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The Employment Rights (Northern Ireland) Order 1996

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N.I.

Statutory Instruments

1996 No. 1919 (N.I. 16)

The Employment Rights (Northern Ireland) Order 1996 F1

23rd July 1996

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F1functions transfered SR 1999/481

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

PART IN.I.INTRODUCTORY AND INTERPRETATION

CHAPTER IN.I.CITATION AND COMMENCEMENT

Citation and commencementN.I.

1.—(1) This Order may be cited as the Employment Rights (Northern Ireland) Order 1996.

(2) This Order shall come into operation on the expiration of 2 months from the day on which it is made.

CHAPTER IIN.I.INTERPRETATION – GENERAL

Interpretation – generalN.I.

2.—(1) Subject to paragraph (2), the [1954 c. 33 (N.I.).] Interpretation Act (Northern Ireland) 1954 shall apply to Article 1 and the following provisions of this Order as it applies to a Measure of the Northern Ireland Assembly.

(2) For the purposes of this Order, section 20(2) of the Interpretation Act (Northern Ireland) 1954 applies with the omission of the words “the liability of whose members is limited” and, where the affairs of a body corporate are managed by its members, applies in relation to the acts and defaults of a member in connection with his functions of management as if he were a director of the body corporate.

(3) In this Order—

  • “act” and “action” each includes omission and references to doing an act or taking action shall be construed accordingly,

  • “the Agency” means the Labour Relations Agency,

  • “basic award of compensation for unfair dismissal” shall be construed in accordance with Article 152,

  • “business” includes a trade or profession and includes any activity carried on by a body of persons (whether corporate or unincorporated),

  • “childbirth” means the birth of a living child or the birth of a child whether living or dead after twenty-four weeks of pregnancy,

  • “collective agreement” has the meaning given by Article 2(2) of the 1992 Order,

  • “the Department” means the Department of Economic Development,

  • “dismissal procedures agreement” means an agreement in writing with respect to procedures relating to dismissal made by or on behalf of one or more independent trade unions and one or more employers or employers' associations,

  • “employers' association” has the meaning given by Article 4(1) and (2) of the 1992 Order,

  • “expected week of childbirth” means the week, beginning with midnight between Saturday and Sunday, in which it is expected that childbirth will occur,

  • “guarantee payment” has the meaning given by Article 60,

  • “independent trade union” means a trade union which—

    (a)

    is not under the domination or control of an employer or a group of employers or of one or more employers' associations, and

    (b)

    is not liable to interference by an employer or any such group or association (arising out of the provision of financial or material support or by any other means whatever) tending towards such control,

  • “job”, in relation to an employee, means the nature of the work which he is employed to do in accordance with his contract and the capacity and place in which he is so employed,

  • [F2“limited-term contract” means a contract of employment whereby—

    (a)

    the employment under the contract is not intended to be permanent, and

    (b)

    provision is accordingly made in the contract for it to terminate by virtue of a limiting event.]

  • [F2“limiting event”, in relation to a contract of employment means—

    (a)

    in the case of a contract for a fixed-term, the expiry of the term,

    (b)

    in the case of a contract made in contemplation of the performance of a specific task, the performance of the task, and

    (c)

    in the case of a contract which provides for its termination on the occurrence of an event (or the failure of an event to occur), the occurrence of the event (or the failure of the event to occur).]

  • Definitions rep. by 1999 NI 9

  • “officer” and “official”, in relation to a trade union, have the same meaning as in the Trade Union and Labour Relations Order,

  • [F3“paternity leave” means leave under Article 112A or 112B,]

  • “position”, in relation to an employee, means the following matters taken as a whole—

    (a)

    his status as an employee,

    (b)

    the nature of his work, and

    (c)

    his terms and conditions of employment,

  • [F4“protected disclosure” has the meaning given by Article 67A,]

  • “recognised”, in relation to a trade union, has the same meaning as in Part V of the 1992 Order,

  • “redundancy payment” has the meaning given by Part XII,

  • “relevant date” has the meaning given by Articles 180 and 188,

  • “renewal” includes extension, and any reference to renewing a contract or a fixed term shall be construed accordingly,

  • “statutory provision” has the meaning given by section 1(f) of the [1954 c. 33 (N.I.).] Interpretation Act (Northern Ireland) 1954,

  • “successor”, in relation to the employer of an employee, means (subject to paragraph (4)) a person who in consequence of a change occurring (whether by virtue of a sale or other disposition or by operation of law) in the ownership of the undertaking, or of the part of the undertaking, for the purposes of which the employee was employed, has become the owner of the undertaking or part,

  • “trade union” has the meaning given by Article 3(1) of the 1992 Order,

  • “the Trade Union and Labour Relations Order” means the [1995 NI 12.] Trade Union and Labour Relations (Northern Ireland) Order 1995,

  • “the 1992 Order” means the [1992 NI 5.] Industrial Relations (Northern Ireland) Order 1992,

  • “week”

    (a)

    in Chapter III of this Part means a week ending with Saturday, and

    (b)

    otherwise, except in[F3 Articles 112A, 112B and 118], means, in relation to an employee whose remuneration is calculated weekly by a week ending with a day other than Saturday, a week ending with that other day and, in relation to any other employee, a week ending with Saturday.

(4) The definition of “successor” in paragraph (3) has effect (subject to the necessary modifications) in relation to a case where—

(a)the person by whom an undertaking or part of an undertaking is owned immediately before a change is one of the persons by whom (whether as partners, trustees or otherwise) it is owned immediately after the change, or

(b)the persons by whom an undertaking or part of an undertaking is owned immediately before a change (whether as partners, trustees or otherwise) include the persons by whom, or include one or more of the persons by whom, it is owned immediately after the change,

as it has effect where the previous owner and the new owner are wholly different persons.

(5) References in this Order (except Part XIII) to redundancy, dismissal by reason of redundancy and similar expressions shall be construed in accordance with Article 174.

(6) In Articles 12(3), 171(2) and 189 “lock-out” means—

(a)the closing of a place of employment,

(b)the suspension of work, or

(c)the refusal by an employer to continue to employ any number of persons employed by him in consequence of a dispute,

done with a view to compelling persons employed by the employer, or to aid another employer in compelling persons employed by him, to accept terms or conditions of or affecting employment. n

(7) In Articles 12(1) and (2), 123(2), 175(2) and (3), 178(1), 179(2) and (3) and 189 “strike” means—

(a)the cessation of work by a body of employed persons acting in combination, or

(b)a concerted refusal, or a refusal under a common understanding, of any number of employed persons to continue to work for an employer in consequence of a dispute,

done as a means of compelling their employer or any employed person or body of employed persons, or to aid other employees in compelling their employer or any employed person or body of employed persons, to accept or not to accept terms or conditions of or affecting employment.

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F2SR 2002/298

Employees, workersN.I.

3.—(1) In this Order “employee” means an individual who has entered into or works under (or, where the employment has ceased, worked under) a contract of employment.

(2) In this Order “contract of employment” means a contract of service or apprenticeship, whether express or implied, and (if it is express) whether oral or in writing.

(3) In this Order “worker” means an individual who has entered into or works under (or, where the employment has ceased, worked under)—

(a)a contract of employment, or

(b)any other contract, whether express or implied and (if it is express) whether oral or in writing, whereby the individual undertakes to do or perform personally any work or services for another party to the contract whose status is not by virtue of the contract that of a client or customer of any profession or business undertaking carried on by the individual;

and any reference to a worker's contract shall be construed accordingly.

(4) In this Order “employer”, in relation to an employee or a worker, means the person by whom the employee or worker is (or, where the employment has ceased, was) employed.

(5) In this Order “employment”

(a)in relation to an employee, means (except for the purposes of Article 206) employment under a contract of employment, and

(b)in relation to a worker, means employment under his contract;

and “employed” shall be construed accordingly.

[F5(6) This Article has effect subject to Articles 67K and 70B(3); and for the purposes of Part XV so far as relating to Part VA or Article 70B, “worker”, “worker's contract” and, in relation to a worker, “employer”, “employment” and “employed” have the extended meaning given by Article 67K.]

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Associated employersN.I.

4.  For the purposes of this Order any two employers shall be treated as associated if—

(a)one is a company of which the other (directly or indirectly) has control, or

(b)both are companies of which a third person (directly or indirectly) has control;

and “associated employer” shall be construed accordingly.

Normal working hoursN.I.

5.—(1) Where an employee is entitled to overtime pay when employed for more than a fixed number of hours in a week or other period, there are for the purposes of this Order normal working hours in his case.

(2) Subject to paragraph (3), the normal working hours in such a case are the fixed number of hours.

(3) Where in such a case—

(a)the contract of employment fixes the number, or minimum number, of hours of employment in a week or other period (whether or not it also provides for the reduction of that number or minimum in certain circumstances), and

(b)that number or minimum number of hours exceeds the number of hours without overtime,

the normal working hours are that number or minimum number of hours (and not the number of hours without overtime).

CHAPTER IIIN.I.CONTINUOUS EMPLOYMENT

IntroductoryN.I.

6.—(1) References in any provision of this Order to a period of continuous employment are (unless provision is expressly made to the contrary) to a period computed in accordance with this Chapter.

(2) In computing an employee's period of continuous employment for the purposes of any provision of this Order, any question—

(a)whether the employee's employment is of a kind counting towards a period of continuous employment, or

(b)whether periods (consecutive or otherwise) are to be treated as forming a single period of continuous employment,

shall be determined week by week; but where it is necessary to compute the length of an employee's period of employment it shall be computed in months and years of twelve months in accordance with Article 7.

(3) Subject to Articles 11 to 13, a week which does not count in computing the length of a period of continuous employment breaks continuity of employment.

(4) A person's employment during any period shall, unless the contrary is shown, be presumed to have been continuous.

Period of continuous employmentN.I.

7.—(1) An employee's period of continuous employment for the purposes of any provision of this Order—

(a)(subject to [F6paragraph] (3)) begins with the day on which the employee starts work, and

(b)ends with the day by reference to which the length of the employee's period of continuous employment is to be ascertained for the purposes of the provision.

(2) F7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(3) If an employee's period of continuous employment includes one or more periods which (by virtue of Article 11, 12 or 13) while not counting in computing the length of the period do not break continuity of employment, the beginning of the period shall be treated as postponed by the number of days falling within that intervening period, or the aggregate number of days falling within those periods, calculated in accordance with the Article in question.

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Weeks counting in computing periodN.I.

8.—(1) Any week during the whole or part of which an employee's relations with his employer are governed by a contract of employment counts in computing the employee's period of employment.

Para. (2) rep. by 1999 NI 9

(3) Subject to paragraph (4), any week (not within paragraph (1)) during the whole or part of which an employee is—

(a)incapable of work in consequence of sickness or injury,

(b)absent from work on account of a temporary cessation of work,[F8 or]

(c)absent from work in circumstances such that, by arrangement or custom, he is regarded as continuing in the employment of his employer for any purpose,F8. . .

Sub‐para. (d) rep. by 1999 NI 9

counts in computing the employee's period of employment.

(4) Not more than twenty-six weeks count under paragraph (3)(a)F8. . . between any periods falling under paragraph (1).

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Intervals in employmentN.I.

9.—(1) Where in the case of an employee a date later than the date which would be the effective date of termination by virtue of paragraph (1) of Article 129 is treated for certain purposes as the effective date of termination by virtue of paragraph (2) or (4) of that Article the period of the interval between the two dates counts as a period of employment in ascertaining for the purposes of Article 140(1) or 153(1) the period for which the employee has been continuously employed.

(2) Where an employee is by virtue of Article 173(1) regarded for the purposes of Part XII as not having been dismissed by reason of a renewal or re-engagement taking effect after an interval, the period of the interval counts as a period of employment in ascertaining for the purposes of Article 190 or 197(1) the period for which the employee has been continuously employed (except so far as it is to be disregarded under Article 10 or 11).

(3) Where in the case of an employee a date later than the date which would be the relevant date by virtue of paragraphs (2) to (4) of Article 180 is treated for certain purposes as the relevant date by virtue of paragraph (5) of that Article, the period of the interval between the two dates counts as a period of employment in ascertaining for the purposes of Article 190 or 197(1) the period for which the employee has been continuously employed (except so far as it is to be disregarded under Article 10 or 11).

Special provisions for redundancy paymentsN.I.

10.—(1) This Article applies where a period of continuous employment has to be determined in relation to an employee for the purposes of the application of Article 190 or 197(1).

(2) The continuity of a period of employment is broken where—

(a)a redundancy payment has previously been paid to the employee (whether in respect of dismissal or in respect of lay-off or short-time), and

(b)the contract of employment under which the employee was employed was renewed (whether by the same or another employer) or the employee was re-engaged under a new contract of employment (whether by the same or another employer).

(3) The continuity of a period of employment is also broken where—

(a)a payment has been made to the employee (whether in respect of the termination of his employment or lay-off or short-time) in accordance with a scheme under Article 3 of the [1972 NI 10.] Superannuation (Northern Ireland) Order 1972 or arrangements falling within Article 212(3) or (4), and

(b)he commenced new, or renewed, employment.

(4) The date on which the person's continuity of employment is broken by virtue of this Article—

(a)if the employment was under a contract of employment, is the date which was the relevant date in relation to the payment mentioned in paragraph (2)(a) or (3)(a), and

(b)if the employment was otherwise than under a contract of employment, is the date which would have been the relevant date in relation to the payment mentioned in paragraph (2)(a) or (3)(a) had the employment been under a contract of employment.

(5) For the purposes of this Article a redundancy payment shall be treated as having been paid if—

(a)the whole of the payment has been paid to the employee by the employer,

(b)a tribunal has determined liability and found that the employer must pay part (but not all) of the redundancy payment and the employer has paid that part, or

(c)the Department has paid a sum to the employee in respect of the redundancy payment under Article 202.

Employment abroad etc.N.I.

11.—(1) This Chapter applies to a period of employment—

(a)(subject to the following provisions of this Article) even where during the period the employee was engaged in work wholly or mainly outside Northern Ireland, and

(b)even where the employee was excluded by or under this Order from any right conferred by this Order.

(2) For the purposes of Articles 190 and 197(1) a week of employment does not count in computing a period of employment if the employee—

(a)was employed outside Northern Ireland during the whole or part of the week, and

(b)was not during that week an employed earner for the purposes of the [1992 c. 7.] Social Security Contributions and Benefits (Northern Ireland) Act 1992 in respect of whom a secondary Class 1 contribution was payable under that Act (whether or not the contribution was in fact paid).

(3) Where by virtue of paragraph (2) a week of employment does not count in computing a period of employment, the continuity of the period is not broken by reason only that the week does not count in computing the period; and the number of days which, for the purposes of Article 7(3), fall within the intervening period is seven for each week within this paragraph.

(4) Any question arising under paragraph (2) whether—

(a)a person was an employed earner for the purposes of the [1992 c. 7.] Social Security Contributions and Benefits (Northern Ireland) Act 1992, or

(b)if so, whether a secondary Class 1 contribution was payable in respect of him under that Act,

shall be determined by[F9 an officer of the Commissioners of Inland Revenue].

[F9(5) Part III of the Social Security Contributions (Transfer of Functions etc.) (Northern Ireland) Order 1999 (decisions and appeals) shall apply in relation to the determination of any issue by the Commissioners of Inland Revenue under paragraph (4) as if it were a decision falling within Article 7(1) of that Order.]

(6) Paragraph (2) does not apply in relation to a person who is—

(a)employed as a master or seaman in a British ship, and

(b)ordinarily resident in Northern Ireland.

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F9SI 1999/671

Industrial disputesN.I.

12.—(1) A week does not count under Article 8 if during the week, or any part of the week, the employee takes part in a strike.

(2) The continuity of an employee's period of employment is not broken by a week which does not count under this Chapter (whether or not by virtue only of paragraph (1)) if during the week, or any part of the week, the employee takes part in a strike; and the number of days which, for the purposes of Article 7(3), fall within the intervening period is the number of days between the last working day before the strike and the day on which work was resumed.

(3) The continuity of an employee's period of employment is not broken by a week if during the week, or any part of the week, the employee is absent from work because of a lock-out by the employer; and the number of days which, for the purposes of Article 7(3), fall within the intervening period is the number of days between the last working day before the lock-out and the day on which work was resumed.

Reinstatement after military serviceN.I.

13.—(1) If a person who is entitled to apply to his former employer under the [1985 c. 17.] Reserve Forces (Safeguard of Employment) Act 1985 enters the employment of the employer not later than the end of the six month period mentioned in section 1(4)(b) of that Act, his period of service in the armed forces of the Crown in the circumstances specified in section 1(1) of that Act does not break his continuity of employment,

(2) In the case of such a person the number of days which, for the purposes of Article 7(3), fall within the intervening period is the number of days between the last day of his previous period of employment with the employer (or, if there was more than one such period, the last of them) and the first day of the period of employment beginning in the six month period.

Change of employerN.I.

14.—(1) Subject to the provisions of this Article, this Chapter relates only to employment by the one employer.

(2) If a trade or business, or an undertaking (whether or not established by or under a statutory provision), is transferred from one person to another—

(a)the period of employment of an employee in the trade or business or undertaking at the time of the transfer counts as a period of employment with the transferee, and

(b)the transfer does not break the continuity of the period of employment.

(3) If by or under any statutory provision a contract of employment between any body corporate and an employee is modified and some other body corporate is substituted as the employer—

(a)the employee's period of employment at the time when the modification takes effect counts as a period of employment with the second body corporate, and

(b)the change of employer does not break the continuity of the period of employment.

(4) If on the death of an employer the employee is taken into the employment of the personal representatives or trustees of the deceased—

(a)the employee's period of employment at the time of the death counts as a period of employment with the employer's personal representatives or trustees, and

(b)the death does not break the continuity of the period of employment.

(5) If there is a change in the partners, personal representatives or trustees who employ any person—

(a)the employee's period of employment at the time of the change counts as a period of employment with the partners, personal representatives or trustees after the change, and

(b)the change does not break the continuity of the period of employment.

(6) If an employee of an employer is taken into the employment of another employer who, at the time when the employee enters the second employer's employment, is an associated employer of the first employer—

(a)the employee's period of employment at that time counts as a period of employment with the second employer, and

(b)the change of employer does not break the continuity of the period of employment.

(7) If a person employed in relevant employment by a health service employer is taken into relevant employment by another such employer, his period of employment at the time of the change of employer counts as a period of employment with the second employer and the change does not break the continuity of the period of employment.

(8) For the purposes of paragraph (7) employment is relevant employment if it is employment of a description—

(a)in which persons are engaged while undergoing professional training which involves their being employed successively by a number of different health service employers, and

(b)which is specified in an order made by the Department.

(9) The following are health service employers for the purposes of paragraphs (7) and (8)—

(a)Health and Social Services Boards;

(b)Special Health and Social Services Agencies;

(c)[F10Health and Social Care Trusts].

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Reinstatement or re-engagement of dismissed employeeN.I.

15.—(1) Regulations made by the Department may make provision—

(a)for preserving the continuity of a person's period of employment for the purposes of this Chapter or for the purposes of this Chapter as applied by or under any other statutory provision specified in the regulations, or

(b)for modifying or excluding the operation of Article 10 subject to the recovery of any such payment as is mentioned in that Article,

in cases whereF11. . . a dismissed employee is reinstated[F11, re‐engaged or otherwise re‐employed] by his employer or by a successor or associated employer of that employer[F11 in any circumstances prescribed by the regulations.]

Paras. (2)‐(4) rep. by 1998 NI 8

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CHAPTER IVN.I.A WEEK'S PAY

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

IntroductoryN.I.

IntroductoryN.I.

16.  The amount of a week's pay of an employee shall be calculated for the purposes of this Order in accordance with this Chapter.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

Employments with normal working hoursN.I.

GeneralN.I.

F1217.—(1) This Article and Articles 18 and 19 apply where there are normal working hours for the employee when employed under the contract of employment in force on the calculation date.

(2) Subject to Article 18, if the employee's remuneration for employment in normal working hours (whether by the hour or week or other period) does not vary with the amount of work done in the period, the amount of a week's pay is the amount which is payable by the employer under the contract of employment in force on the calculation date if the employee works throughout his normal working hours in a week.

(3) Subject to Article 18, if the employee's remuneration for employment in normal working hours (whether by the hour or week or other period) does vary with the amount of work done in the I period, the amount of a week's pay is the amount of remuneration for the number of normal working hours in a week calculated at the average hourly rate of remuneration payable by the employer to the employee in respect of the period of twelve weeks ending—

(a)where the calculation date is the last day of a week, with that week, and

(b)otherwise, with the last complete week before the calculation date.

(4) In this Article references to remuneration varying with the amount of work done includes remuneration which may include any commission or similar payment which varies in amount.

(5) This Article is subject to Articles 23 and 24.

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F12mod. by SI 2004/1713

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

Remuneration varying according to time of workN.I.

F1318.—(1) This Article applies if the employee is required under the contract of employment in force on the calculation date to work during normal working hours on days of the week, or at times of the day, which differ from week to week or over a longer period so that the remuneration payable for, or apportionable to, any week varies according to the incidence of those days or times.

(2) The amount of a week's pay is the amount of remuneration for the average number of weekly normal working hours at the average hourly rate of remuneration.

(3) For the purposes of paragraph (2)—

(a)the average number of weekly hours is calculated by dividing by twelve the total number of the employee's normal working hours during the relevant period of twelve weeks, and

(b)the average hourly rate of remuneration is the average hourly rate of remuneration payable by the employer to the employee in respect of the relevant period of twelve weeks.

(4) In paragraph (3) “the relevant period of twelve weeks” means the period of twelve weeks ending—

(a)where the calculation date is the last day of a week, with that week, and

(b)otherwise, with the last complete week before the calculation date.

