for radioactive individuals

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