(5) This Article is subject to Articles 23 and 24.

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F13mod. by SI 2004/1713

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

SupplementaryN.I.

F1419.—(1) For the purposes of Articles 17 and 18, in arriving at the average hourly rate of remuneration, only—

(a)the hours when the employee was working, and

(b)the remuneration payable for, or apportionable to, those hours,

shall be brought in.

(2) If for any of the twelve weeks mentioned in Articles 17 and 18 no remuneration within paragraph (1)(b) was payable by the employer to the employee, account shall be taken of remuneration in earlier weeks so as to bring up to twelve the number of weeks of which account is taken.

(3) Where—

(a)in arriving at the average hourly rate of remuneration, account has to be taken of remuneration payable for, or apportionable to, work done in hours other than normal working hours, and

(b)the amount of that remuneration was greater than it would have been if the work had been done in normal working hours (or, in a case within Article 1(3), in normal working hours falling within the number of hours without overtime),

account shall be taken of that remuneration as if the work had been done in such hours and the amount of that remuneration had been reduced accordingly.

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F14mod. by SI 2004/1713

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

Employments with no normal working hoursN.I.

Employments with no normal working hoursN.I.

F1520.—(1) This Article applies where there are no normal working hours for the employee when employed under the contract of employment in force on the calculation date.

(2) The amount of a week's pay is the amount of the employee's average weekly remuneration in the period of twelve weeks ending—

(a)where the calculation date is the last day of a week, with that week, and

(b)otherwise, with the last complete week before the calculation date.

(3) In arriving at the average weekly remuneration no account shall be taken of a week in which no remuneration was payable by the employer to the employee and remuneration in earlier weeks shall be brought in so as to bring up to twelve the number of weeks of which account is taken.

(4) This Article is subject to Articles 23 and 24.

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F15mod. by SI 2004/1713

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

The calculation dateN.I.

Rights during employmentN.I.

21.—(1) Where the calculation is for the purposes of Article 62, the calculation date is—

(a)where the employee's contract has been varied, or a new contract entered into, in connection with a period of short-time working, the last day on which the original contract was in force, and

(b)otherwise, the day in respect of which the guarantee payment is payable.

(2) Where the calculation is for the purposes of Article 81 or 82, the calculation date is the day on which the employer's notice was given.

(3) Where the calculation is for the purposes of Article 84, the calculation date is the day of the appointment.

(4) Where the calculation is for the purposes of Article 90, the calculation date is the day on which the time off was taken or on which it is alleged the time off should have been permitted.

[F16(4A) Where the calculation is for the purposes of Article 91B, the calculation date is the day on which the time off was taken or on which it is alleged the time off should have been permitted.]

(5) Where the calculation is for the purposes of Article 101—

(a)in the case of an employee suspended on medical grounds, the calculation date is the day before that on which the suspension begins, and

(b)in the case of an employee suspended on maternity grounds, the calculation date is—

[F17(i)][F17where the day before that on which the suspension begins falls during a period of ordinary or additional maternity leave, the day before the beginning of that period,] and

(ii)otherwise, the day before that on which the suspension begins.

[F18(6) Where the calculation is for the purposes of Article 112I, the calculation date is the day on which the application under Article 112F was made.]

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

Rights on terminationN.I.

22.—(1) Where the calculation is for the purposes of Article 120 or 121, the calculation date is the day immediately preceding the first day of the period of notice required by Article 118(1) or (2).

(2) Where the calculation is for the purposes of Article 125, 151 or 159, the calculation date is—

(a)if the dismissal was with notice, the date on which the employer's notice was given, and

(b)otherwise, the effective date of termination.

(3) Where the calculation is for the purposes of Article[F19 146, 153, 154 or 155] the calculation date is—

Sub‐para. (a) rep. by 1999 NI 9

(b)if by virtue of paragraph (2) or (4) of Article 129 a date later than the effective date of termination as defined in paragraph (1) of that Article is to be treated for certain purposes as the effective date of termination, the effective date of termination as so defined, and

(c)otherwise, the date specified in paragraph (6).

(4) Where the calculation is for the purposes of Article 182(2), the calculation date is the day immediately preceding the first of the four, or six, weeks referred to in Article 183(2).

(5) Where the calculation is for the purposes of Article 197, the calculation date is—

Sub‐para. (a) rep. by 1999 NI 9

(b)if by virtue of paragraph (5) of Article 180 a date is to be treated for certain purposes as the relevant date which is later than the relevant date as defined by the previous provisions of that Article, the relevant date as so defined, and

(c)otherwise, the date specified in paragraph (6).

(6) The date referred to in paragraphs (3)(c) and (5)(c) is the date on which notice would have been given had—

(a)the contract been terminable by notice and been terminated by the employer giving such notice as is required by Article 118 to terminate the contract, and

(b)the notice expired on the effective date of termination, or the relevant date,

(whether or not those conditions were in fact fulfilled).

(7) Where the calculation is for the purposes of Article 218, the calculation date is the date on which the protective award was made or, in the case of an employee who was dismissed before the date on which the protective award was made, the date which by virtue of paragraph (5) is the calculation date for the purpose of computing the amount of a redundancy payment in relation to that dismissal (whether or not the employee concerned is entitled to any such payment).

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

Maximum amount of week's payN.I.

Maximum amountN.I.

23.—(1) For the purpose of calculating—

[F20(za)an award of compensation under Article 112I(1)(b),]

(a)a basic award of compensation for unfair dismissal,

(b)an additional award of compensation for unfair dismissal,

[F21(ba)an award under Article 146(5); or]

(c)a redundancy payment,

the amount of a week's pay shall not exceed[F22£380].

Paras. (2)‐(4) rep. by 1999 NI 9

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

MiscellaneousN.I.

New employments and other special casesN.I.

24.—(1) In any case in which the employee has not been employed for a sufficient period to enable a calculation to be made under the preceding provisions of this Chapter, the amount of a week's pay is the amount which fairly represents a week's pay.

(2) In determining that amount the industrial tribunal—

(a)shall apply as nearly as may be such of the preceding provisions of this Chapter as it considers appropriate, and

(b)may have regard to such of the considerations specified in paragraph (3) as it thinks fit.

(3) The considerations referred to in paragraph (2)(b) are—

(a)any remuneration received by the employee in respect of the employment in question,

(b)the amount offered to the employee as remuneration in respect of the employment in question,

(c)the remuneration received by other persons engaged in relevant comparable employment with the same employer, and

(d)the remuneration received by other persons engaged in relevant comparable employment with other employers.

(4) The Department may by regulations provide that in cases prescribed by the regulations the amount of a week's pay shall be calculated in such manner as may be so prescribed.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

SupplementaryN.I.

25.—(1) In arriving at—

(a)an average hourly rate of remuneration, or

(b)average weekly remuneration,

under this Chapter, account shall be taken of work for a former employer within the period for which the average is to be taken if, by virtue of Chapter III of this Part, a period of employment with the former employer counts as part of the employee's continuous period of employment.

(2) Where under this Chapter account is to be taken of remuneration or other payments for a period which does not coincide with the periods for which the remuneration or other payments are calculated, the remuneration or other payments shall be apportioned in such manner as may be just.

PART IIN.I.ACCESS TO EMPLOYMENT

Refusal of employment on grounds related to union membershipN.I.

26.—(1) It is unlawful to refuse a person employment—

(a)because he is, or is not, a member of a trade union, or

(b)because he is unwilling to accept a requirement—

(i)to take steps to become or cease to be, or to remain or not to become, a member of a trade union, or

(ii)to make payments or suffer deductions in the event of his not being a member of a trade union.

(2) Where an advertisement is published which indicates, or might reasonably be understood as indicating—

(a)that employment to which the advertisement relates is open only to a person who is, or is not, a member of a trade union, or

(b)that any such requirement as is mentioned in paragraph (1)(b) will be imposed in relation to employment to which the advertisement relates,

a person who does not satisfy that condition or, as the case may be, is unwilling to accept that requirement, and who seeks and is refused employment to which the advertisement relates, shall be conclusively presumed to have been refused employment for that reason.

(3) Where there is an arrangement or practice under which employment is offered only to persons put forward or approved by a trade union, and the trade union puts forward or approves only persons who are members of the union, a person who is not a member of the union and who is refused employment in pursuance of the arrangement or practice shall be taken to have been refused employment because he is not a member of the trade union.

(4) A person shall be taken to be refused employment if he seeks employment of any description with a person and that person—

(a)refuses or deliberately omits to entertain and process his application or enquiry, or

(b)causes him to withdraw or cease to pursue his application or enquiry, or

(c)refuses or deliberately omits to offer him employment of that description, or

(d)makes him an offer of such employment the terms of which are such as no reasonable employer who wished to fill the post would offer and which is not accepted, or

(e)makes him an offer of such employment but withdraws it or causes him not to accept it.

(5) Where a person is offered employment on terms which include a requirement that he is, or is not, a member of a trade union, or any such requirement as is mentioned in paragraph (1)(b), and he does not accept the offer because he does not satisfy or, as the case may be, is unwilling to accept that requirement, he shall be treated as having been refused employment for that reason.

(6) Where a person may not be considered for appointment or election to an office in a trade union unless he is a member of the union, or of a particular branch or section of the union or of one of a number of particular branches or sections of the union, nothing in this Article applies to anything done for the purpose of securing compliance with that condition although as holder of the office he would be employed by the union.

For this purpose an ““office” means any position—

(a)

by virtue of which the holder is an official of the union, or

(b)

to which Part III of the Trade Union and Labour Relations Order applies (duty to hold elections).

(7) The provisions of this Article apply in relation to an employment agency acting, or purporting to act, on behalf of an employer as in relation to an employer.

Refusal of service of employment agency on grounds related to union membershipN.I.

27.—(1) It is unlawful for an employment agency to refuse a person any of its services—

(a)because he is, or is not, a member of a trade union, or

(b)because he is unwilling to accept a requirement to take steps to become or cease to be, or to remain or not to become, a member of a trade union.

(2) Where an advertisement is published which indicates, or might reasonably be understood as indicating—

(a)that any service of an employment agency is available only to a person who is, or is not, a member of a trade union, or

(b)that any such requirement as is mentioned in paragraph (1)(b) will be imposed in relation to a service to which the advertisement relates,

a person who does not satisfy that condition or, as the case may be, is unwilling to accept that requirement, and who seeks to avail himself of and is refused that service, shall be conclusively presumed to have been refused it for that reason.

(3) A person shall be taken to be refused a service if he seeks to avail himself of it and the agency—

(a)refuses or deliberately omits to make the service available to him, or

(b)causes him not to avail himself of the service or to cease to avail himself of it, or

(c)does not provide the same service, on the same terms, as is provided to others.

(4) Where a person is offered a service on terms which include a requirement that he is, or is not, a member of a trade union, or any such requirement as is mentioned in paragraph (1)(b), and he does not accept the offer because he does not satisfy or, as the case may be, is unwilling to accept that requirement, he shall be treated as having been refused the service for that reason.

Complaints to industrial tribunalN.I.

28.—(1) A person may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal—

(a)that he has been unlawfully refused employment in contravention of Article 26(1); or

(b)that he has been unlawfully refused any service of an employment agency in contravention of Article 27(1).

(2) An industrial tribunal shall not consider a complaint under this Article unless it is presented to the tribunal—

(a)before the end of the period of three months beginning with the date of the conduct to which the complaint relates, or

(b)within such further period as the tribunal considers reasonable in a case where it is satisfied that it was not reasonably practicable for the complaint to be presented before the end of that period of three months.

(3) The date of the conduct to which a complaint under paragraph (1)(a) relates shall be taken to be—

(a)in the case of an actual refusal, the date of the refusal;

(b)in the case of a deliberate omission—

(i)to entertain and process the complainant's application or enquiry, or

(ii)to offer employment, the end of the period within which it was reasonable to expect the employer to act;

(c)in the case of conduct causing the complainant to withdraw or cease to pursue his application or enquiry, the date of that conduct;

(d)in a case where an offer was made but withdrawn, the date when it was withdrawn;

(e)in any other case where an offer was made but not accepted, the date on which it was made.

(4) The date of the conduct to which a complaint under paragraph (1)(b) relates shall be taken to be—

(a)in the case of an actual refusal, the date of the refusal;

(b)in the case of a deliberate omission to make a service available, the end of the period within which it was reasonable to expect the employment agency to act;

(c)in the case of conduct causing the complainant not to avail himself of a service or to cease to avail himself of it, the date of that conduct;

(d)in the case of failure to provide the same service, on the same terms, as is provided to others, the date or last date on which the service in fact provided was provided.

Determination of complaintsN.I.

29.—(1) Where the industrial tribunal finds that a complaint under Article 28 is well-founded, it shall make a declaration to that effect and may make such of the following as it considers just and equitable—

(a)an order requiring the respondent to pay compensation to the complainant of such amount as the tribunal may determine;

(b)a recommendation that the respondent take within a specified period action appearing to the tribunal to be practicable for the purpose of obviating or reducing the adverse effect on the complainant of any conduct to which the complaint relates.

(2) Compensation shall be assessed on the same basis as damages for breach of statutory duty and may include compensation for injury to feelings.

(3) If the respondent fails without reasonable justification to comply with a recommendation to take action, the tribunal may increase its award of compensation or, if it has not made such an award, make one.

(4) The total amount of compensation shall not exceed the limit for the time being imposed by Article 158(1).

Complaint against employer and employment agencyN.I.

30.—(1) Where a person has a right of complaint against a prospective employer and against an employment agency arising out of the same facts, he may present a complaint against either of them or against them jointly.

(2) If a complaint is brought against one only, he or the complainant may request the tribunal to join the other as a party to the proceedings.

(3) The request shall be granted if it is made before the hearing of the complaint begins, but may be refused if it is made after that time; and no such request may be made after the tribunal has made its decision as to whether the complaint is well-founded.

(4) Where a complaint is brought against an employer and an employment agency jointly, or where it is brought against one and the other is joined as a party to the proceedings, and the tribunal—

(a)finds that the complaint is well-founded as against the employer and the agency, and

(b)makes an award of compensation,

it may order that the compensation shall be paid by the one or the other, or partly by one and partly by the other, as the tribunal may consider just and equitable in the circumstances.

Awards against third partiesN.I.

31.—(1) If in proceedings on a complaint under Article 28 either the complainant or the respondent claims that the respondent was induced to act in the manner complained of by pressure which a trade union or other person exercised on him by calling, organising, procuring or financing a strike or other industrial action, or by threatening to do so, the complainant or the respondent may request the industrial tribunal to direct that the person who he claims exercised the pressure be joined as a party to the proceedings.

(2) The request shall be granted if it is made before the hearing of the complaint begins, but may be refused if it is made after that time; and no such request may be made after the tribunal has made its decision as to whether the complaint is well-founded.

(3) Where a person has been so joined as a party to the proceedings and the tribunal—

(a)finds that the complaint is well-founded,

(b)makes an award of compensation, and

(c)also finds that the claim in paragraph (1) is well-founded,

it may order that the compensation shall be paid by the person joined instead of by the respondent, or partly by that person and partly by the respondent, as the tribunal may consider just and equitable in the circumstances.

(4) Where by virtue of Article 30 there is more than one respondent, the above provisions apply to either or both of them.

Interpretation and other supplementary provisionsN.I.

32.—(1) In this Part—

  • ““advertisement” includes every form of advertisement or notice, whether to the public or not, and references to publishing an advertisement shall be construed accordingly:

  • ““employment agency” means a person who, for profit or not, provides services for the purpose of finding employment for workers or supplying employers with workers, but subject to paragraph (2).

(2) For the purposes of this Part as it applies to employment agencies—

(a)services other than those mentioned in the definition of ““employment agency” above shall be disregarded, and

(b)a trade union shall not be regarded as an employment agency by reason of services provided by it only for, or in relation to, its members.

(3) References in this Part to being or not being a member of a trade union are to being or not being a member of any trade union, of a particular trade union or of one of a number of particular trade unions.

Any such reference includes a reference to being or not being a member of a particular branch or section of a trade union or of one of a number of particular branches or sections of a trade union.

PART IIIN.I.EMPLOYMENT PARTICULARS

Right to statements of employment particularsN.I.

Statement of initial employment particularsN.I.

33.—(1) Where an employee begins employment with an employer, the employer shall give to the employee a written statement of particulars of employment.

(2) The statement may (subject to Article 34(4)) be given in instalments and (whether or not given in instalments) shall be given not later than two months after the beginning of the employment.

(3) The statement shall contain particulars of—

(a)the names of the employer and employee,

(b)the date when the employment began, and

(c)the date on which the employee's period of continuous employment began (taking into account any employment with a previous employer which counts towards that period).

(4) The statement shall also contain particulars, as at a specified date not more than seven days before the statement (or the instalment containing them) is given, of—

(a)the scale or rate of remuneration or the method of calculating remuneration,

(b)the intervals at which remuneration is paid (that is, weekly, monthly or other specified intervals),

(c)any terms and conditions relating to hours of work (including any terms and conditions relating to normal working hours),

(d)any terms and conditions relating to any of the following—

(i)entitlement to holidays, including public holidays, and holiday pay (the particulars given being sufficient to enable the employee's entitlement, including any entitlement to accrued holiday pay on the termination of employment, to be precisely calculated),

(ii)incapacity for work due to sickness or injury, including any provision for sick pay, and

(iii)pensions and pension schemes,

(e)the length of notice which the employee is obliged to give and entitled to receive to terminate his contract of employment,

(f)the title of the job which the employee is employed to do or a brief description of the work for which he is employed,

(g)where the employment is not intended to be permanent, the period for which it is expected to continue or, if it is for a fixed term, the date when it is to end,

(h)either the place of work or, where the employee is required or permitted to work at various places, an indication of that and of the address of the employer,

(j)any collective agreements which directly affect the terms and conditions of the employment including, where the employer is not a party, the persons by whom they were made, and

(k)where the employee is required to work outside the United Kingdom for a period of more than one month—

(i)the period for which he is to work outside the United Kingdom,

(ii)the currency in which remuneration is to be paid while he is working outside the United Kingdom,

(iii)any additional remuneration payable to him, and any benefits to be provided to or in respect of him, by reason of his being required to work outside the United Kingdom, and

(iv)any terms and conditions relating to his return to the United Kingdom.

(5) Paragraph (4)(d)(iii) does not apply to an employee of a body or authority if—

(a)the employee's pension rights depend on the terms of a pension scheme established under any statutory provision, and

(b)any such provision requires the body or authority to give to a new employee information concerning the employee's pension rights or the determination of questions affecting those rights.

Statement of initial particulars: supplementaryN.I.

34.—(1) If, in the case of a statement under Article 33, there are no particulars to be entered under any of the heads of sub-paragraph (d) or (k) of paragraph (4) of that Article, or under any of the other sub-paragraphs of paragraph (3) or (4) of that Article, that fact shall be stated.

(2) A statement under Article 33 may refer the employee for particulars of any of the matters specified in paragraph (4)(d)(ii) and (iii) of that Article to the provisions of some other document which is reasonably accessible to the employee.

(3) A statement under Article 33 may refer the employee for particulars of either of the matters specified in paragraph (4)(e) of that Article to the law or to the provisions of any collective agreement directly affecting the terms and conditions of the employment which is reasonably accessible to the employee.

(4) The particulars required by Article 33(3) and (4)(a) to (c), (d)(i), (f) and (h) shall be included in a single document.

(5) Where before the end of the period of two months after the beginning of an employee's employment the employee is to begin to work outside the United Kingdom for a period of more than one month, the statement under Article 33 shall be given to him not later than the time when he leaves the United Kingdom in order to begin so to work.

(6) A statement shall be given to a person under Article 33 even if his employment ends before the end of the period within which the statement is required to be given.

Note about disciplinary procedures and pensionsN.I.

35.—(1) A statement under Article 33 shall include a note—

(a)specifying any disciplinary rules applicable to the employee or referring the employee to the provisions of a document specifying such rules which is reasonably accessible to the employee,

[F23(aa)specifying any procedure applicable to the taking of disciplinary decisions relating to the employee, or to a decision to dismiss the employee, or referring the employee to the provisions of a document specifying such a procedure which is reasonably accessible to the employee,]

(b)specifying (by description or otherwise)—

(i)a person to whom the employee can apply if dissatisfied with any disciplinary decision relating to him[F23 or any decision to dismiss him], and

(ii)a person to whom the employee can apply for the purpose of seeking redress of any grievance relating to his employment,

and the manner in which any such application should be made, and

(c)where there are further steps consequent on any such application, explaining those steps or referring to the provisions of a document explaining them which is reasonably accessible to the employee.

(2) Paragraph (1) does not apply to rules, disciplinary decisions,[F23 decisions to dismiss] grievances or procedures relating to health or safety at work.

Paras.(3)‐(4) rep. by 2003 NI 15

(5) The note shall also state whether there is in force a contracting-out certificate (issued in accordance with Chapter I of Part III of the [1993 c. 49.] Pension Schemes (Northern Ireland) Act 1993) stating that the employment is contracted-out employment (for the purposes of that Part of that Act).

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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Statement of changesN.I.

36.—(1) If, after the material date, there is a change in any of the matters particulars of which are required by Articles 33 to 35 to be included or referred to in a statement under Article 33, the employer shall give to the employee a written statement containing particulars of the change.

(2) For the purposes of paragraph (1)—

(a)in relation to a matter particulars of which are included or referred to in a statement given under Article 33 otherwise than in instalments, the material date is the date to which the statement relates,

(b)in relation to a matter particulars of which—

(i)are included or referred to in an instalment of a statement given under Article 33, or

(ii)are required by Article 34(4) to be included in a single document but are not included in an instalment of a statement given under Article 33 which does include other particulars to which that provision applies,

the material date is the date to which the instalment relates, and

(c)in relation to any other matter, the material date is the date by which a statement under Article 33 is required to be given.

(3) A statement under paragraph (1) shall be given at the earliest opportunity and, in any event, not later than—

(a)one month after the change in question, or

(b)where that change results from the employee being required to work outside the United Kingdom for a period of more than one month, the time when he leaves the United Kingdom in order to begin so to work, if that is earlier.

(4) A statement under paragraph (1) may refer the employee to the provisions of some other document which is reasonably accessible to the employee for a change in any of the matters specified in Articles 33(4)(d)(ii) and (iii) and 35(1)(a) and (c).

(5) A statement under paragraph (1) may refer the employee for a change in either of the matters specified in Article 33(4)(e) to the law or to the provisions of any collective agreement directly affecting the terms and conditions of the employment which is reasonably accessible to the employee.

(6) Where, after an employer has given to an employee a statement under Article 33, either—

(a)the name of the employer (whether an individual or a body corporate or partnership) is changed without any change in the identity of the employer, or

(b)the identity of the employer is changed in circumstances in which the continuity of the employee's period of employment is not broken,

and paragraph (7) applies in relation to the change, the person who is the employer immediately after the change is not required to give to the employee a statement under Article 33; but the change shall be treated as a change falling within paragraph (1) of this Article.

(7) This paragraph applies in relation to a change if it does not involve any change in any of the matters (other than the names of the parties) particulars of which are required by Articles 33 to 35 to be included or referred to in the statement under Article 33.

(8) A statement under paragraph (1) which informs an employee of a change such as is referred to in paragraph (6)(b) shall specify the date on which the employee's period of continuous employment began.

Exclusion from rights to statementsN.I.

37.—(1) Articles 33 to 36 apply to an employee who at any time comes or ceases to come within the exceptions from those Articles provided by Articles 239 and 242, and under Article 250, as if his employment with his employer terminated or began at that time.

(2) The fact that Article 33 is directed by paragraph (1) to apply to an employee as if his employment began on his ceasing to come within the exceptions referred to in that paragraph does not affect the obligation under Article 33(3)(b) to specify the date on which his employment actually began.

Reasonably accessible document or collective agreementN.I.

38.  In Articles 34 to 36 references to a document or collective agreement which is reasonably accessible to an employee are references to a document or collective agreement which—

(a)the employee has reasonable opportunities of reading in the course of his employment, or

(b)is made reasonably accessible to the employee in some other way.

Power of Department to require particulars of further mattersN.I.

39.  The Department may by order provide that Article 33 shall have effect as if particulars of such further matters as may be specified in the order were included in the particulars required by that Article; and, for that purpose, the order may include such provisions amending that Article as appear to the Department to be expedient.

[F24Use of alternative documents to give particularsN.I.

39A.(1)  Paragraphs (2) and (3) apply where—

(a)an employer gives an employee a document in writing in the form of a contract of employment or letter of engagement,

(b)the document contains information which, were the document in the form of a statement under Article 33, would meet the employer's obligation under that Article in relation to the matters mentioned in paragraphs (3) and (4)(a) to (c), (d)(i), (f) and (h) of that Article, and

(c)the document is given after the beginning of the employment and before the end of the period for giving a statement under that Article.

(2) The employer's duty under Article 33 in relation to any matter shall be treated as met if the document given to the employee contains information which, were the document in the form of a statement under that Article, would meet the employer's obligation under that Article in relation to that matter.

(3) The employer's duty under Article 35 shall be treated as met if the document given to the employee contains information which, were the document in the form of a statement under Article 33 and the information included in the form of a note, would meet the employer's obligation under Article 35.

(4) For the purposes of this Article a document to which paragraph (1)(a) applies shall be treated, in relation to information in respect of any of the matters mentioned in Article 33(4), as specifying the date on which the document is given to the employee as the date as at which the information applies.

(5) Where paragraph (2) applies in relation to any matter, the date on which the document by virtue of which that paragraph applies is given to the employee shall be the material date in relation to that matter for the purposes of Article 36(1).

(6) Where paragraph (3) applies, the date on which the document by virtue of which that paragraph applies is given to the employee shall be the material date for the purposes of Article 36(1) in relation to the matters of which particulars are required to be given under Article 35.

(7) The reference in Article 36(6) to an employer having given a statement under Article 33 shall be treated as including his having given a document by virtue of which his duty to give such a statement is treated as met.]

Annotations: Help about Annotation
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Annotations are used to give authority for changes and other effects on the legislation you are viewing and to convey editorial information. They appear at the foot of the relevant provision or under the associated heading. Annotations are categorised by annotation type, such as F-notes for textual amendments and I-notes for commencement information (a full list can be found in the Editorial Practice Guide). Each annotation is identified by a sequential reference number. For F-notes, M-notes and X-notes, the number also appears in bold superscript at the relevant location in the text. All annotations contain links to the affecting legislation.

Giving of alternative documents before start of employmentN.I.

39B.  A document in the form of a contract of employment or letter of engagement given by an employer to an employee before the beginning of the employee's employment with the employer shall, when the employment begins, be treated for the purposes of Article 39A as having been given at that time.

Right to itemised pay statementN.I.

Itemised pay statementN.I.

40.—(1) An employee has the right to be given by his employer, at or before the time at which any payment of wages or salary is made to him, a written itemised pay statement.

(2) The statement shall contain particulars of—

(a)the gross amount of the wages or salary,

(b)the amounts of any variable, and (subject to Article (1) any fixed, deductions from that gross amount and the purposes for which they are made,

(c)the net amount of wages or salary payable, and

(d)where different parts of the net amount are paid in different ways, the amount and method of payment of each part-payment.

Standing statement of fixed deductionsN.I.

41.—(1) A pay statement given in accordance with Article 40 need not contain separate particulars of a fixed deduction if—

(a)it contains instead an aggregate amount of fixed deductions, including that deduction, and

(b)the employer has given to the employee, at or before the time at which the pay statement is given, a standing statement of fixed deductions which satisfies paragraph (2).

(2) A standing statement of fixed deductions satisfies this paragraph if—

(a)it is in writing,

(b)it contains, in relation to each deduction comprised in the aggregate amount of deductions, particulars of—

(i)the amount of the deduction,

(ii)the intervals at which the deduction is to be made, and

(iii)the purpose for which it is made, and

(c)it is (in accordance with paragraph (5)) effective at the date on which the pay statement is given.

(3) A standing statement of fixed deductions may be amended, whether by—

(a)addition of a new deduction,

(b)a change in the particulars, or

(c)cancellation of an existing deduction,

by notice in writing, containing particulars of the amendment, given by the employer to the employee.

(4) An employer who has given to an employee a standing statement of fixed deductions shall—

(a)within the period of twelve months beginning with the date on which the first standing statement was given, and

(b)at intervals of not more than twelve months afterwards,

re-issue it in a consolidated form incorporating any amendments notified in accordance with paragraph (3).

(5) For the purposes of paragraph (2)(c) a standing statement of fixed deductions—

(a)becomes effective on the date on which it is given to the employee, and

(b)ceases to be effective at the end of the period of twelve months beginning with that date or, where it is re-issued in accordance with paragraph (4), with the end of the period of twelve months beginning with the date of the last re-issue.

Power to amend provisions about pay and standing statementsN.I.

42.  The Department may by order—

(a)vary the provisions of Articles 40 and 41 as to the particulars which must be included in a pay statement or a standing statement of fixed deductions by adding items to, or removing items from, the particulars listed in those Articles or by amending any such particulars, and

(b)vary the provisions of paragraphs (4) and (5) of Article 41 so as to shorten or extend the periods of twelve months referred to in those paragraphs, or those periods as varied from time to time under this Article.

EnforcementN.I.

References to industrial tribunalsN.I.

43.—(1) Where an employer does not give an employee a statement as required by Article 33, 36 or 40 (either because he gives him no statement or because the statement he gives does not comply with what is required), the employee may require a reference to be made to an industrial tribunal to determine what particulars ought to have been included or referred to in a statement so as to comply with the requirements of the Article concerned.

(2) Where—

(a)a statement purporting to be a statement under Article 33 or 36, or a pay statement or a standing statement of fixed deductions purporting to comply with Article 40 or 41, has been given to an employee, and

(b)a question arises as to the particulars which ought to have been included or referred to in the statement so as to comply with the requirements of this Part,

either the employer or the employee may require the question to be referred to and determined by an industrial tribunal.

(3) For the purposes of this Article—

(a)a question as to the particulars which ought to have been included in the note required by Article 35 to be included in the statement under Article 33 does not include any question whether the employment is, has been or will be contracted-out employment (for the purposes of Part III of the [1993 c. 49.] Pension Schemes (Northern Ireland) Act 1993), and

(b)a question as to the particulars which ought to have been included in a pay statement or standing statement of fixed deductions does not include a question solely as to the accuracy of an amount stated in any such particulars.

(4) An industrial tribunal shall not consider a reference under this Article in a case where the employment to which the reference relates has ceased unless an application requiring the reference to be made was made—

(a)before the end of the period of three months beginning with the date on which the employment ceased, or

(b)within such further period as the tribunal considers reasonable in a case where it is satisfied that it was not reasonably practicable for the application to be made before the end of that period of three months.

Determination of referencesN.I.

44.—(1) Where, on a reference under Article 43(1), an industrial tribunal determines particulars as being those which ought to have been included or referred to in a statement given under Article 33 or 36, the employer shall be deemed to have given to the employee a statement in which those particulars were included, or referred to, as specified in the decision of the tribunal.

(2) On determining a reference under Article 43(2) relating to a m statement purporting to be a statement under Article 33 or 36, an industrial tribunal may—

(a)confirm the particulars as included or referred to in the statement given by the employer,

(b)amend those particulars, or

(c)substitute other particulars for them,

as the tribunal may determine to be appropriate; and the statement shall be deemed to have been given by the employer to the employee in accordance with the decision of the tribunal.

(3) Where on a reference under Article 43 an industrial tribunal finds—

(a)that an employer has failed to give an employee any pay statement in accordance with Article 40, or

(b)that a pay statement or standing statement of fixed deductions does not, in relation to a deduction, contain the particulars required to be included in that statement by that Article or Article 41,

the tribunal shall make a declaration to that effect.

(4) Where on a reference in the case of which paragraph (3) applies the tribunal further finds that any unnotified deductions have been made from the pay of the employee during the period of thirteen weeks immediately preceding the date of the application for the reference (whether or not the deductions were made in breach of the contract of employment), the tribunal may order the employer to pay the employee a sum not exceeding the aggregate of the unnotified deductions so made.

(5) For the purposes of paragraph (4) a deduction is an unnotified deduction if it is made without the employer giving the employee, in any pay statement or standing statement of fixed deductions, the particulars of the deduction required by Article 40 or 41.

PART IVN.I.PROTECTION OF WAGES

Deductions by employerN.I.

Right not to suffer unauthorised deductionsN.I.

45.—(1) An employer shall not make a deduction from wages of a worker employed by him unless—

(a)the deduction is required or authorised to be made by virtue of a statutory provision or a relevant provision of the worker's contract, or

(b)the worker has previously signified in writing his agreement or consent to the making of the deduction.

(2) In this Article “relevant provision”, in relation to a worker's contract, means a provision of the contract comprised—

(a)in one or more written terms of the contract of which the employer has given the worker a copy on an occasion prior to the employer making the deduction in question, or

(b)in one or more terms of the contract (whether express or implied and, if express, whether oral or in writing) the existence and effect, or combined effect, of which in relation to the worker the employer has notified to the worker in writing on such an occasion.

(3) Where the total amount of wages paid on any occasion by an employer to a worker employed by him is less than the total amount of the wages properly payable by him to the worker on that occasion (after deductions), the amount of the deficiency shall be treated for the purposes of this Part as a deduction made by the employer from the worker's wages on that occasion.

(4) Paragraph (3) does not apply in so far as the deficiency is attributable to an error of any description on the part of the employer affecting the computation by him of the gross amount of the wages properly payable by him to the worker on that occasion.

(5) For the purposes of this Article a relevant provision of a worker's contract having effect by virtue of a variation of the contract does not operate to authorise the making of a deduction on account of any conduct of the worker, or any other event occurring, before the variation took effect.

(6) For the purposes of this Article an agreement or consent signified by a worker does not operate to authorise the making of a deduction on account of any conduct of the worker, or any other event occurring, before the agreement or consent was signified.

(7) This Article does not affect any other statutory provision by virtue of which a sum payable to a worker by his employer but not constituting “wages” within the meaning of this Part is not to be subject to a deduction at the instance of the employer.

Excepted deductionsN.I.

46.—(1) Article 45 does not apply to a deduction from a worker's wages made by his employer where the purpose of the deduction is the reimbursement of the employer in respect of—

(a)an overpayment of wages, or

(b)an overpayment in respect of expenses incurred by the worker in carrying out his employment,

made (for any reason) by the employer to the worker.

(2) Article 45 does not apply to a deduction from a worker's wages made by his employer in consequence of any disciplinary proceedings if those proceedings were held by virtue of a statutory provision.

(3) Article 45 does not apply to a deduction from a worker's wages made by his employer in pursuance of a requirement imposed on the employer by a statutory provision to deduct and pay over to a public authority amounts determined by that authority as being due to it from the worker if the deduction is made in accordance with the relevant determination of that authority.

(4) Article 45 does not apply to a deduction from a worker's wages made by his employer in pursuance of any arrangements which have been established—

(a)in accordance with a relevant provision of his contract to the inclusion of which in the contract the worker has signified his agreement or consent in writing, or

(b)otherwise with the prior agreement or consent of the worker signified in writing,

and under which the employer is to deduct and pay over to a third person amounts notified to the employer by that person as being due to him from the worker, if the deduction is made in accordance with the relevant notification by that person.

(5) Article 45 does not apply to a deduction from a worker's wages made by his employer where the worker has taken part in a strike or other industrial action and the deduction is made by the employer on account of the worker's having taken part in that strike or other action.

(6) Article 45 does not apply to a deduction from a worker's wages made by his employer with his prior agreement or consent signified in writing where the purpose of the deduction is the satisfaction (whether wholly or in part) of an order of a court or tribunal requiring the payment of an amount by the worker to the employer:

Payments to employerN.I.

Right not to have to make payments to employerN.I.

47.—(1) An employer shall not receive a payment from a worker employed by him unless—

(a)the payment is required or authorised to be made by virtue of a statutory provision or a relevant provision of the worker's contract, or

(b)the worker has previously signified in writing his agreement or consent to the making of the payment.

(2) In this Article “relevant provision”, in relation to a worker's contract, means a provision of the contract comprised—

(a)in one or more written terms of the contract of which the employer has given the worker a copy on an occasion prior to the employer receiving the payment in question, or

(b)in one or more terms of the contract (whether express or implied and, if express, whether oral or in writing) the existence and effect, or combined effect, of which in relation to the worker the employer has notified to the worker in writing on such an occasion.

(3) For the purposes of this Article a relevant provision of a worker's contract having effect by virtue of a variation of the contract does not operate to authorise the receipt of a payment on account of any conduct of the worker, or any other event occurring, before the variation took effect.

(4) For the purposes of this Article an agreement or consent signified by a worker does not operate to authorise the receipt of a payment on account of any conduct of the worker, or any other event occurring, before the agreement or consent was signified.

(5) Any reference in this Part to an employer receiving a payment from a worker employed by him is a reference to his receiving such a payment in his capacity as the worker's employer.

Excepted paymentsN.I.

48.—(1) Article 47 does not apply to a payment received from a worker by his employer where the purpose of the payment is the reimbursement of the employer in respect of—

(a)an overpayment of wages, or

(b)an overpayment in respect of expenses incurred by the worker in carrying out his employment,

made (for any reason) by the employer to the worker.

(2) Article 47 does not apply to a payment received from a worker by his employer in consequence of any disciplinary proceedings if those proceedings were held by virtue of a statutory provision.

(3) Article 47 does not apply to a payment received from a worker by his employer where the worker has taken part in a strike or other industrial action and the payment has been required by the employer on account of the worker's having taken part in that strike or other action.

(4) Article 47 does not apply to a payment received from a worker by his employer where the purpose of the payment is the satisfaction (whether wholly or in part) of an order of a court or tribunal requiring the payment of an amount by the worker to the employer.

Cash shortages and stock deficiencies in retail employmentN.I.

IntroductoryN.I.

49.—(1) In the following provisions of this Part—

  • “cash shortage” means a deficit arising in relation to amounts received in connection with retail transactions, and

  • “stock deficiency” means a stock deficiency arising in the course of retail transactions.

(2) In the following provisions of this Part “retail employment”, in relation to a worker, means employment involving (whether or not on a regular basis)—

(a)the carrying out by the worker of retail transactions directly with members of the public or with fellow workers or other individuals in their personal capacities, or

(b)the collection by the worker of amounts payable in connection with retail transactions carried out by other persons directly with members of the public or with fellow workers or other individuals in their personal capacities.

(3) References in this Article to a “retail transaction” are to the sale or supply of goods or the supply of services (including financial services).

(4) References in the following provisions of this Part to a deduction made from wages of a worker in retail employment, or to a payment received from such a worker by his employer, on account of a cash shortage or stock deficiency include references to a deduction or payment so made or received on account of—

(a)any dishonesty or other conduct on the part of the worker which resulted in any such shortage or deficiency, or

(b)any other event in respect of which he (whether or not together with any other workers) has any contractual liability and which so resulted,

in each case whether or not the amount of the deduction or payment is designed to reflect the exact amount of the shortage or deficiency.

(5) References in the following provisions of this Part to the recovery from a worker of an amount in respect of a cash shortage or stock deficiency accordingly include references to the recovery from him of an amount in respect of any such conduct or event as is mentioned in paragraph (4)(a) or (b).

(6) In the following provisions of this Part “pay day”, in relation to a worker, means a day on which wages are payable to the worker.

Limits on amount and time of deductionsN.I.

50.—(1) Where (in accordance with Article 45) the employer of a worker in retail employment makes, on account of one or more cash shortages or stock deficiencies, a deduction or deductions from wages payable to the worker on a pay day, the amount or aggregate amount of the deduction or deductions shall not exceed one-tenth of the gross amount of the wages payable to the worker on that day.

(2) Where the employer of a worker in retail employment makes a deduction from the worker's wages on account of a cash shortage or stock deficiency, the employer shall not be treated as making the deduction in accordance with Article 45 unless (in addition to the requirements of that Article being satisfied with respect to the deduction)—

(a)the deduction is made, or

(b)in the case of a deduction which is one of a series of deductions relating to the shortage or deficiency, the first deduction in the series was made,

not later than the end of the relevant period.

(3) In paragraph (2) “the relevant period” means the period of twelve months beginning with the date when the employer established the existence of the shortage or deficiency or (if earlier) the date when he ought reasonably to have done so.

Wages determined by reference to shortages etc.N.I.

51.—(1) This Article applies where—

(a)by virtue of an agreement between a worker in retail employment and his employer, the amount of the worker's wages or any part of them is or may be determined by reference to the incidence of cash shortages or stock deficiencies, and

(b)the gross amount of the wages payable to the worker on any pay day is, on account of any such shortages or deficiencies, less than the gross amount of the wages that would have been payable to him on that day if there had been no such shortages or deficiencies.

(2) The amount representing the difference between the two amounts referred to in paragraph (1)(b) shall be treated for the purposes of this Part as a deduction from the wages payable to the worker on that day made by the employer on account of the cash shortages or stock deficiencies in question.

(3) The second of the amounts referred to in paragraph (1)(b) shall be treated for the purposes of this Part (except paragraph (1)) as the gross amount of the wages payable to him on that day.

(4) Accordingly—

(a)Article 45, and

(b)if the requirements of Article 45 and paragraph (2) of Article 50 are satisfied, paragraph (1) of Article 50,

have effect in relation to the amount referred to in paragraph (2) of this Article.

Limits on method and timing of paymentsN.I.

52.—(1) Where the employer of a worker in retail employment receives from the worker a payment on account of a cash shortage or stock deficiency, the employer shall not be treated as receiving the payment in accordance with Article 47 unless (in addition to the requirements of that Article being satisfied with respect to the payment) he has previously—

(a)notified the worker in writing of the worker's total liability to him in respect of that shortage or deficiency, and

(b)required the worker to make the payment by means of a demand for payment made in accordance with the following provisions of this Article.

(2) A demand for payment made by the employer of a worker in retail employment in respect of a cash shortage or stock deficiency—

(a)shall be made in writing, and

(b)shall be made on one of the worker's pay days.

(3) A demand for payment in respect of a particular cash shortage or stock deficiency, or (in the case of a series of such demands) the first such demand, shall not be made—

(a)earlier than the first pay day of the worker following the date when he is notified of his total liability in respect of the shortage or deficiency in pursuance of paragraph (1)(a) or, where he is so notified on a pay day, earlier than that day, or

(b)later than the end of the period of twelve months beginning with the date when the employer established the existence of the shortage or deficiency or (if earlier) the date when he ought reasonably to have done so.

(4) For the purposes of this Part a demand for payment shall be treated as made by the employer on one of a worker's pay days if it is given to the worker or posted to, or left at, his last known address—

(a)on that pay day, or

(b)in the case of a pay day which is not a working day of the employer's business, on the first such working day following that pay day.

(5) Legal proceedings by the employer of a worker in retail employment for the recovery from the worker of an amount in respect of a cash shortage or stock deficiency shall not be instituted by the employer after the end of the period referred to in paragraph (3)(b) unless the employer has within that period made a demand for payment in respect of that amount in accordance with this Article.

Limit on amount of paymentsN.I.

53.—(1) Where the employer of a worker in retail employment makes on any pay day one or more demands for payment in accordance with Article 52, the amount or aggregate amount required to be paid by the worker in pursuance of the demand or demands shall not exceed—

(a)one-tenth of the gross amount of the wages payable to the worker on that day, or

(b)where one or more deductions falling within Article 50(1) are made by the employer from those wages, such amount as represents the balance of that one-tenth after subtracting the amount or aggregate amount of the deduction or deductions.

(2) Once an amount has been required to be paid by means of a demand for payment made in accordance with Article 52 on any pay day, that amount shall not be taken into account under paragraph (1) as it applies to any subsequent pay day, even though the employer is obliged to make further requests for it to be paid.

(3) Where in any legal proceedings the court finds that the employer of a worker in retail employment is (in accordance with Article 47 as it applies apart from Article 52(1)) entitled to recover an amount from the worker in respect of a cash shortage or stock deficiency, the court shall, in ordering the payment by the worker to the employer of that amount, make such provision as appears to the court to be necessary to ensure that it is paid by the worker at a rate not exceeding that at which it could be recovered from him by the employer in accordance with this Article.

Final instalments of wagesN.I.

54.—(1) In this Article “final instalment of wages”, in relation to a worker, means—

(a)the amount of wages payable to the worker which consists of or includes an amount payable by way of contractual remuneration in respect of the last of the periods for which he is employed under his contract prior to its termination for any reason (but excluding any wages referable to any earlier such period), or

(b)where an amount in lieu of notice is paid to the worker later than the amount referred to in sub-paragraph (a), the amount so paid,

in each case whether the amount in question is paid before or after the termination of the worker's contract.

(2) Article 50(1) does not operate to restrict the amount of any deductions which may (in accordance with Article 45(1)) be made by the employer of a worker in retail employment from the worker's final instalment of wages.

(3) Nothing in Article 52 or 53 applies to a payment falling within Article 52(1) which is made on or after the day on which any such worker's final instalment of wages is paid; but (even if the requirements of Article 47 would otherwise be satisfied with respect to it) his employer shall not be treated as receiving any such payment in accordance with that Article if the payment was first required to be made after the end of the period referred to in Article 52(3)(b).

(4) Article 53(3) does not apply to an amount which is to be paid by a worker on or after the day on which his final instalment of wages is paid.

EnforcementN.I.

Complaints to industrial tribunalsN.I.

55.—(1) A worker may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal—

(a)that his employer has made a deduction from his wages in contravention of Article 45 (including a deduction made in contravention of that Article as it applies by virtue of Article 50( 2)),

(b)that his employer has received from him a payment in contravention of Article 47 (including a payment received in contravention of that Article as it applies by virtue of Article 52(1)),

(c)that his employer has recovered from his wages by means of one or more deductions falling within Article 50(1) an amount or aggregate amount exceeding the limit applying to the deduction or deductions under that provision, or

(d)that his employer has received from him in pursuance of one or more demands for payment made (in accordance with Article 52) on a particular pay day, a payment or payments of an amount or aggregate amount exceeding the limit applying to the demand or demands under Article 53(1).

(2) Subject to paragraph (4), an industrial tribunal shall not consider a complaint under this Article unless it is presented before the end of the period of three months beginning with—

(a)in the case of a complaint relating to a deduction by the employer, the date of payment of the wages from which the deduction was made, or

(b)in the case of a complaint relating to a payment received by the employer, the date when the payment was received.

(3) Where a complaint is brought under this Article in respect of — —

(a)a series of deductions or payments, or

(b)a number of payments falling within paragraph (1)(d) and made in pursuance of demands for payment subject to the same limit under Article 53(1) but received by the employer on different dates,

the references in paragraph (2) to the deduction or payment are to the last deduction or payment in the series or to the last of the payments so received.

(4) Where the industrial tribunal is satisfied that it was not reasonably practicable for a complaint under this Article to be presented before the end of the relevant period of three months, the tribunal may consider the complaint if it is presented within such further period as the tribunal considers reasonable.

[F25(5) No complaint shall be presented under this Article in respect of any deduction made in contravention of Article 60 of the Trade Union and Labour Relations Order (wrongful deduction of political fund contribution).]

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Determination of complaintsN.I.

56.  Where a tribunal finds a complaint under Article 55 well-founded, it shall make a declaration to that effect and shah order the employer—

(a)in the case of a complaint under Article 55(1)(a), to pay to the worker the amount of any deduction made in contravention of Article 45,

(b)in the case of a complaint under Article 55(1)(b), to repay to the worker the amount of any payment received in contravention of Article 47,

(c)in the case of a complaint under Article 55(1)(c), to pay to the worker any amount recovered from him in excess of the limit mentioned in that provision, and

(d)in the case of a complaint under Article 55(1)(d), to repay to the worker any amount received from him in excess of the limit mentioned in that provision.

Determinations: supplementaryN.I.

57.—(1) Where, in the case of any complaint under Article 55(1)(a), a tribunal finds that, although neither of the conditions set out in Article 45(1)(a) and (b) was satisfied with respect to the whole amount of the deduction, one of those conditions was satisfied with respect to any lesser amount, the amount of the deduction shall for the purposes of Article 56(a) be treated as reduced by the amount with respect to which that condition was satisfied.

(2) Where, in the case of any complaint under Article 55(1)(b), a tribunal finds that, although neither of the conditions set out in Article 47(1)(a) and (b) was satisfied with respect to the whole amount of the payment, one of those conditions was satisfied with respect to any lesser amount, the amount of the payment shall for the purposes of Article 56(b) be treated as reduced by the amount with respect to which that condition was satisfied.

(3) An employer shall not under Article 56 be ordered by a tribunal to pay or repay to a worker any amount in respect of a deduction or payment, or in respect of any combination of deductions or payments, in so far as it appears to the tribunal that he has already paid or repaid any such amount to the worker.

(4) Where a tribunal has under Article 56 ordered an employer to pay or repay to a worker any amount in respect of a particular deduction or payment falling within Article 55(1)(a) to (d), the amount which the employer is entitled to recover (by whatever means) in respect of the matter in relation to which the deduction or payment was originally made or received shall be treated as reduced by that amount.

(5) Where a tribunal has under Article 56 ordered an employer to pay or repay to a worker any amount in respect of any combination of deductions or payments falling within Article 55(1)(c) or (d), the aggregate amount which the employer is entitled to recover (by whatever means) in respect of the cash shortages or stock deficiencies in relation to which the deductions or payments were originally made or required to be made shall be treated as reduced by that amount.

Complaints and other remediesN.I.

58.  Article 55 does not affect the jurisdiction of an industrial tribunal to consider a reference under Article 43 in relation to any deduction from the wages of a worker; but the aggregate of any amounts ordered by an industrial tribunal to be paid under Article 44(4) and under Article 56 (whether on the same or different occasions) in respect of a particular deduction shall not exceed the amount of the deduction.

SupplementaryN.I.

Meaning of “wages” etc.N.I.

59.—(1) In this Part “wages”, in relation to a worker, means any sums payable to the worker in connection with his employment, including—

(a)any fee, bonus, commission, holiday pay or other emolument referable to his employment, whether payable under his contract or otherwise,

(b)statutory sick pay under Part XI of the [1992 c. 7.] Social Security Contributions and Benefits (Northern Ireland) Act 1992,

(c)statutory maternity pay under Part XII of that Act,

[F26(ca)statutory paternity pay under Part XllZA of that Act,

(cb)statutory adoption pay under Part XllZB of that Act,]

(d)a guarantee payment under Article 60,

(e)any payment for time off under Part VII,

(f)remuneration on suspension on medical grounds under Article 96 and remuneration on suspension on maternity grounds under Article 100,

(g)any sum payable in pursuance of an order for reinstatement or re-engagement under Article 147,

(h)any sum payable in pursuance of an order for the continuation of a contract of employment under Article 165, and

(j)remuneration under a protective award made under Article 217,

but excluding any payments within paragraph (2).

(2) Those payments are—

(a)any payment by way of an advance under an agreement for a loan or by way of an advance of wages (but without prejudice to the application of Article 45 to any deduction made from the worker's wages in respect of any such advance),

(b)any payment in respect of expenses incurred by the worker in carrying out his employment,

(c)any payment by way of a pension, allowance or gratuity in connection with the worker's retirement or as compensation for loss of office,

(d)any payment referable to the worker's redundancy, and

(e)any payment to the worker otherwise than in his capacity as a worker.

(3) Where any payment in the nature of a non-contractual bonus is (for any reason) made to a worker by his employer, the amount of the payment shall for the purposes of this Part—

(a)be treated as wages of the worker, and

(b)be treated as payable to him as such on the day on which the payment is made.

(4) In this Part “gross amount”, in relation to any wages payable to a worker, means the total amount of those wages before deductions of whatever nature.

(5) For the purposes of this Part any monetary value attaching to any payment or benefit in kind furnished to a worker by his employer shall not be treated as wages of the worker except in the case of any voucher, stamp or similar document which is—

(a)of a fixed value expressed in monetary terms, and

(b)capable of being exchanged (whether on its own or together with other vouchers, stamps or documents, and whether immediately or only after a time) for money, goods or services (or for any combination of two or more of those things).

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PART VN.I.GUARANTEE PAYMENTS

Right to guarantee paymentN.I.

60.—(1) Where throughout a day during any part of which an employee would normally be required to work in accordance with his contract of employment the employee is not provided with work by his employer by reason of—

(a)a diminution in the requirements of the employer's business for work of the kind which the employee is employed to do, or

(b)any other occurrence affecting the normal working of the employer's business in relation to work of the kind which the employee is employed to do,

the employee is entitled to be paid by his employer an amount in respect of that day.

(2) In this Order a payment to which an employee is entitled under paragraph (1) is referred to as a guarantee payment.

(3) In this Part—

(a)a day falling within paragraph (1) is referred to as a “workless day”, and

(b)“workless period” has a corresponding meaning.

(4) In this Part “day” means the period of twenty-four hours from midnight to midnight.

(5) Where a period of employment begun on any day extends, or would normally extend, over midnight into the following day—

(a)if the employment before midnight is, or would normally be, of longer duration than that after midnight, the period of employment shall be treated as falling wholly on the first day, and

(b)in any other case, the period of employment shall be treated as falling wholly on the second day.

Exclusions from right to guarantee paymentN.I.

61.—(1) An employee is not entitled to a guarantee payment unless he has been continuously employed for a period of not less than one month ending with the day before that in respect of which the guarantee payment is claimed.

Para. (2) rep. by SR 2002/298

(3) An employee is not entitled to a guarantee payment in respect of a workless day if the failure to provide him with work for that day occurs in consequence of a strike, lock-out or other industrial action involving any employee of his employer or of an associated employer.

(4) An employee is not entitled to a guarantee payment in respect of a workless day if—

(a)his employer has offered to provide alternative work for that day which is suitable in all the circumstances (whether or not it is work which the employee is under his contract employed to perform), and

(b)the employee has unreasonably refused that offer.

(5) An employee is not entitled to a guarantee payment if he does not comply with reasonable requirements imposed by his employer with a view to ensuring that his services are available.

Calculation of guarantee paymentN.I.

62.—(1) Subject to Article 63, the amount of a guarantee payment payable to an employee in respect of any day is the sum produced by multiplying the number of normal working hours on the day by the guaranteed hourly rate; and, accordingly, no guarantee payment is payable to an employee in whose case there are no normal working hours on the day in question.

(2) The guaranteed hourly rate, in relation to an employee, is the amount of one week's pay divided by the number of normal working hours in a week for that employee when employed under the contract of employment in force on the day in respect of which the guarantee payment is payable.

(3) But where the number of normal working hours differs from week to week or over a longer period, the amount of one week's pay shall be divided instead by—

(a)the average number of normal working hours calculated by dividing by twelve the total number of the employee's normal working hours during the period of twelve weeks ending with the last complete week before the day in respect of which the guarantee payment is payable, or

(b)where the employee has not been employed for a sufficient period to enable the calculation to be made under sub-paragraph (a), a number which fairly represents the number of normal working hours in a week having regard to such of the considerations specified in paragraph (4) as are appropriate in the circumstances.

(4) The considerations referred to in paragraph (3)(b) are—

(a)the average number of normal working hours in a week which the employee could expect in accordance with the terms of his contract, and

(b)the average number of normal working hours of other employees engaged in relevant comparable employment with the same employer.

(5) If in any case an employee's contract has been varied, or a new contract has been entered into, in connection with a period of short-time working, paragraphs (2) and (3) have effect as if for the references to the day in respect of which the guarantee payment is payable there were substituted references to the last day on which the original contract was in force.

Limits on amount of and entitlement to guarantee paymentN.I.

63.—(1) The amount of a guarantee payment payable to an employee in respect of any day shall not exceed[F27£21.50].

(2) An employee is not entitled to guarantee payments in respect of more than the specified number of days in any period of three months.

(3) The specified number of days for the purposes of paragraph (2) is the number of days, not exceeding five, on which the employee normally works in a week under the contract of employment in force on the day in respect of which the guarantee payment is claimed.

(4) But where that number of days varies from week to week or over a longer period, the specified number of days is instead—

(a)the average number of such days, not exceeding five, calculated by dividing by twelve the total number of such days during the period of twelve weeks ending with the last complete week before the day in respect of which the guarantee payment is claimed, and rounding up the resulting figure to the next whole number, or

(b)where the employee has not been employed for a sufficient period to enable the calculation to be made under sub-paragraph (a), a number which fairly represents the number of the employee's normal working days in a week, not exceeding five, having regard to such of the considerations specified in paragraph (5) as are appropriate in the circumstances.

(5) The considerations referred to in paragraph (4)(b) are—

(a)the average number of normal working days in a week which the employee could expect in accordance with the terms of his contract, and

(b)the average number of such days of other employees engaged in relevant comparable employment with the same employer.

(6) If in any case an employee's contract has been varied, or a new contract has been entered into, in connection with a period of short-time working, paragraphs (3) and (4) have effect as if for the references to the day in respect of which the guarantee payment is claimed there were substituted references to the last day on which the original contract was in force.

[F28(7) The Department may by order vary—

(a)the length of the period specified in paragraph (2);

(b)a limit specified in paragraph (3) or (4).]

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Contractual remunerationN.I.

64.—(1) A right to a guarantee payment does not affect any right of an employee in relation to remuneration under his contract of employment ( “contractual remuneration”).

(2) Any contractual remuneration paid to an employee in respect of a workless day goes towards discharging any liability of the employer to pay a guarantee payment in respect of that day; and, conversely, any guarantee payment paid in respect of a day goes towards discharging any liability of the employer to pay contractual remuneration in respect of that day.

(3) For the purposes of paragraph (2), contractual remuneration shall be treated as paid in respect of a workless day—

(a)where it is expressed to be calculated or payable by reference to that day or any part of that day, to the extent that it is so expressed, and

(b)in any other case, to the extent that it represents guaranteed remuneration, rather than remuneration for work actually done, and is referable to that day when apportioned rateably between that day and any other workless period falling within the period in respect of which the remuneration is paid.

Power to modify provisions about guarantee paymentsN.I.

65.  The Department may by order provide that in relation to any description of employees the provisions of—

(a)Articles 60(4) and (5), 62, 63(3) to (5) (as originally enacted or as varied under Article 63(7)) and 64, and

(b)so far as they apply for the purposes of those provisions, Article 5 and Chapter IV of Part I,

shall have effect subject to such modifications and adaptations as may be prescribed by the order.

Complaints to industrial tribunalsN.I.

66.—(1) An employee may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal that his employer has failed to pay the whole or any part of a guarantee payment to which the employee is entitled.

(2) An industrial tribunal shall not consider a complaint relating to a guarantee payment in respect of any day unless the complaint is presented to the tribunal—

(a)before the end of the period of three months beginning with that day, or

(b)within such further period as the tribunal considers reasonable in a case where it is satisfied that it was not reasonably practicable for the complaint to be presented before the end of that period of three months.

(3) Where an industrial tribunal finds a complaint under this Article well-founded, the tribunal shall order the employer to pay to the employee the amount of guarantee payment which it finds is due to him.

Exemption ordersN.I.

67.—(1) Where—

(a)at any time there is in force a collective agreement, or an agricultural wages order, under which employees to whom the agreement or order relates have a right to guaranteed remuneration, and

(b)on the application of all the parties to the agreement, or of the Agricultural Wages Board for Northern Ireland, the appropriate Department (having regard to the provisions of the agreement or order) is satisfied that Article 60 should not apply to those employees,

it may make an order under this Article excluding those employees from the operation of that Article.

(2) In this Article “agricultural wages order” means an order made under Article 4 of the [1977 NI 22.] Agricultural Wages (Northern Ireland) Order 1977.

(3) In paragraph (1) “the appropriate Department” means—

(a)in relation to a collective agreement, the Department, and

(b)in relation to an agricultural wages order, the Department of Agriculture.

(4) The Department shall not make an order under this Article in respect of an agreement unless—

(a)the agreement provides for procedures to be followed (whether by arbitration or otherwise) in cases where an employee claims that his employer has failed to pay the whole or any part of any guaranteed remuneration to which the employee is entitled under the agreement and those procedures include a right to arbitration or adjudication by an independent referee or body in cases where (by reason of an equality of votes or otherwise) a decision cannot otherwise be reached, or

(b)the agreement indicates that an employee to whom the agreement relates may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal that his employer has failed to pay the whole or any part of any guaranteed remuneration to which the employee is entitled under the agreement.

(5) Where an order under this Article is in force in respect of an agreement indicating as described in sub-paragraph (b) of paragraph (4) an industrial tribunal shall have jurisdiction over a complaint such as is mentioned in that sub-paragraph as if it were a complaint falling within Article 66.

(6) An order varying or revoking an earlier order under this Article may be made in pursuance of an application by all or any of the parties to the agreement in question, or the Agricultural Wages Board for Northern Ireland, or in the absence of such an application.

[F29PART VAN.I.PROTECTED DISCLOSURES

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Meaning of “protected disclosure”N.I.

67A.  In this Order a “protected disclosure” means a qualifying disclosure (as defined by Article 67B) which is made by a worker in accordance with any of Articles 67C to 67H.

Disclosures qualifying for protectionN.I.

67B.(1) In this Part a “qualifying disclosure” means any disclosure of information which, in the reasonable belief of the worker making the disclosure, tends to show one or more of the following—

(a)that a criminal offence has been committed, is being committed or is likely to be committed,

(b)that a person has failed, is failing or is likely to fail to comply with any legal obligation to which he is subject,

(c)that a miscarriage of justice has occurred, is occurring or is likely to occur,

(d)that the health or safety of any individual has been, is being or is likely to be endangered,

(e)that the environment has been, is being or is likely to be damaged, or

(f)that information tending to show any matter falling within any one of the preceding sub-paragraphs has been, is being or is likely to be deliberately concealed.

(2) For the purposes of paragraph (1), it is immaterial whether the relevant failure occurred, occurs or would occur in the United Kingdom or elsewhere, and whether the law applying to it is that of the United Kingdom or of any other country or territory.

(3) A disclosure of information is not a qualifying disclosure if the person making the disclosure commits an offence by making it.

(4) A disclosure of information in respect of which a claim to legal professional privilege could be maintained in legal proceedings is not a qualifying disclosure if it is made by a person to whom the information had been disclosed in the course of obtaining legal advice.

(5) In this Part “the relevant failure”, in relation to a qualifying disclosure, means the matter falling within sub-paragraphs (a) to (f) of paragraph (1).

Disclosure to employer or other responsible personN.I.

67C.(1) A qualifying disclosure is made in accordance with this Article if the worker makes the disclosure in good faith—

(a)to his employer, or

(b)where the worker reasonably believes that the relevant failure relates solely or mainly to—

(i)the conduct of a person other than his employer, or

(ii)any other matter for which a person other than his employer has legal responsibility, to that other person.

(2) A worker who, in accordance with a procedure whose use by him is authorised by his employer, makes a qualifying disclosure to a person other than his employer, is to be treated for the purposes of this Part as making the qualifying disclosure to his employer.

Disclosure to legal adviserN.I.

67D.  A qualifying disclosure is made in accordance with this Article if it is made in the course of obtaining legal advice.

Disclosure to Minister of the Crown or a Northern Ireland departmentN.I.

67E.  A qualifying disclosure is made in accordance with this Article if—

(a)the worker's employer is—

(i)an individual appointed under any statutory provision by a Minister of the Crown or a Northern Ireland department, or

(ii)a body any of whose members are so appointed, and

(b)the disclosure is made in good faith to a Minister of the Crown or a Northern Ireland department.

Disclosure to prescribed personN.I.

67F.(1) A qualifying disclosure is made in accordance with this Article if the worker—

(a)makes the disclosure in good faith to a person prescribed by an order made by the Department for the purposes of this Article, and

(b)reasonably believes—

(i)that the relevant failure falls within any description of matters in respect of which that person is so prescribed, and

(ii)that the information disclosed, and any allegation contained in it, are substantially true.

(2) An order prescribing persons for the purposes of this Article may specify persons or descriptions of persons, and shall specify the descriptions of matters in respect of which each person, or persons of each description, is or are prescribed.

Disclosure in other casesN.I.

67G.(1) A qualifying disclosure is made in accordance with this Article if—

(a)the worker makes the disclosure in good faith,

(b)he reasonably believes that the information disclosed, and any allegation contained in it, are substantially true,

(c)he does not make the disclosure for purposes of personal gain,

(d)any of the conditions in paragraph (2) is met, and

(e)in all the circumstances of the case, it is reasonable for him to make the disclosure.

(2) The conditions referred to in paragraph (1)(d) are—

(a)that, at the time he makes the disclosure, the worker reasonably believes that he will be subjected to a detriment by his employer if he makes a disclosure to his employer or in accordance with Article 67F,

(b)that, in a case where no person is prescribed for the purposes of Article 67F in relation to the relevant failure, the worker reasonably believes that it is likely that evidence relating to the relevant failure will be concealed or destroyed if he makes a disclosure to his employer, or

(c)that the worker has previously made a disclosure of substantially the same information—

(i)to his employer, or

(ii)in accordance with Article 67F.

(3) In determining for the purposes of paragraph (1)(e) whether it is reasonable for the worker to make the disclosure, regard shall be had, in particular, to—

(a)the identity of the person to whom the disclosure is made,

(b)the seriousness of the relevant failure,

(c)whether the relevant failure is continuing or is likely to occur in the future,

(d)whether the disclosure is made in breach of a duty of confidentiality owed by the employer to any other person,

(e)in a case falling within paragraph (2)(c)(i) or (ii), any action which the employer or the person to whom the previous disclosure in accordance with Article 67F was made has taken or might reasonably be expected to have taken as a result of the previous disclosure, and

(f)in a case falling within paragraph (2)(c)(i), whether in making the disclosure to the employer the worker complied with any procedure whose use by him was authorised by the employer.

(4) For the purposes of this Article a subsequent disclosure may be regarded as a disclosure of substantially the same information as that disclosed by a previous disclosure as mentioned in paragraph (2)(c) even though the subsequent disclosure extends to information about action taken or not taken by any person as a result of the previous disclosure.

Disclosure of exceptionally serious failureN.I.

67H.(1) A qualifying disclosure is made in accordance with this Article if—

(a)the worker makes the disclosure in good faith,

(b)he reasonably believes that the information disclosed, and any allegation contained in it, are substantially true,

(c)he does not make the disclosure for purposes of personal gain,

(d)the relevant failure is of an exceptionally serious nature, and

(e)in all the circumstances of the case, it is reasonable for him to make the disclosure.

(2) In determining for the purposes of paragraph (1)(e) whether it is reasonable for the worker to make the disclosure, regard shall be had, in particular, to the identity of the person to whom the disclosure is made.

Contractual duties of confidentialityN.I.

67J.(1) Any provision in an agreement to which this Article applies is void in so far as it purports to preclude the worker from making a protected disclosure.

(2) This Article applies to any agreement between a worker and his employer (whether a worker's contract or not), including an agreement to refrain from instituting or continuing any proceedings under this Order or any proceedings for breach of contract.

Extension of meaning of “worker” etc. for Part VAN.I.

67K.(1) For the purposes of this Part “worker” includes an individual who is not a worker as defined by Article 3(3) but who—

(a)works or worked for a person in circumstances in which—

(i)he is or was introduced or supplied to do that work by a third person, and

(ii)the terms on which he is or was engaged to do the work are or were in practice substantially determined not by him but by the person for whom he works or worked,by thethird person orby both ofthem,

(b)contracts or contracted with a person, for the purposes of that person's business, for the execution of work to be done in a place not under the control or management of that person and would fall within Article 3(3)(b) if for “personally” in that provision there were substituted “ (whether personally or otherwise) ”,

[F30(ba)works or worked as a person performing services under a contract entered into by him with a Health and Social Services Board under Article 57 of the Health and Personal Social Services (Northern Ireland) Order 1972,]

(c)works or worked as a person providing general medical services, general dental services, general ophthalmic services or pharmaceutical services in accordance with arrangements made by a Health and Social Services Board under Article 56, 61, 62 or 63 of the Health and Personal Social Services (Northern Ireland) Order 1972, or

(d)is or was provided with work experience provided pursuant to a training course or programme or with training for employment (or with both) otherwise than—

(i)under a contract of employment, or

(ii)by an educational establishment on a course run by that establishment;

and any reference to a worker's contract, to employment or to a worker being “employed” shall be construed accordingly.

(2) For the purposes of this Part “employer” includes—

(a)in relation to a worker falling within sub-paragraph (a) of paragraph (1), the person who substantially determines or determined the terms on which he is or was engaged,

[F30(aa)in relation to a worker falling within sub-paragraph (ba) of that paragraph, the Board referred to in that sub-paragraph;]

(b)in relation to a worker falling within sub-paragraph (c) of that paragraph, the board referred to in that sub-paragraph, and

(c)in relation to a worker falling within sub-paragraph (d) of that paragraph, the person providing the work experience or training.

(3) In this Article “educational establishment” includes any university, college, school or other educational establishment.

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[F31Application of Part VA and related provisions to policeN.I.

67KA(1) Paragraph (2) applies for the purposes of—

(a)this Part,

(b)Article 70B and Articles 71 and 72 so far as relating to that Article, and

(c)Article 134A and the other provisions of Part XI so far as they relate to the right not to be unfairly dismissed in a case where the dismissal is unfair by virtue of Article 134A.

(2) A person who holds, otherwise than under a contract of employment, the office of constable shall be treated as an employee employed by the relevant officer under a contract of employment; and any reference to a worker being “employed” and to his “employer” shall be construed accordingly.

(3) In this Article “the relevant officer”

(a)in relation to a police officer, means the Chief Constable;

(b)F32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(c)in relation to any other person holding the office of constable, means the person who has the direction and control of the body of constables in question.]

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Other interpretative provisionsN.I.

67L.(1) In this Part—

  • “Northern Ireland department” includes the head of a Northern Ireland department;

  • “qualifying disclosure” has the meaning given by Article 67B;

  • “the relevant failure”, in relation to a qualifying disclosure, has the meaning given by Article 67B(5).

(2) In determining for the purposes of this Part whether a person makes a disclosure for purposes of personal gain, there shall be disregarded any reward payable by or under any statutory provision.

(3) Any reference in this Part to the disclosure of information shall have effect, in relation to any case where the person receiving the information is already aware of it, as a reference to bringing the information to his attention.]

PART VIN.I.PROTECTION FROM SUFFERING DETRIMENT ETC. IN EMPLOYMENT

CHAPTER IN.I.RIGHTS NOT TO SUFFER DETRIMENT

[F33Jury serviceN.I.

67M.(1) An employee has the right not to be subjected to any detriment by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, by his employer on the ground that the employee—

(a)has been summoned under the Juries (Northern Ireland) Order 1974 (NI 6) or the Coroners (Northern Ireland) Act 1959 (c.15) to attend for service as a juror, or

(b)has been absent from work because he attended at any place in pursuance of being so summoned.

(2) This Article does not apply where the detriment in question amounts to dismissal within the meaning of Part XI.

(3) For the purposes of this Article, an employee is not to be regarded as having been subjected to a detriment by a failure to pay remuneration in respect of a relevant period unless under his contract of employment he is entitled to be paid that remuneration.

(4) In paragraph (3) “a relevant period” means any period during which the employee is absent from work because of his attendance at any place in pursuance of being summoned as mentioned in paragraph (1)(a).]

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Health and safety casesN.I.

68.—(1) An employee has the right not to be subjected to any detriment by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, by his employer done on the ground that—

(a)having been designated by the employer to carry out activities in connection with preventing or reducing risks to health and safety at work, the employee carried out (or proposed to carry out) any such activities,

(b)being a representative of workers on matters of health and safety at work or member of a safety committee—

(i)in accordance with arrangements established under or by virtue of any statutory provision, or

(ii)by reason of being acknowledged as such by the employer,

the employee performed (or proposed to perform) any functions as such a representative or a member of such a committee,

[F34(ba)the employee took part (or proposed to take part) in consultation with the employer pursuant to the Health and Safety (Consultation with Employees) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 1996 or in an election of representatives of employee safety within the meaning of those Regulations (whether as a candidate or otherwise),]

(c)being an employee at a place where—

(i)there was no such representative or safety committee, or

(ii)there was such a representative or safety committee but it was not reasonably practicable for the employee to raise the matter by those means,

he brought to his employer's attention, by reasonable means, circumstances connected with his work which he reasonably believed were harmful or potentially harmful to health or safety,

(d)in circumstances of danger which the employee reasonably believed to be serious and imminent and which he could not reasonably have been expected to avert, he left (or proposed to leave) or (while the danger persisted) refused to return to, his place of work or any dangerous part of his place of work, or

(e)in circumstances of danger which the employee reasonably believed to be serious and imminent, he took (or proposed to take) appropriate steps to protect himself or other persons from the danger.

(2) For the purposes of paragraph (1)(e) whether steps which an employee took (or proposed to take) were appropriate is to be judged by reference to all the circumstances including, in particular, his knowledge and the facilities and advice available to him at the time.

(3) An employee is not to be regarded as having been subjected to any detriment on the ground specified in paragraph (1)(e) if the employer shows that it was (or would have been) so negligent for the employee to take the steps which he took (or proposed to take) that a reasonable employer might have treated him as the employer did.

(4) F35. . . this Article does not apply where the detriment in question amounts to dismissal (within the meaning of[F35 Part XI]).

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F34SR 1996/511

[F36Working time casesN.I.

68A.(1) A worker has the right not to be subjected to any detriment by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, by his employer done on the ground that the worker-

(a)refused (or proposed to refuse) to comply with a requirement which the employer imposed (or proposed to impose) in contravention of the Working Time Regulations (Northern Ireland) 1998,

(b)refused (or proposed to refuse) to forgo a right conferred on him by those Regulations,

(c)failed to sign a workforce agreement for the purposes of those Regulations, or to enter into, or agree to vary or extend, any other agreement with his employer which is provided for in those Regulations,

(d)being—

(i)a representative of members of the workforce for the purposes of Schedule 1 to those Regulations, or

(ii)a candidate in an election in which any person elected will, on being elected, be such a representative,

performed (or proposed to perform) any functions or activities as such a representative or candidate,

(e)brought proceedings against the employer to enforce a right conferred on him by those Regulations, or

(f)alleged that the employer had infringed such a right.

(2) It is immaterial for the purposes of paragraph (1)(e) or (f)—

(a)whether or not the worker has the right, or

(b)whether or not the right has been infringed,

but, for those provisions to apply, the claim to the right and that it has been infringed must be made in good faith.

(3) It is sufficient for paragraph (1)(f) to apply that the worker, without specifying the right, made it reasonably clear to the employer what the right claimed to have been infringed was.

(4) This Article does not apply where a worker is an employee and the detriment in question amounts to dismissal within the meaning of Part XIF37. . . .

[F38(5) A reference in this Article to the Working Time Regulations (Northern Ireland) 1998 includes a reference to

[F39(a)]]the Merchant Shipping (Working Time: Inland Waterways) Regulations 2003.

[F40(b)the Fishing Vessels (Working Time: Sea-fishermen) Regulations 2004 [F41; and

(c)the Cross-border Railway Services (Working Time) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2008.]]]

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F36SR 1998/386

F38SI 2003/3049

F39SI 2004/1713

F40SI 2004/1713

Trustees of occupational pension schemesN.I.

69.—(1) An employee has the right not to be subjected to any detriment by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, by his employer done on the ground that, being a trustee of a relevant occupational pension scheme which relates to his employment, the employee performed (or proposed to perform) any functions as such a trustee.

(2) F42. . . this Article does not apply where the detriment in question amounts to dismissal (within the meaning of[F42 Part XI]).

[F43(2A) This Article applies to an employee who is a director of a company which is a trustee of a relevant occupational pension scheme as it applies to an employee who is a trustee of such a scheme (references to such a trustee being read for this purpose as references to such a director).]

(3) In this Article “relevant occupational pension scheme” means an occupational pension scheme (as defined in section 1 of the [1993 c. 49.] Pension Schemes (Northern Ireland) Act 1993) established under a trust.

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Employee representativesN.I.

70.—(1) An employee has the right not to be subjected to any detriment by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, by his employer done on the ground that, being—

(a)an employee representative for the purposes of Part XIII of this Order or[F44regulations 9, 13 and 15 of the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006][F45 or regulations 9, 13 and 15 of the Service Provision Change (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006], or

(b)a candidate in an election in which any person elected will, on being elected, be such an employee representative,

he performed (or proposed to perform) any functions or activities as such an employee representative or candidate.

[F46(1A) An employee has the right not to be subjected to any detriment by any act, or by any deliberate failure to act, by his employer done on the ground of his participation in an election of employee representatives for the purposes of Part XIII of this Order or [F47regulations 9, 13 and 15 of the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006][F48or regulations 9, 13 and 15 of the Service Provision Change (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006] .]

(2) F49. . . this Article does not apply where the detriment in question amounts to a dismissal (within the meaning of[F49 Part XI]).

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F46SR 1999/432

[F50Employees exercising right to time off work for study or trainingN.I.

70A.(1) An employee has the right not to be subjected to any detriment by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, by his employer or the principal (within the meaning of Article 91A(3)) done on the ground that, being a person entitled to—

(a)time off under Article 91A(1) or (3), and

(b)remuneration under Article 91B(1) in respect of that time taken off,

the employee exercised (or proposed to exercise) that right or received (or sought to receive) such remuneration.

(2) F51. . . this Article does not apply where the detriment in question amounts to dismissal (within the meaning of[F51 Part XI]).]

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[F52Protected disclosuresN.I.

70B.(1) A worker has the right not to be subjected to any detriment by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, by his employer done on the ground that the worker has made a protected disclosure.

(2) F53. . . this Article does not apply where—

(a)the worker is an employee, and

(b)the detriment in question amounts to dismissal (within the meaning of[F53 Part XI]).

(3) For the purposes of this Article, and of Articles 71 and 72 so far as relating to this Article, “worker”, “worker's contract”, “employment” and “employer” have the extended meaning given by Article 67K.]

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[F54Leave for family and domestic reasonsN.I.

70C.(1) An employee has the right not to be subjected to any detriment by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, by his employer done for a prescribed reason.

(2) A prescribed reason is one which is prescribed by regulations made by the Department and which relates to—

(a)pregnancy, childbirth or maternity,

(b)ordinary, compulsory or additional maternity leave,

[F55(ba)ordinary or additional adoption leave,]

(c)parental leave,

[F55(ca)paternity leave, or]

(d)time off under Article 85A.

(3) A reason prescribed under this Article in relation to parental leave may relate to action which an employee takes, agrees to take or refuses to take under or in respect of a collective or workforce agreement.]

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .F56N.I.

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F56prosp. in pt. inserted by 2002 c. 21 for the purpose of rights conferred on employees by virtue of regulations under s. 25

[F57 Flexible workingN.I.

[F5870E.](1) An employee has the right not to be subjected to any detriment by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, by his employer done on the ground that the employee—

(a)made (or proposed to make) an application under Article 112F,

(b)exercised (or proposed to exercise) a right conferred on him under Article 112G,

(c)brought proceedings against the employer under Article 112H, or

(d)alleged the existence of any circumstance which would constitute a ground for bringing such proceedings.

(2) This Article does not apply where the detriment in question amounts to dismissal within the meaning of Part XI.]

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Complaints to industrial tribunalsN.I.

71.—(1) An employee may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal that he has been subjected to a detriment in contravention of Article[F59 67M,] 68,[F60 69, 70[F61,70A[F62, 70C or[F63 70E]]]].

[F64(1ZA) A worker may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal that he has been subjected to a detriment in contravention of Article 68A.]

[F65(1A) A worker may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal that he has been subjected to a detriment in contravention of Article 70B.]

[F66(1B) A person may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal that he has been subjected to a detriment in contravention of Article 70D.]

(2) [F65On a complaint under this Article] it is for the employer to show the ground on which any act, or deliberate failure to act, was done.

(3) An industrial tribunal shall not consider a complaint under this Article unless it is presented—

(a)before the end of the period of three months beginning with the date of the act or failure to act to which the complaint relates or, where that act or failure is part of a series of similar acts or failures, the last of them, or

(b)within such further period as the tribunal considers reasonable in a case where it is satisfied that it was not reasonably practicable for the complaint to be presented before the end of that period of three months.

(4) For the purposes of paragraph (3)—

(a)where an act extends over a period, the “date of the act” means the last day of that period, and

(b)a deliberate failure to act shall be treated as done when it was decided on;

and, in the absence of evidence establishing the contrary, an employer shall be taken to decide on a failure to act when he does an act inconsistent with doing the failed act or, if he has done no such inconsistent act, when the period expires within which he might reasonably have been expected to do the failed act if it was to be done.

[F60(5) In this Article and Article 72 any reference to the employer includes, where a person complains that he has been subjected to a dertiment in contravention of Article 70A, the principal (within the meaning of Article 91A(3)).]

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F64SR 1998/386

F66Art. 71(1B) inserted (1.9.2002 for certain purposes, otherwise prosp.) by Tax Credits Act 2002 (c. 21), ss. 27, 61, Sch. 1 para. 2(3); S.I. 2002/1727, art. 2

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C31Art. 71(2)-(4) applied (with modifications) (prosp.) by Pensions (No. 2) Act (Northern Ireland) 2008 (c. 13), ss. 56, 118(1) (with s. 73)

RemediesN.I.

72.—(1) Where an industrial tribunal finds a complaint under Article 71 well-founded, the tribunal—

(a)shall make a declaration to that effect, and

(b)may make an award of compensation to be paid by the employer to the complainant in respect of the act or failure to act to which the complaint relates.

(2) [F67Subject to[F68 paragraphs (5A) and (6)],] the amount of the compensation awarded shall be such as the tribunal considers just and equitable in all the circumstances having regard to—

(a)the infringement to which the complaint relates, and

(b)any loss which is attributable to the act, or failure to act, which infringed the complainant's right.

(3) The loss shall be taken to include—

(a)any expenses reasonably incurred by the complainant in consequence of the act, or failure to act, to which the complaint relates, and

(b)loss of any benefit which he might reasonably be expected to have had but for that act or failure to act.

(4) In ascertaining the loss the tribunal shall apply the same rule concerning the duty of a person to mitigate his loss as applies to damages recoverable under the common law of Northern Ireland.

(5) Where the tribunal finds that the act, or failure to act, to which the complaint relates was to any extent caused or contributed to by action of the complainant, it shall reduce the amount of the compensation by such proportion as it considers just and equitable having regard to that finding.

[F68(5A) Where—

(a)the complaint is made under Article 71(1ZA),

(b)the detriment to which the worker is subjected is the termination of his worker's contract, and

(c)that contract is not a contract of employment,

any compensation must not exceed the compensation that would be payable under Chapter II of Part XI if the worker had been an employee and had been dismissed for the reason specified in Article 132A.]

[F67(6) Where—

(a)the complaint is made under Article 71(1A),

(b)the detriment to which the worker is subject is the termination of his worker's contract, and

(c)that contract is not a contract of employment,

any compensation must not exceed the compensation that would be payable under Chapter II of Part XI if the worker had been an employee and had been dismissed for the reason specified in Article 134A.]

[F69(7) Where—

(a)the complaint is made under Article 71(1B) by a person who is not an employee, and

(b)the detriment to which he is subjected is the termination of his contract with the person who is his employer for the purposes of section 25 of the Tax Credits Act 2002,

any compensation must not exceed the compensation that would be payable under Chapter 2 of Part 11 if the complainant had been an employee and had been dismissed for the reason specified in Article 135B.]

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F68SR 1998/386

F69Art. 72(7) inserted (1.9.2002 for certain purposes, otherwise prosp.) by Tax Credits Act 2002 (c. 21), ss. 27, 61, Sch. 1 para. 2(4); S.I. 2002/1727, art. 2

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C34Art. 72 applied (with modifications) (prosp.) by Pensions (No. 2) Act (Northern Ireland) 2008 (c. 13), ss. 56, 118(1) (with s. 73)

[F70Application to police of Article 68 and related provisionsN.I.

72A.(1) For the purposes of Article 68, and of Articles 71 and 72 so far as relating to that Article, the holding, otherwise than under a contract of employment, of the office of constable -shall be treated as employment by the relevant officer under a contract of employment.

[F71(2) In this Article “the relevant officer”, in relation to a person holding the office of constable, means the person who under Article 47A of the Health and Safety at Work (Northern Ireland) Order 1978 is to be treated as his employer for the purposes of Part II of that Order.]]

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F71Art. 72A(2) substituted (25.7.2006 with effect as mentioned in s. 27(4) of the amending Act) by Northern Ireland (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 2006 (c. 33), ss. 27(2)(a)(3), 31(1)(f) (with s. 27(5))

CHAPTER IIN.I.[F72DETRIMENT]

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[F73Detriment] on grounds related to union membership or activitiesN.I.

73.—(1) [F73A worker] has the right not to[F74 be subjected to any detriment as an individual by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, by his employer if the act or failure takes place] for[F73 the sole or main purpose] of—

(a)preventing or deterring him from being or seeking to become a member of an independent trade union, or penalising him for doing so.

(b)preventing or deterring him from taking part in the activities of an independent trade union at an appropriate time, or penalising him for doing so,F73. . .

[F73(ba)preventing or deterring him from making use of trade union services at an appropriate time, or penalising him for doing so, or]

(c)compelling him to be or become a member of any trade union or of a particular trade union or of one of a number of particular trade unions.

(2) In paragraph[F73 (1)] “an appropriate time” means—

(a)a time outside the[F73 worker's] working hours, or

(b)a time within his working hours at which, in accordance with arrangements agreed with or consent given by his employer, it is permissible for him to take part in the activities of a trade union[F73 or (as the case may be) make use of trade union services];

and for this purpose “working hours”, in relation to[F73 a worker], means any time when, in accordance with his contract of employment[F73 (or other contract personally to do work or perform services)], he is required to be at work.

[F73(2A) In this Article—

(a)“trade union services” means services made available to the worker by an independent trade union by virtue of his membership of the union, and

(b)references to a worker's “making use” of trade union services include his consenting to the raising of a matter on his behalf by an independent trade union of which he is a member.

(2B) If an independent trade union of which a worker is a member raises a matter on his behalf (with or without his consent), penalising the worker for that is to be treated as penalising him as mentioned in paragraph (1)(ba).

(2C) A worker also has the right not to be subjected to any detriment as an individual by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, by his employer if the act or failure takes place because of the worker's failure to accept an offer made in contravention of Article 77A or 77B.

(2D) For the purposes of paragraph (2C), not conferring a benefit that, if the offer had been accepted by the worker, would have been conferred on him under the resulting agreement shall be taken to be subjecting him to a detriment as an individual (and to be a deliberate failure to act).]

(3) [F73A worker] also has the right not to[F74 be subjected to any detriment as an individual by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, by his employer if the act or failure takes place] for[F73 the sole or main purpose] of enforcing a requirement (whether or not imposed by[F73 a contract of employment] or in writing) that, in the event of his not being a member of any trade union or of a particular trade union or of one of a number of particular trade unions, he must make one or more payments.

(4) For the purposes of paragraph (3) any deduction made by an employer from the remuneration payable to[F73 a worker] in respect of his employment shall, if it is attributable to his not being a member of any trade union or of a particular trade union or of one of a number of particular trade unions, be treated as[F74 a detriment to which he has been subjected as an individual by an act of his employer taking place] for[F73 the sole or main purpose] of enforcing a requirement of a kind mentioned in that paragraph.

(5) References in this Chapter to being or becoming a member of a trade union include references to being or becoming a member of a particular branch or section of that union and to being or becoming a member of one of a number of particular branches or sections of that unionF73. . . .

[F73(5A) References in this Chapter—

(a)to taking part in the activities of a trade union, and

(b)to services made available by a trade union by virtue of membership of the union,

shall be construed in accordance with paragraph (5).]

[F73(6) This Article does not apply where—

(a)the worker is an employee; and

(b)the detriment in question amounts to dismissal.

(7) In this Chapter—

  • “worker” means an individual who works, or normally works as mentioned in paragraphs (a) to (c) of the definition of “worker” in Article 2(2) of the 1995 Order; and

  • “employer” means—

    (a)

    in relation to a worker, the person for whom he works;

    (b)

    in relation to a former worker, the person for whom he worked.]

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Complaints to industrial tribunalN.I.

74.—(1) [F75A worker or former worker] may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal on the ground that[F76 he has been subjected to a detriment] by his employer in contravention of Article 73.

(2) An industrial tribunal shall not consider a complaint under this Article unless it is presented—

(a)before the end of the period of three months beginning with the date of the[F76 act or failure to which the complaint relates or, where that act or failure is part of a series of similar acts or failures (or both) the last of them], or

(b)within such further period as the tribunal considers reasonable in a case where it is satisfied that it was not reasonably practicable for the complaint to be presented before the end of that period of three months.

[F76(3) For the purposes of paragraph (2)—

(a)where an act extends over a period, the reference to the date of the act is a reference to the last day of that period;

(b)a failure to act shall be treated as done when it was decided on.

(4) For the purposes of paragraph (3), in the absence of evidence establishing the contrary an employer shall be taken to decide on a failure to act—

(a)when he does an act inconsistent with doing the failed act; or

(b)if he has done no such inconsistent act, when the period expires within which he might reasonably have been expected to do the failed act if it was to be done.]

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Consideration of complaintN.I.

75.—(1) On a complaint under Article 74 it shall be for the employer to show[F77 what was the sole or main purpose] for which[F78 he acted or failed to act].

(2) In determining any question whether[F78 the employer acted or failed to act, or the purpose for which he did so], no account shall be taken of any pressure which was exercised on him by calling, organising, procuring or financing a strike or other industrial action, or by threatening to do so; and that question shall be determined as if no such pressure had been exercised.

Paras. (3)-(5) rep. by 2004 NI 19

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RemediesN.I.

76.—(1) Where the industrial tribunal finds that a complaint under Article 74 is well-founded, the tribunal—

(a)shall make a declaration to that effect, and

(b)may make an award of compensation to be paid by the employer to the complainant in respect of the[F79 act of failure] complained of.

(2) The amount of the compensation awarded shall be such as the tribunal considers just and equitable in all the circumstances having regard to—

(a)the infringement complained of; and

(b)any loss sustained by the complainant which is attributable to the[F79 act or failure] which infringed his right.

(3) The loss shall be taken to include—

(a)any expenses reasonably incurred by the complainant in consequence of the[F79 act or failure] complained of, and

(b)loss of any benefit which he might reasonably be expected to have had but for that[F79 act or failure].

(4) In ascertaining the loss, the tribunal shall apply the same rule concerning the duty of a person to mitigate his loss as applies to damages recoverable under the common law of Northern Ireland.

(5) In determining the amount of compensation to be awarded no account shall be taken of any pressure which was exercised on the employer by calling, organising, procuring or financing a strike or other industrial action, or by threatening to do so; and that question shall be determined as if no such pressure had been exercised.

(6) Where the tribunal finds that the[F79 act or failure] complained of was to any extent caused or contributed to by action of the complainant, it shall reduce the amount of the compensation by such proportion as it considers just and equitable having regard to that finding.

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Awards against third partiesN.I.

77.—(1) If in proceedings on a complaint under Article 74—

(a)the complaint is made on the ground that[F80 the complainant has been subjected to detriment by an act or failure by his employer taking place] for[F81 the sole or main purpose] of compelling him to be or become a member of any trade union or of a particular trade union or of one of a number of particular trade unions, and

(b)either the complainant or the employer claims in proceedings before the tribunal that the employer was induced to[F80 act or fail to act in the way] complained of by pressure which a trade union or other person exercised on him by calling, organising, procuring or financing a strike or other industrial action, or by threatening to do so,

the complainant or the employer may request the tribunal to direct that the person who he claims exercised the pressure be joined as a party to the proceedings.

(2) The request shall be granted if it is made before the hearing of the complaint begins, but may be refused if it is made after that time; and no such request may be made after the tribunal has made a declaration that the complaint is well-founded.

(3) Where a person has been so joined as a party to proceedings and the tribunal—

(a)makes an award of compensation, and

(b)finds that the claim mentioned in paragraph (1)(b) is well-founded,

it may order that the compensation shall be paid by the person joined instead of by the employer, or partly by that person and partly by the employer, as the tribunal may consider just and equitable in the circumstances.

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[F82CHAPTER IIIN.I.INDUCEMENTS

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Inducements relating to union membership or activitiesN.I.

77A.(1) A worker has the right not to have an offer made to him by his employer for the sole or main purpose of inducing the worker—

(a)not to be or seek to become a member of an independent trade union,

(b)not to take part, at an appropriate time, in the activities of an independent trade union,

(c)not to make use, at an appropriate time, of trade union services, or

(d)to be or become a member of any trade union or of a particular trade union or of one of a number of particular trade unions.

(2) In paragraph (1) “an appropriate time” means—

(a)a time outside the worker's working hours, or

(b)a time within his working hours at which, in accordance with arrangements agreed with or consent given by his employer, it is permissible for him to take part in the activities of a trade union or (as the case may be) make use of trade union services.

(3) In paragraph (2) “working hours”, in relation to a worker, means any time when, in accordance with his contract of employment (or other contract personally to do work or perform services), he is required to be at work.

(4) In paragraphs (1) and (2)—

(a)“trade union services” means services made available to the worker by an independent trade union by virtue of his membership of the union, and

(b)references to a worker's “making use” of trade union services include his consenting to the raising of a matter on his behalf by an independent trade union of which he is a member.

(5) A worker or former worker may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal on the ground that his employer has made him an offer in contravention of this Article.

Inducements relating to collective bargainingN.I.

77B.(1) A worker who is a member of an independent trade union which is recognised, or seeking to be recognised, by his employer has the right not to have an offer made to him by his employer if—

(a)acceptance of the offer, together with other workers' acceptance of offers which the employer also makes to them, would have the prohibited result, and

(b)the employer's sole or main purpose in making the offers is to achieve that result.

(2) The prohibited result is that the workers' terms of employment, or any of those terms, will not (or will no longer) be determined by collective agreement negotiated by or on behalf of the union.

(3) It is immaterial for the purposes of paragraph (1) whether the offers are made to the workers simultaneously.

(4) Having terms of employment determined by collective agreement shall not be regarded for the purposes of Article 77A (or Article 73 or 136) as making use of a trade union service.

(5) A worker of former worker may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal on the ground that his employer has made him an offer in contravention of this Article.

Time limit for proceedingsN.I.

77C.  An industrial tribunal shall not consider a complaint under Article 77A or 77B unless it is presented—

(a)before the end of the period of three months beginning with the date when the offer was made or, where the offer is part of a series of similar offers to the complainant, the date when the last of them was made, or

(b)where the tribunal is satisfied that it was not reasonably practicable for the complaint to be presented before the end of that period, within such further period as it considers reasonable.

Consideration of complaintN.I.

77D.(1) On a complaint under Article 77A it shall be for the employer to show what was his sole or main purpose in making the offer.

(2) On a complaint under Article 77B it shall be for the employer to show what was his sole or main purpose in making the offers.

(3) On a complaint under Article 77A or 77B, in determining any question whether the employer made the offer (or offers) or the purpose for which he did so, no account shall be taken of any pressure which was exercised on him by calling, organising, procuring or financing a strike or other industrial action, or by threatening to do so; and that question shall be determined as if no such pressure had been exercised.

(4) In determining whether an employer's sole or main purpose in making offers was the purpose mentioned in Article 77B(1), the matters taken into account must include any evidence—

(a)that when the offers were made the employer had recently changed or sought to change, or did not wish to use, arrangements agreed with the union for collective bargaining,

(b)that when the offers were made the employer did not wish to enter into arrangements proposed by the union for collective bargaining, or

(c)that the offers were made only to particular workers, and were made with the sole or main purpose of rewarding those particular workers for their high level of performance or of retaining them because of their special value to the employer.

RemediesN.I.

77E.(1) Paragraphs (2) and (3) apply where the industrial tribunal finds that a complaint under Article 77A or 77B is well‐founded.

(2) The tribunal—

(a)shall make a declaration to that effect, and

(b)shall make an award to be paid by the employer to the complainant in respect of the offer complained of.

(3) The amount of the award shall be [F83£3,100] (subject to any adjustment of the award that may fall to be made under Part IV of the Employment (Northern Ireland) Order 2003).

(4) Where an offer made in contravention of Article 77A or 77B is accepted—

(a)if the acceptance results in the worker's agreeing to vary his terms of employment, the employer cannot enforce the agreement to vary, or recover any sum paid or other asset transferred by him under the agreement to vary;

(b)if as a result of the acceptance the worker's terms of employment are varied, nothing in Article 77A or 77B makes the variation unenforceable by either party.

(5) Nothing in this Article or Articles 77A and 77B prejudices any right conferred by Article 73 or 76.

(6) In ascertaining any amount of compensation under Article 76, no reduction shall be made on the ground—

(a)that the complainant caused or contributed to his loss, or to the act or failure complained of, by accepting or not accepting an offer made in contravention of Article 77A or 77B, or

(b)that the complainant has received or is entitled to an award under this Article.

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Interpretation and other supplementary provisionsN.I.

77F.(1) References in Articles 77A to 77E to being or becoming a member of a trade union include references—

(a)to being or becoming a member of a particular branch or section of that union, and

(b)to being or becoming a member of one of a number of particular branches or sections of that union.

(2) References in those Articles—

(a)to taking part in the activities of a trade union, and

(b)to services made available by a trade union by virtue of membership of the union,

shall be construed in accordance with paragraph (1).

(3) In Articles 77A to 77E—

  • “worker” means an individual who works, or normally works as mentioned in paragraphs (a) to (c) of the definition of “worker” in Article 2(2) of the 1995 Order; and

  • “employer” means—

    (a)

    in relation to a worker, the person for whom he works;

    (b)

    in relation to a former worker, the person for whom he worked.]

PART VIIN.I.TIME OFF WORK

Public dutiesN.I.

Right to time off for public dutiesN.I.

78.—(1) An employer shall permit an employee of his who is a justice of the peace to take time off during the employee's working hours for the purpose of performing any of the duties of his office.

(2) An employer shall permit an employee of his who is a member of—

(a)a district council,

[F84(aa)the Northern Ireland Library Authority;]

(b)a statutory tribunal,

[F85(c)an independent monitoring board appointed under section 10 of the Prison Act (Northern Ireland) 1953;]

(d)a relevant health body,F86. . .

(e)a relevant education body,[F86 or

(f)a district policing partnership,]

to take time off during the employee's working hours for the purposes specified in paragraph (3).

(3) The purposes referred to in paragraph (2) are—

(a)attendance at a meeting of the body or any of its committees or sub-committees, and

(b)the doing of any other thing approved by the body, or anything of a class so approved, for the purpose of the discharge of the functions of the body or of any of its committees or sub-committees.

(4) The amount of time off which an employee is to be permitted to take under this Article, and the occasions on which and any conditions subject to which time off may be so taken, are those that are reasonable in all the circumstances having regard, in particular,

(a)how much time off is required for the performance of the duties of the office or as a member of the body in question, and how much time off is required for the performance of the particular duty,

(b)how much time off the employee has already been permitted under this Article or Article 92 or 94, and

(c)the circumstances of the employer's business and the effect of the employee's absence on the running of that business.

Para. (5) rep. by 2005 NI 15

(6) In paragraph (2)(d) “a relevant health body” means—

(a)a Health and Social Services Board; or

(b)a [F87Health and Social Care Trust].

(7) In paragraph (2)(e) “a relevant education body” means—

(a)an education and library board;

(b)the Council for Catholic Maintained Schools;

(c)the Northern Ireland Council for the Curriculum, Examinations and Assessment,

[F88(cc)the General Teaching Council for Northern Ireland;]

(d)the Board of Governors of a grant-aided school,

(e)the governing body of an institution of further education, or

(f)the managers of a college of education.

[F86(7A) In sub-paragraph (2)(f) “a district policing partnership” means a body appointed under Section 14, Schedule 3 of the Police (Northern Ireland) Act 2000.]

(8) The Department may by order—

(a)modify the provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) and (5) to (7) by adding any office or body, removing any office or body or altering the description of any office or body, or

(b)modify the provisions of paragraph (3).

(9) For the purposes of this Article the working hours of an employee shall be taken to be any time when, in accordance with his contract of employment, the employee is required to be at work.

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F86SR 2003/381

Complaints to industrial tribunalsN.I.

79.—(1) An employee may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal that his employer has failed to permit him to take time off as required by Article 78.

(2) An industrial tribunal shall not consider a complaint under this Article that an employer has failed to permit an employee to take time off unless it is presented—

(a)before the end of the period of three months beginning with the date on which the failure occurred, or

(b)within such further period as the tribunal considers reasonable in a case where it is satisfied that it was not reasonably practicable for the complaint to be presented before the end of that period of three months.

(3) Where an industrial tribunal finds a complaint under this Article well-founded, the tribunal—

(a)shall make a declaration to that effect, and

(b)may make an award of compensation to be paid by the employer to the employee.

(4) The amount of the compensation shall be such as the tribunal considers just and equitable in all the circumstances having regard

(a)the employer's default in failing to permit time off to be taken by the employee, and

(b)any loss sustained by the employee which is attributable to the matters to which the complaint relates.

Looking for work and making arrangements for trainingN.I.

Right to time off to look for work or arrange trainingN.I.

80.—(1) An employee who is given notice of dismissal by reason of redundancy is entitled to be permitted by his employer to take reasonable time off during the employee's working hours before the end of his notice in order to—

(a)look for new employment, or

(b)make arrangements for training for future employment.

(2) An employee is not entitled to take time off under this Article unless, on whichever is the later of—

(a)the date on which the notice is due to expire, and

(b)the date on which it would expire were it the notice required to T be given by Article 118(1),

he will have been (or would have been) continuously employed for a period of two years or more.

(3) For the purposes of this Article the working hours of an employee shall be taken to be any time when, in accordance with his contract of employment, the employee is required to be at work.

Right to remuneration for time off under Article 80N.I.

81.—(1) An employee who is permitted to take time off under Article 80 is entitled to be paid remuneration by his employer for the period of absence at the appropriate hourly rate.

(2) The appropriate hourly rate, in relation to an employee, is the amount of one week's pay divided by the number of normal working hours in a week for that employee when employed under the contract of employment in force on the day when the notice of dismissal was given.

(3) But where the number of normal working hours differs from week to week or over a longer period, the amount of one week's pay shall be divided instead by the average number of normal working hours calculated by dividing by twelve the total number of the employee's normal working hours during the period of twelve weeks ending with the last complete week before the day on which the notice was given.

(4) If an employer unreasonably refuses to permit an employee to take time off from work as required by Article 80, the employee is entitled to be paid an amount equal to the remuneration to which he would have been entitled under paragraph (1) if he had been permitted to take the time off.

(5) The amount of an employer's liability to pay remuneration under paragraph (1) shall not exceed, in respect of the notice period of any employee, forty per cent. of a week's pay of that employee.

(6) A right to any amount under paragraph (1) or (4) does not affect any right of an employee in relation to remuneration under his contract of employment (( “contractual remuneration”).

(7) Any contractual remuneration paid to an employee in respect of a period of time off under Article 80 goes towards discharging any liability of the employer to pay remuneration under paragraph (1) in respect of that period; and, conversely, any payment of remuneration under paragraph (1) in respect of a period goes towards discharging any liability of the employer to pay contractual remuneration in respect of that period.

Complaints to industrial tribunalsN.I.

82.—(1) An employee may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal that his employer—

(a)has unreasonably refused to permit him to take time off as required by Article 80, or

(b)has failed to pay the whole or any part of any amount to which the employee is entitled under Article 81(1) or (4).

(2) An industrial tribunal shall not consider a complaint under this Article unless it is presented—

(a)before the end of the period of three months beginning with the date on which it is alleged that the time off should have been permitted, or

(b)within such further period as the tribunal considers reasonable in a case where it is satisfied that it was not reasonably practicable for the complaint to be presented before the end of that period of three months.

(3) Where an industrial tribunal finds a complaint under this Article well-founded, the tribunal shall—

(a)make a declaration to that effect, and

(b)order the employer to pay to the employee the amount which it finds due to him.

(4) The amount which may be ordered by a tribunal to be paid by an employer under paragraph (3) (or, where the employer is liable to pay remuneration under Article 81, the aggregate of that amount and the amount of that liability) shall not exceed, in respect of the notice period of any employee, forty per cent. of a week's pay of that employee.

Ante-natal careN.I.

Right to time off for ante-natal careN.I.

83.—(1) An employee who—

(a)is pregnant, and

(b)has, on the advice of a registered medical practitioner, registered midwife or registered health visitor, made an appointment to attend at any place for the purpose of receiving ante-natal care,

is entitled to be permitted by her employer to take time off during the employee's working hours in order to enable her to keep the appointment.

(2) An employee is not entitled to take time off under this Article to keep an appointment unless, if her employer requests her to do so, she produces for his inspection—

(a)a certificate from a registered medical practitioner, registered midwife or registered health visitor stating that the employee is pregnant, and

(b)an appointment card or some other document showing that the appointment has been made.

(3) Paragraph (2) does not apply where the employee's appointment is the first appointment during her pregnancy for which she seeks permission to take time off in accordance with paragraph (1).

(4) For the purposes of this Article the working hours of an employee shall be taken to be any time when, in accordance with her contract of employment, the employee is required to be at work.

Right to remuneration for time off under Article 83N.I.

84.—(1) An employee who is permitted to Article 83 is entitled to be paid remuneration by period of absence at the appropriate hourly rate. take time off under her employer for the

(2) The appropriate hourly rate, in relation to an employee, is the amount of one week's pay divided by the number of normal working hours in a week for that employee when employed under the contract of employment in force on the day when the time off is taken.

(3) But where the number of normal working hours differs from week to week or over a longer period, the amount of one week's pay shall be divided instead by—

(a)the average number of normal working hours calculated by dividing by twelve the total number of the employee's normal working hours during the period of twelve weeks ending with the last complete week before the day on which the time off is taken, or

(b)where the employee has not been employed for a sufficient period to enable the calculation to be made under sub-paragraph (a), a number which fairly represents the number of normal working hours in a week having regard to such of the considerations specified in paragraph (4) as are appropriate in the circumstances.

(4) The considerations referred to in paragraph (3)(b) are—

(a)the average number of normal working hours in a week which the employee could expect in accordance with the terms of her contract, and

(b)the average number of normal working hours of other employees engaged in relevant comparable employment with the same employer.

(5) A right to any amount under paragraph (1) does not affect any right of an employee in relation to remuneration under her contract of employment ( “contractual remuneration”).

(6) Any contractual remuneration paid to an employee in respect of a period of time off under Article 83 goes towards discharging any liability of the employer to pay remuneration under paragraph (1) in respect of that period; and, conversely, any payment of remuneration under paragraph (1) in respect of a period goes towards discharging any liability of the employer to pay contractual remuneration in respect of that period.

Complaints to industrial tribunalsN.I.

85.—(1) An employee may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal that her employer—

(a)has unreasonably refused to permit her to take time off as required by Article 83, or

(b)has failed to pay the whole or any part of any amount to which the employee is entitled under Article 84.

(2) An industrial tribunal shall not consider a complaint under this Article unless it is presented—

(a)before the end of the period of three months beginning with the date of the appointment concerned, or

(b)within such further period as the tribunal considers reasonable in a case where it is satisfied that it was not reasonably practicable for the complaint to be presented before the end of that period of three months.

(3) Where an industrial tribunal finds a complaint under this Article well-founded, the tribunal shall make a declaration to that effect.

(4) If the complaint is that the employer has unreasonably refused to permit the employee to take time off, the tribunal shall also order the employer to pay to the employee an amount equal to the remuneration to which she would have been entitled under Article 84 if the employer had not refused.

(5) If the complaint is that the employer has failed to pay the employee the whole or part of any amount to which she is entitled under Article 84, the tribunal shall also order the employer to pay to the employee the amount which it finds due to her.

[F89DependantsN.I.

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Time off for dependantsN.I.

85A.(1) An employee is entitled to be permitted by his employer to take a reasonable amount of time off during the employee's working hours in order to take action which is necessary—

(a)to provide assistance on an occasion when a dependant falls ill, gives birth or is injured or assaulted,

(b)to make arrangements for the provision of care for a dependant who is ill or injured,

(c)in consequence of the death of a dependant,

(d)because of the unexpected disruption or termination of arrangements for the care of a dependant, or

(e)to deal with an incident which involves a child of the employee and which occurs unexpectedly in a period during which an educational establishment which the child attends is responsible for him.

(2) Paragraph (1) does not apply unless the employee—

(a)tells his employer the reason for his absence as soon as reasonably practicable, and

(b)except where paragraph (a) cannot be complied with until after the employee has returned to work, tells his employer for how long he expects to be absent.

(3) Subject to paragraphs (4) and (5), for the purposes of this Article “dependant” means, in relation to an employee—

(a)a spouse[F90 or civil partner],

(b)a child,

(c)a parent,

(d)a person who lives in the same household as the employee, otherwise than by reason of being his employee, tenant, lodger or boarder.

(4) For the purposes of paragraph (1)(a) or (b) “dependant” includes, in addition to the persons mentioned in paragraph (3), any person who reasonably relies on the employee—

(a)for assistance on an occasion when the person falls ill or is injured or assaulted, or

(b)to make arrangements for the provision of care in the event of illness or injury.

(5) For the purposes of paragraph (1)(d) “dependant” includes, in addition to the persons mentioned in paragraph (3), any person who reasonably relies on the employee to make arrangements for the provision of care.

(6) A reference in this Article to illness or injury includes a reference to mental illness or injury.

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Complaint to industrial tribunalN.I.

85B.(1) An employee may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal that his employer has unreasonably refused to permit him to take time off as required by Article 85A.

(2) An industrial tribunal shall not consider a complaint under this Article unless it is presented—

(a)before the end of the period of three months beginning with the date when the refusal occurred, or

(b)within such further period as the tribunal considers reasonable in a case where it is satisfied that it was not reasonably practicable for the complaint to be presented before the end of that period of three months.

(3) Where an industrial tribunal finds a complaint under paragraph (1) well-founded, it—

(a)shall make a declaration to that effect, and

(b)may make an award of compensation to be paid by the employer to the employee.

(4) The amount of compensation shall be such as the tribunal considers just and equitable in all the circumstances having regard to—

(a)the employer's default in refusing to permit time off to be taken by the employee, and

(b)any loss sustained by the employee which is attributable to the matters complained of.]

Occupational pension scheme trusteesN.I.

Right to time off for pension scheme trusteesN.I.

86.—(1) The employer in relation to a relevant occupational pension scheme shall permit an employee of his who is a trustee of the scheme to take time off during the employee's working hours for the purpose of—

(a)performing any of his duties as such a trustee, or 88

(b)undergoing training relevant to the performance of those duties.

(2) The amount of time off which an employee is to be permitted to take under this Article and the purposes for which, the occasions on which and any conditions subject to which time off may be so taken are those that are reasonable in all the circumstances having regard, in particular, to—

(a)how much time off is required for the performance of the duties of a trustee of the scheme and the undergoing of relevant training, and how much time off is required for performing the particular duty or for undergoing the particular training, and

(b)the circumstances of the employer's business and the effect of the employee's absence on the running of that business.

[F91(2A) This Article applies to an employee who is a director of a company which is a trustee of a relevant occupational pension scheme as it applies to an employee who is a trustee of such a scheme (references to such a trustee being read for this purpose as references to such a director).]

(3) In this Article—

(a)“relevant occupational pension scheme” means an occupational pension scheme (as defined in section 1 of the [1993 c. 49.] Pension Schemes (Northern Ireland) Act 1993) established under a trust, and

(b)references to the employer, in relation to such a scheme, are to an employer of persons in the descriptionF92 or category of employment to which the scheme relates[F93, and]

[F93(c)references to training are to training on the employer's premises or elsewhere.]

(4) For the purposes of this Article the working hours of an employee shall be taken to be any time when, in accordance with his contract of employment, the employee is required to be at work.

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F92prosp. rep. by 2005 NI 1

Right to payment for time off under Article 86N.I.

87.—(1) An employer who permits an employee to take time off under Article 86 shall pay him for the time taken off pursuant to the permission.

(2) Where the employee's remuneration for the work he would ordinarily have been doing during that time does not vary with the amount of work done, he must be paid as if he had worked at that work for the whole of that time.

(3) Where the employee's remuneration for the work he would ordinarily have been doing during that time varies with the amount of work done, he must be paid an amount calculated by reference to the average hourly earnings for that work.

(4) The average hourly earnings mentioned in paragraph (3) are—

(a)those of the employee concerned, or

(b)if no fair estimate can be made of those earnings, the average hourly earnings for work of that description of persons in comparable employment with the same employer or, if there are no such persons, a figure of average hourly earnings which is reasonable in the circumstances.

(5) A right to be paid an amount under paragraph (1) does not affect any right of an employee in relation to remuneration under his contract of employment ( “contractual remuneration”).

(6) Any contractual remuneration paid to an employee in respect of a period of time off under Article 86 goes towards discharging any liability of the employer under paragraph (1) in respect of that period; and, conversely, any payment under paragraph (1) in respect of a period goes towards discharging any liability of the employer to pay contractual remuneration in respect of that period.

Complaints to industrial tribunalsN.I.

88.—(1) An employee may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal that his employer—

(a)has failed to permit him to take time off as required by Article 86, or

(b)has failed to pay him in accordance with Article 87.

(2) An industrial tribunal shall not consider a complaint under this Article unless it is presented—

(a)before the end of the period of three months beginning with the date when the failure occurred, or

(b)within such further period as the tribunal considers reasonable in a case where it is satisfied that it was not reasonably practicable for the complaint to be presented before the end of that period of three months.

(3) Where an industrial tribunal finds a complaint under paragraph (1)(a) well-founded, the tribunal—

(a)shall make a declaration to that effect, and

(b)may make an award of compensation to be paid by the employer to the employee.

(4) The amount of the compensation shall be such as the tribunal considers just and equitable in all the circumstances having regard to—

(a)the employer's default in failing to permit time off to be taken by the employee, and

(b)any loss sustained by the employee which is attributable to the matters complained of.

(5) Where on a complaint under paragraph (1)(b) an industrial tribunal finds that an employer has failed to pay an employee in accordance with Article 87, it shall order the employer to pay the amount which it finds to be due.

Employee representativesN.I.

Right to time off for employee representativesN.I.

89.—(1) An employee who is—

(a)an employee representative for the purposes of Part XIII of this Order or [F94regulations 9, 13 and 15 of the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006][F95or regulations 9, 13 and 15 of the Service Provision Change (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006] , or

(b)a candidate in an election in which any person elected will, on being elected, be such an employee representative,

is entitled to be permitted by his employer to take reasonable time off during the employee's working hours in order to perform his functions as such an employee representative or candidate[F96 or in order to undergo training to perform such functions].

(2) For the purposes of this Article the working hours of an employee shall be taken to be any time when, in accordance with his contract of employment, the employee is required to be at work.

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F96SR 1999/432

Right to remuneration for time off under Article 89N.I.

90.—(1) An employee who is permitted to take time off under Article 89 is entitled to be paid remuneration by his employer for the time taken off at the appropriate hourly rate.

(2) The appropriate hourly rate, in relation to an employee, is the amount of one week's pay divided by the number of normal working hours in a week for that employee when employed under the contract of employment in force on the day when the time off is taken.

(3) But where the number of normal working hours differs from week to week or over a longer period, the amount of one week's pay shall be divided instead by—

(a)the average number of normal working hours calculated by dividing by twelve the total number of the employee's normal working hours during the period of twelve weeks ending with the last complete week before the day on which the time off is taken, or

(b)where the employee has not been employed for a sufficient period to enable the calculation to be made under sub-paragraph (a), a number which fairly represents the number of normal working hours in a week having regard to such of the considerations specified in paragraph (4) as are appropriate in the circumstances.

(4) The considerations referred to in paragraph (3)(b) are—

(a)the average number of normal working hours in a week which the employee could expect in accordance with the terms of his contract, and

(b)the average number of normal working hours of other employees engaged in relevant comparable employment with the same employer.

(5) A right to any amount under paragraph (1) does not affect any right of an employee in relation to remuneration under his contract of employment ( “contractual remuneration”).

(6) Any contractual remuneration paid to an employee in respect of a period of time off under Article 89 goes towards discharging any liability of the employer to pay remuneration under paragraph (1) in respect of that period; and, conversely, any payment of remuneration under paragraph (1) in respect of a period goes towards discharging any liability of the employer to pay contractual remuneration in respect of that period.

Complaints to industrial tribunalsN.I.

91.—(1) An employee may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal that his employer—

(a)has unreasonably refused to permit him to take time off as required by Article 89, or

(b)has failed to pay the whole or any part of any amount to which the employee is entitled under Article 90.

(2) An industrial tribunal shall not consider a complaint under this Article unless it is presented—

(a)before the end of the period of three months beginning with the day on which the time off was taken or on which it is alleged the time off should have been permitted, or

(b)within such further period as the tribunal considers reasonable in a case where it is satisfied that it was not reasonably practicable for the complaint to be presented before the end of that period of three months.

(3) Where an industrial tribunal finds a complaint under this Article well-founded, the tribunal shall make a declaration to that effect.

(4) If the complaint is that the employer has unreasonably refused to permit the employee to take time off, the tribunal shall also order the employer to pay to the employee an amount equal to the remuneration to which he would have been entitled under Article 90 if the employer had not refused.

(5) If the complaint is that the employer has failed to pay the employee the whole or part of any amount to which he is entitled under Article 90, the tribunal shall also order the employer to pay to the employee the amount which it finds due to him.

[F97Study or trainingN.I.

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Right to time off for young person for study or trainingN.I.

91A.(1) An employee who—

(a)is aged 16 or 17,

(b)is not receiving full-time secondary or further education, and

(c)has not attained such standard of achievement as is prescribed by regulations made by the Department with the approval of the Department of Education,

is entitled to be permitted by his employer to take time off during the employee's working hours in order to undertake study or training leading to a relevant qualification.

(2) In this Article—

(a)“secondary education” has the same meaning as in Article 2(2) of the Education and Libraries (Northern Ireland) Order 1986;

(b)“further education” has the same meaning as in Article 3 of the Further Education (Northern Ireland) Order 1997; and

(c)“relevant qualification” means an external qualification the attainment of which—

(i)would contribute to the attainment of the standard prescribed for the purposes of paragraph (1)(c), and

(ii)would be likely to enhance the employee's employment prospects (whether with his employer or otherwise);

and for the purposes of sub-paragraph (c) “external qualification” means an academic or vocational qualification awarded or authenticated by such person or body as may be specified in or under regulations made by the Department with the approval of the Department of Education.

(3) An employee who—

(a)satisfies the requirements of sub-paragraphs (a) to (c) of paragraph (1), and

(b)is for the time being supplied by his employer to another person ( “the principal”) to perform work in accordance with a contract made between the employer and the principal,

is entitled to be permitted by the principal to take time off during the employee's working hours in order to undertake study or training leading to a relevant qualification.

(4) Where an employee—

(a)is aged 18,

(b)is undertaking study or training leading to a relevant qualification, and

(c)began such study or training before attaining that age,

paragraphs (1) and (3) shall apply to the employee, in relation to that study or training, as if “ or 18 ” were inserted at the end of paragraph (1)(a).

(5) The amount of time off which an employee is to be permitted to take under this Article, and the occasions on which and any conditions subject to which time off may be so taken, are those that are reasonable in all the circumstances having regard, in particular, to—

(a)the requirements of the employee's study or training, and

(b)the circumstances of the business of the employer or the principal and the effect of the employee's time off on the running of that business.

(6) References in this Article to study or training are references to study or training on the premises of the employer or (as the case may be) principal or elsewhere.

(7) For the purposes of this Article the working hours of an employee shall be taken to be any time when, in accordance with his contract of employment, the employee is required to be at work.

[F98Right to remuneration for time off under Article 91AN.I.

91B.(1) An employee who is permitted to take time off under Article 91A is entitled to be paid remuneration by his employer for the time taken off at the appropriate hourly rate.

(2) The appropriate hourly rate, in relation to an employee, is the amount of one week's pay divided by the number of normal working hours in a week for that employee when employed under the contract of employment in force on the day when the time off is taken.

(3) But where the number of normal working hours differs from week to week or over a longer period, the amount of one week's pay shall be divided instead by—

(a)the average number of normal working hours calculated by dividing by twelve the total number of the employee's working hours during the period of twelve weeks ending with the last complete week before the day on which the time off is taken, or

(b)where the employee has not been employed for a sufficient period to enable the calculation to be made under sub-paragraph (a), a number which fairly represents the number of normal working hours in a week having regard to such of the considerations specified in paragraph (4) as are appropriate in the circumstances.

(4) The considerations referred to in paragraph (3)(b) are—

(a)the average number of normal working hours in a week which the employee could expect in accordance with the terms of his contract, and

(b)the average number of normal working hours of other employees engaged in relevant comparable employment with the same employer.

(5) A right to any amount under paragraph (1) does not affect any right of an employee in relation to remuneration under his contract of employment ( “contractual remuneration”).

(6) Any contractual remuneration paid to an employee in respect of a period of time off under Article 91A goes towards discharging any liability of the employer to pay remuneration under paragraph (1) in respect of that period; and, conversely, any payment of remuneration under paragraph (1) in respect of a period goes towards discharging any liability of the employer to pay contractual remuneration in respect of that period.]

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Complaints to industrial tribunalsN.I.

91C.(1) An employee may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal that—

(a)his employer, or the principal referred to in paragraph (3) of Article 91A, has unreasonably refused to permit him to take time off as required by that Article, or

(b)his employer has failed to pay the whole or any part of any amount to which the employee is entitled under Article 91B.

(2) An industrial tribunal shall not consider a complaint under this Article unless it is presented—

(a)before the end of the period of three months beginning with the day on which the time off was taken or on which it is alleged the time off should have been permitted, or

(b)within such further period as the tribunal considers reasonable in a case where it is satisfied that it was not reasonably practicable for the complaint to be presented before the end of that period of three months.

(3) Where an industrial tribunal finds a complaint under this Article well-founded, the tribunal shall make a declaration to that effect.

(4) If the complaint is that the employer or the principal has unreasonably refused to permit the employee to take time off, the tribunal shall also order the employer or the principal, as the case may be, to pay to the employee an amount equal to the remuneration to which he would have been entitled under Article 91B if the employer or the principal had not refused.

(5) If the complaint is that the employer has failed to pay the employee the whole or part of any amount to which he is entitled under Article 91B, the tribunal shall also order the employer to pay to the employee the amount which it finds due to him.]

[F99Trade union duties and activitiesN.I.

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Right to time off for carrying out trade union dutiesN.I.

92.(1) An employer shall permit an employee of his who is an official of an independent trade union recognised by the employer to take time off during his working hours for the purpose of carrying out any duties of his, as such an official, concerned with—

(a)negotiations with the employer related to or connected with matters falling within Article 96(1) of the 1992 Order in relation to which the trade union is recognised by the employer, or

(b)the performance on behalf of employees of the employer of functions related to or connected with matters falling within that provision which the employer has agreed may be so performed by the trade union[F100, or]

[F100(c)receipt of information from the employer and consultation by the employer under Article 216 or under the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 1981]

[F101(d)negotiations with a view to entering into an agreement under regulation 9 of the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006 that applies to employees of the employer, or

(e)the performance on behalf of employees of the employer of functions related to or connected with the making of an agreement under that regulation [F102;]]

[F103(f)negotiations with a view to entering into an agreement under regulation 9 of the Service Provision Change (Protection of Employment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2006 that applies to employees of the employer, or

(g)the performance on behalf of employees of the employer of functions related to or connected with the making of an agreement under that regulation.]

(2) He shall also permit such an employee to take time off during his working hours for the purpose of undergoing training in aspects of industrial relations—

(a)relevant to the carrying out of such duties as are mentioned q in paragraph (1), and

(b)approved by the Northern Ireland Committee of the Irish Congress of Trade Unions or by the independent trade union of which he is an official.

(3) The amount of time off which an employee is to be permitted to take under this Article and the purposes for which, the occasions on which and any conditions subject to which time off may be so taken are those that are reasonable in all the circumstances having regard to any relevant provisions of a Code of Practice issued by the Agency under Article 90 of the 1992 Order.

(4) For the purposes of this Article the working hours of an employee shall be taken to be any time when, in accordance with his contract of employment, the employee is required to be at work.

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F100SR 1999/432

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

[F104Time off for union learning representativesN.I.

92A.(1) An employer shall permit an employee of his who is—

(a)a member of an independent trade union recognised by the employer, and

(b)a learning representative of the trade union,

to take time off during his working hours for any of the following purposes.

(2) The purposes are—

(a)carrying on any of the following activities in relation to qualifying members of the trade union—

(i)analysing learning or training needs,

(ii)providing information and advice about learning or training matters,

(iii)arranging learning or training, and

(iv)promoting the value of learning or training,

(b)consulting the employer about carrying on any such activities in relation to such members of the trade union,

(c)preparing for any of the things mentioned in paragraphs (a) and (b).

(3) Paragraph (1) only applies if—

(a)the trade union has given the employer notice in writing that the employee is a learning representative of the trade union, and

(b)the training condition is met in relation to him.

(4) The training condition is met if—

(a)the employee has undergone sufficient training to enable him to carry on the activities mentioned in paragraph (2), and the trade union has given the employer notice in writing of that fact,

(b)the trade union has in the last six months given the employer notice in writing that the employee will be undergoing such training, or

(c)within six months of the trade union giving the employer notice in writing that the employee will be undergoing such training, the employee has done so, and the trade union has given the employer notice of that fact.

(5) Only one notice under paragraph (4)(b) may be given in respect of any one employee.

(6) References in paragraph (4) to sufficient training to carry out the activities mentioned in paragraph (2) are to training that is sufficient for those purposes having regard to any relevant provision of a Code of Practice issued by the Agency or the Department.

(7) If an employer is required to permit an employee to take time off under paragraph (1), he shall also permit the employee to take time off during his working hours for the following purposes—

(a)undergoing training which is relevant to his functions as a learning representative, and

(b)where the trade union has in the last six months given the employer notice under paragraph (4)(b) in relation to the employee, undergoing such training as is mentioned in paragraph (4)(a).

(8) The amount of time off which an employee is to be permitted to take under this Article and the purposes for which, the occasions on which and any conditions subject to which time off may be so taken are those that are reasonable in all the circumstances having regard to any relevant provision of a Code of Practice issued by the Agency or the Department.

(9) In paragraph (2)(a), the reference to qualifying members of the trade union is to members of the trade union—

(a)who are employees of the employer of a description in respect of which the union is recognised by the employer, and

(b)in relation to whom it is the function of the union learning representative to act as such.

(10) For the purposes of this Article—

(a)a person is a learning representative of a trade union if he is appointed or elected as such in accordance with its rules;

(b)the working hours of an employee shall be taken to be any time when, in accordance with his contract of employment, the employee is required to be at work.

(11) The Department may by order amend the preceding provisions of this Article for the purpose of changing the purposes for which an employee may take time off under this Article.]

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Right to remuneration for time off under Article 92N.I.

93.(1) An employer who permits an employee to take time off under Article 92[F105 or 92A] shall pay him for the time taken off pursuant to the permission.

(2) Where the employee's remuneration for the work he would ordinarily have been doing during that time does not vary with the amount of work done, he must be paid as if he had worked at that work for the whole of that time.

(3) Where the employee's remuneration for the work he would ordinarily have been doing during that time varies with the amount of work done, he must be paid an amount calculated by reference to the average hourly earnings for that work.

(4) The average hourly earnings mentioned in paragraph (3) are—

(a)those of the employee concerned, or

(b)if no fair estimate can be made of those earnings, the average hourly earnings for work of that description of persons in comparable employment with the same employer or, if there are no such persons, a figure of average hourly earnings which is reasonable in the circumstances.

(5) A right to be paid an amount under paragraph (1) does not affect any right of an employee in relation to remuneration under his contract of employment ( “contractual remuneration”).

(6) Any contractual remuneration paid to an employee in respect of a period of time off under Article 92[F105 or 92A] goes towards discharging any liability of the employer under paragraph (1) in respect of that period; and, conversely, any payment under paragraph (1) in respect of a period goes towards discharging any liability of the employer to pay contractual remuneration in respect of that period.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

Right to time off for trade union activitiesN.I.

94.(1) An employer shall permit an employee of his who is a member of an independent trade union recognised by the employer in respect of that description of employee to take time off during his working hours for the purpose of taking part in—

(a)any activities of the union, and

(b)any activities in relation to which the employee is acting as a representative of the union.

(2) The right conferred by paragraph (1) does not extend to activities which themselves consist of industrial action, whether or not in contemplation or furtherance of a trade dispute.

[F106(2A) The right conferred by paragraph (1) does not extend to time off for the purpose of acting as, or having access to services provided by, a learning representative of a trade union.

(2B) An employer shall permit an employee of his who is a member of an independent trade union recognised by the employer in respect of that description of employee to take time off during his working hours for the purpose of having access to services provided by a person in his capacity as a learning representative of the trade union.

(2C) Paragraph (2B) only applies if the learning representative would be entitled to time off under paragraph (1) of Article 92A for the purpose of carrying on in relation to the employee activities of the kind mentioned in paragraph (2) of that Article.]

(3) The amount of time off which an employee is to be permitted to take under this Article and the purposes for which, the occasions on which and any conditions subject to which time off may be so taken are those that are reasonable in all the circumstances having regard to any relevant provisions of a Code of Practice issued by the Agency under Article 90 of the 1992 Order.

(4) For the purposes of this Article the working hours of an employee shall be taken to be any time when, in accordance with his contract of employment, the employee is required to be at work.

[F106(5) For the purposes of this Article—

(a)a person is a learning representative of a trade union if he is appointed or elected as such in accordance with its rules, and

(b)a person who is a learning representative of a trade union acts as such if he carries on the activities mentioned in Article 92A(2) in that capacity.]

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Complaints to industrial tribunalsN.I.

95.(1) An employee may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal that his employer—

(a)has failed to permit him to take time off as required by Article 92[F107, 92A] or 94, or

(b)has failed to pay him in accordance with Article 93.

(2) An industrial tribunal shall not consider a complaint under this Article unless it is presented—

(a)before the end of the period of three months beginning with the date when the failure occurred, or

(b)within such further period as the tribunal considers reasonable in a case where it is satisfied that it was not reasonably practicable for the complaint to be presented before the end of that period of three months.

(3) Where an industrial tribunal finds a complaint under paragraph (1)(a) well-founded, the tribunal—

(a)shall make a declaration to that effect, and

(b)may make an award of compensation to be paid by the employer to the employee.

(4) The amount of the compensation shall be such as the tribunal considers just and equitable in all the circumstances having regard

(a)the employer's default in failing to permit time off to be taken by the employee, and

(b)any loss sustained by the employee which is attributable to the matters complained of.

(5) Where on a complaint under paragraph (1)(b) an industrial tribunal finds that an employer has failed to pay an employee in accordance with Article 93, it shall order the employer to pay the amount which it finds to be due.]

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

PART VIIIN.I.SUSPENSION FROM WORK

Suspension on medical groundsN.I.

Right to remuneration on suspension on medical groundsN.I.

96.—(1) An employee who is suspended from work by his employer on medical grounds is entitled to be paid by his employer remuneration while he is so suspended for a period not exceeding twenty-six weeks.

(2) For the purposes of this Part an employee is suspended from work on medical grounds if he is suspended from work in consequence of—

(a)a requirement imposed by or under any statutory provision, or

(b)a recommendation in a provision of a code of practice issued or approved under Article 18 of the [1978 NI 9.] Health and Safety at Work (Northern Ireland) Order 1978,

and the provision is for the time being specified in paragraph (3).

(3) The provisions referred to in paragraph (2) are—

  • Regulation 2 of the [SR&O 1913 No. 2.] Manufacture and Decoration of Pottery Regulations 1913,

  • [F108Regulation 24 of the Ionising Radiations Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2000 ][SR 2000 No. 375]

  • Regulation 16 of the [SR 1986 No. 36.] Control of Lead at Work Regulations (Northern Ireland) 1986,

  • Regulation 11 of the [SR 1995 No. 51.] Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (Northern Ireland) 1995.

(4) The Department may by order add provisions to or remove provisions from the list of provisions specified in paragraph (3).

(5) For the purposes of this Part an employee shall be regarded as suspended from work on medical grounds only if and for so long as he—

(a)continues to be employed by his employer, but

(b)is not provided with work or does not perform the work he normally performed before the suspension.

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F108SR 2000/375

Exclusions from right to remunerationN.I.

97.—(1) An employee is not entitled to remuneration under Article 96 unless he has been continuously employed for a period of not less than one month ending with the day before that on which the suspension begins.

Para. (2) rep. by SR 2002/298

(3) An employee is not entitled to remuneration under Article 96 in respect of any period during which he is incapable of work by reason of disease or bodily or mental disablement.

(4) An employee is not entitled to remuneration under Article 96 in respect of any period if—

(a)his employer has offered to provide him with suitable alternative work during the period (whether or not it is work which the employee is under his contract, or was under the contract in force before the suspension, employed to perform) and the employee has unreasonably refused to perform that work, or

(b)he does not comply with reasonable requirements imposed by his employer with a view to ensuring that his services are available.

Suspension on maternity groundsN.I.

Meaning of suspension on maternity groundsN.I.

98.—(1) For the purposes of this Part an employee is suspended from work on maternity grounds if, in consequence of any relevant requirement or relevant recommendation, she is suspended from work by her employer on the ground that she is pregnant, has recently given birth or is breastfeeding a child.

(2) In paragraph (1)—

  • “relevant requirement” means a requirement imposed by or under a specified statutory provision, and

  • “relevant recommendation” means a recommendation in a specified provision of a code of practice issued or approved under Article 18 of the [1978 NI 9.] Health and Safety at Work (Northern Ireland) Order 1978;

  • and in this paragraph “specified” means for the time being specified in an order made by the Department under this paragraph.

(3) For the purposes of this Part an employee shall be regarded as suspended from work on maternity grounds only if and for so long as she—

(a)continues to be employed by her employer, but

(b)is not provided with work or (disregarding alternative work for the purposes of Article 99) does not perform the work she normally performed before the suspension.

Right to offer of alternative workN.I.

99.—(1) Where an employer has available suitable alternative work for an employee, the employee has a right to be offered to be provided with the alternative work before being suspended from work on maternity grounds.

(2) For alternative work to be suitable for an employee for the purposes of this Article—

(a)the work must be of a kind which is both suitable in relation to her and appropriate for her to do in the circumstances, and

(b)the terms and conditions applicable to her for performing the work, if they differ from the corresponding terms and conditions applicable to her for performing the work she normally performs under her contract of employment, must not be substantially less favourable to her than those corresponding terms and conditions.

Right to remunerationN.I.

100.—(1) An employee who is suspended from work on maternity grounds is entitled to be paid remuneration by her employer while she is so suspended.

(2) An employee is not entitled to remuneration under this Article in respect of any period if—

(a)her employer has offered to provide her during the period with work which is suitable alternative work for her for the purposes of Article 99, and

(b)the employee has unreasonably refused to perform that work.

GeneralN.I.

Calculation of remunerationN.I.

101.—(1) The amount of remuneration payable by an employer to an employee under Article 96 or 100 is a week's pay in respect of each week of the period of suspension; and if in any week remuneration is payable in respect of only part of that week the amount of a week's pay shall be reduced proportionately.

(2) A right to remuneration under Article 96 or 100 does not affect any right of an employee in relation to remuneration under the employee's contract of employment ( “contractual remuneration”).

(3) Any contractual remuneration paid by an employer to an employee in respect of any period goes towards discharging the employer's liability under Article 96 or 100 in respect of that period; and, conversely, any payment of remuneration in discharge of an employer's liability under Article 96 or 100 in respect of any period goes towards discharging any obligation of the employer to pay contractual remuneration in respect of that period.

Complaints to industrial tribunalsN.I.

102.—(1) An employee may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal that his or her employer has failed to pay the whole or any part of remuneration to which the employee is entitled under Article 96 or 100.

(2) An industrial tribunal shall not consider a complaint under paragraph (1) relating to remuneration in respect of any day unless it is presented—

(a)before the end of the period of three months beginning with that day, or

(b)within such further period as the tribunal considers reasonable in a case where it is satisfied that it was not reasonably practicable for the complaint to be presented within that period of three months.

(3) Where an industrial tribunal finds a complaint under paragraph (1) well-founded, the tribunal shall order the employer to pay the employee the amount of remuneration which it finds is due to him or her.

(4) An employee may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal that in contravention of Article 99 her employer has failed to offer to provide her with work.

(5) An industrial tribunal shall not consider a complaint under paragraph (4) unless it is presented—

(a)before the end of the period of three months beginning with the first day of the suspension, or

(b)within such further period as the tribunal considers reasonable in a case where it is satisfied that it was not reasonably practicable for the complaint to be presented within that period of three months.

(6) Where an industrial tribunal finds a complaint under paragraph (4) well-founded, the tribunal may make an award of compensation to be paid by the employer to the employee.

(7) The amount of the compensation shall be such as the tribunal considers just and equitable in all the circumstances having regard

(a)the infringement of the employee's right under Article 99 by the failure on the part of the employer to which the complaint relates, and

(b)any loss sustained by the employee which is attributable to that failure.

[F109PART IXN.I.

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CHAPTER IN.I.MATERNITY LEAVE

Ordinary maternity leaveN.I.

103.(1) An employee may, provided that she satisfies any conditions which may be prescribed, be absent from work at any time during an ordinary maternity leave period.

(2) An ordinary maternity leave period is a period calculated in accordance with regulations made by the Department.

[F110(3) Regulations under paragraph (2)—

(a)shall secure that, where an employee has a right to leave under this Article, she is entitled to an ordinary maternity leave period of at least 26 weeks;

(b)may allow an employee to choose, subject to prescribed restrictions, the date on which an ordinary maternity leave period starts;

(c)may specify circumstances in which an employee may work for her employer during an ordinary maternity leave period without bringing the period to an end.]

(4) Subject to Article 106, an employee who exercises her right under paragraph (1)—

(a)is entitled[F111, for such purposes and to such extent as may be prescribed,] to the benefit of the terms and conditions of employment which would have applied if she had not been absent,

(b)is bound[F111, for such purposes and to such extent as may be prescribed] by any obligations arising under those terms and conditions (except in so far as they are inconsistent with paragraph (1)), and

[F111(c)is entitled to return from leave to a job of a prescribed kind.]

(5) In paragraph (4)(a) “terms and conditions of employment”

(a)includes matters connected with an employee's employment whether or not they arise under her contract of employment, but

(b)does not include terms and conditions about remuneration.

(6) The Department may make regulations specifying matters which are, or are not, to be treated as remuneration for the purposes of this Article.

[F111(7) The Department may make regulations making provision, in relation to the right to return under paragraph (4)(c), about—

(a)seniority, pension rights and similar rights;

(b)terms and conditions of employment on return.]

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Compulsory maternity leaveN.I.

104.(1) An employer shall not permit an employee who satisfies prescribed conditions to work during a compulsory maternity leave period.

(2) A compulsory maternity leave period is a period calculated in accordance with regulations made by the Department.

(3) Regulations under paragraph (2) shall secure—

(a)that no compulsory leave period is less than two weeks, and

(b)that every compulsory maternity leave period falls within an ordinary maternity leave period.

(4) Subject to paragraph (5), any provision of or made under the [1978 NI 9.] Health and Safety at Work (Northern Ireland) Order 1978 shall apply in relation to the prohibition under paragraph (1) as if it were imposed by regulations under Article 17 of that Order.

(5) Article 31(1)(c) of the 1978 Order shall not apply in relation to the prohibition under paragraph (1); and an employer who contravenes that paragraph shall be—

(a)guilty of an offence, and

(b)liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 2 on the standard scale.

Additional maternity leaveN.I.

105.(1) An employee who satisfies prescribed conditions may be absent from work at any time during an additional maternity leave period.

(2) An additional maternity leave period is a period calculated in accordance with regulations made by the Department.

[F112(3) Regulations under paragraph (2)—

(a)may allow an employee to choose, subject to prescribed restrictions, the date on which an additional maternity leave period ends;

(b)may specify circumstances in which an employee may work for her employer during an additional maternity leave period without bringing the period to an end.]

(4) Subject to Article 106, an employee who exercises her right under paragraph (1)—

(a)is entitled, for such purposes and to such extent as may be prescribed, to the benefit of the terms and conditions of employment which would have applied if she had not been absent,

(b)is bound, for such purposes and to such extent as may be prescribed, by obligations arising under those terms and conditions (except in so far as they are inconsistent with paragraph (1)), and

(c)is entitled to return from leave to a job of a prescribed kind.

(5) In paragraph (4)(a) “terms and conditions of employment”

(a)includes matters connected with an employee's employment whether or not they arise under her contract of employment, but

(b)does not include terms and conditions about remuneration.

[F113(5A) In paragraph (4)(c), the reference to return from leave includes, where appropriate, a reference to a continuous period of absence attributable partly to additional maternity leave and partly to ordinary maternity leave.]

(6) The Department may make regulations specifying matters which are, or are not, to be treated as remuneration for the purposes of this Article.

(7) The Department may make regulations making provision, in relation to the right to return under paragraph (4)(c), about—

(a)seniority, pension rights and similar rights;

(b)terms and conditions of employment on return.

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Redundancy and dismissalN.I.

106.(1) Regulations under Article 103 or 105 may make provision about redundancy during an ordinary or additional maternity leave period.

(2) Regulations under Article 103 or 105 may make provision about dismissal (other than by reason of redundancy) during an ordinary or additional maternity leave period.

(3) Regulations made by virtue of paragraph (1) or (2) may include—

(a)provision requiring an employer to offer alternative employment;

(b)provision for the consequences of failure to comply with the regulations (which may include provision for a dismissal to be treated as unfair for the purposes of Part XI).

(4) Regulations under Article[F114 103 or] 105 may make provision—

(a)for Article[F114 103(4)(c) or] 105(4)(c) not to apply in specified cases, and

(b)about dismissal at the conclusion of an[F114 ordinary or] additional maternity leave period.

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Articles 103 to 105: supplementalN.I.

107.(1) Regulations under Article 103, 104 or 105 may—

(a)make provision about notices to be given, evidence to be produced and other procedures to be followed by employees and employers;

(b)make provision for the consequences of failure to give notices, to produce evidence or to comply with other procedural requirements;

(c)make provision for the consequences of failure to act in accordance with a notice given by virtue of sub-paragraph (a);

(d)make special provision for cases where an employee has a right which corresponds to a right under this Chapter and which arises under her contract of employment or otherwise;

(e)make provision modifying the effect of Chapter IV of Part I (calculation of a week's pay) in relation to an employee who is or has been absent from work on ordinary or additional maternity leave;

(f)make provision applying, modifying or excluding a statutory provision, in such circumstances as may be specified and subject to any conditions specified, in relation to a person entitled to ordinary, compulsory or additional maternity leave.

(2) In Articles 103 to 105 “prescribed” means prescribed by regulations made by the Department.

[F115CHAPTER IAN.I.ADOPTION LEAVE

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Ordinary adoption leaveN.I.

107A.(1) An employee who satisfies prescribed conditions may be absent from work at any time during an ordinary adoption leave period.

(2) An ordinary adoption leave period is a period calculated in accordance with regulations made by the Department.

[F116(2A) Regulations under paragraph (2) may specify circumstances in which an employee may work for his employer during an ordinary adoption leave period without bringing the period to an end.]

(3) Subject to Article 107C, an employee who exercises his right under paragraph (1)—

(a)is entitled, for such purposes and to such extent as may be prescribed, to the benefit of the terms and conditions of employment which would have applied if he had not been absent,

(b)is bound, for such purposes and to such extent as may be prescribed, by any obligations arising under those terms and conditions (except in so far as they are inconsistent with paragraph (1)), and

(c)is entitled to return from leave to a job of a prescribed kind.

(4) In paragraph (3)(a) “terms and conditions of employment”

(a)includes matters connected with an employee's employment whether or not they arise under his contract of employment, but

(b)does not include terms and conditions about remuneration.

(5) In paragraph (3)(c), the reference to return from leave includes, where appropriate, a reference to a continuous period of absence attributable partly to ordinary adoption leave and partly to maternity leave.

(6) The Department may make regulations specifying matters which are, or, are not, to be treated as remuneration for the purposes of this Article.

(7) The Department may make regulations making provision, in relation to the right to return under paragraph (3)(c), about—

(a)seniority, pension rights and similar rights, and

(b)terms and conditions of employment on return.

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Additional adoption leaveN.I.

107B.(1) An employee who satisfies prescribed conditions may be absent from work at any time during an additional adoption leave period.

(2) An additional adoption leave period is a period calculated in accordance with regulations made by the Department.

[F117(3) Regulations under paragraph (2)—

(a)may allow an employee to choose, subject to prescribed restrictions, the date on which an additional adoption leave period ends;

(b)may specify circumstances in which an employee may work for his employer during an additional adoption leave period without bringing the period to an end.]

(4) Subject to Article 107C, an employee who exercises his right under paragraph (1)—

(a)is entitled, for such purposes and to such extent as may be prescribed, to the benefit of the terms and conditions of employment which would have applied if he had not been absent,

(b)is bound, for such purposes and to such extent as may be prescribed by obligations arising under those terms and conditions (except in so far as they are inconsistent with paragraph (1)), and

(c)is entitled to return from leave to a job of a prescribed kind.

(5) In paragraph (4)(a) “terms and conditions of employment”

(a)includes matters connected with an employee's employment whether or not they arise under his contract of employment, but

(b)does not include terms and conditions about remuneration.

(6) In paragraph (4)(c), the reference to return from leave includes, where appropriate, a reference to a continuous period of absence attributable partly to additional adoption leave and partly to—

(a)maternity leave, or

(b)ordinary adoption leave,

or to both.

(7) The Department may make regulations specifying matters which are, or are not, to be treated as remuneration for the purposes of this Article.

(8) The Department may make regulations making provision, in relation to the right to return under paragraph (4)(c), about—

(a)seniority, pension rights and similar rights;

(b)terms and conditions of employment on return.

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Redundancy and dismissalN.I.

107C.(1) Regulations under Article 107A or 107B may make provision about—

(a)redundancy, or

(b)dismissal (other than by reason of redundancy),

during an ordinary or additional adoption leave period.

(2) Regulations made by virtue of paragraph (1) may include—

(a)provision requiring an employer to offer alternative employment;

(b)provision for the consequences of failure to comply with the regulations, (which may include provision for a dismissal to be treated as unfair for the purposes of Part XI).

(3) Regulations under Article 107A or 107B may make provision—

(a)for Article 107A(3)(c) or 107B(4)(c) not to apply in specified cases, and

(b)about dismissal at the conclusion of an ordinary or additional adoption leave period.

Chapter IA: supplementalN.I.

107D.(1) Regulations under Article 107A or 107B may—

(a)make provision about notices to be given, evidence to be produced and other procedures to be followed by employees and employers;

(b)make provision requiring employers or employees to keep records;

(c)make provision for the consequences of failure to give notices, to produce evidence, to keep records or to comply with other procedural requirements;

(d)make provision for the consequences of failure to act in accordance with a notice given by virtue of sub-paragraph (a);

(e)make special provision for cases where an employee has a right which corresponds to a right under this Chapter and which arises under his contract of employment or otherwise;

(f)make provision modifying the effect of Chapter IV of Part I (calculation of a week's pay) in relation to an employee who is or has been absent from work on ordinary or additional adoption leave;

(g)make provision applying, modifying or excluding a statutory provision, in such circumstances as may be specified and subject to any conditions specified, in relation to a person entitled to ordinary or additional adoption leave.

(2) In Articles 107A and 107B “prescribed” means prescribed by regulations made by the Department.]

CHAPTER IIN.I.PARENTAL LEAVE

Entitlement to parental leaveN.I.

108.(1) The Department shall make regulations entitling an employee who satisfies specified conditions—

(a)as to duration of employment, and

(b)as to having, or expecting to have, responsibility for a child,

to be absent from work on parental leave for the purpose of caring for a child.

(2) The regulations shall include provision for determining—

(a)the extent of an employee's entitlement to parental leave in respect of a child;

(b)when parental leave may be taken.

(3) Provision under paragraph (2)(a) shall secure that where an employee is entitled to parental leave in respect of a child he is entitled to a period or total period of leave of at least three months; but this paragraph is without prejudice to any provision which may be made by regulations for cases in which—

(a)a person ceases to satisfy conditions under paragraph (1);

(b)an entitlement to parental leave is transferred.

(4) Provision under paragraph (2)(b) may, in particular, refer to—

(a)a child's age, or

(b)a specified period of time starting from a specified event.

(5) Regulations under paragraph (1) may—

(a)specify things which are, or are not, to be taken as done for the purpose of caring for a child;

(b)require parental leave to be taken as a single period of absence in all cases or in specified cases;

(c)require parental leave to be taken as a series of periods of absence in all cases or in specified cases;

(d)require all or specified parts of a period of parental leave to be taken at or by specified times;

(e)make provision about the postponement by an employer of a period of parental leave which an employee wishes to take;

(f)specify a minimum or maximum period of absence which may be taken as part of a period of parental leave;

(g)specify a maximum aggregate of periods of parental leave which may be taken during a specified period of time.

Rights during and after parental leaveN.I.

109.(1) Regulations under Article 108 shall provide—

(a)that an employee who is absent on parental leave is entitled, for such purposes and to such extent as may be prescribed, to the benefit of the terms and conditions of employment which would have applied if he had not been absent,

(b)that an employee who is absent on parental leave is bound, for such purposes and to such extent as may be prescribed, by any obligations arising under those terms and conditions (except in so far as they are inconsistent with Article 108(1)), and

(c)that an employee who is absent on parental leave is entitled, subject to Article 110(1), to return from leave to a job of such kind as the regulations may specify.

(2) In paragraph (1)(a) “terms and conditions of employment”

(a)includes matters connected with an employee's employment whether or not they arise under a contract of employment, but

(b)does not include terms and conditions about remuneration.

(3) Regulations under Article 108 may specify matters which are, or are not, to be treated as remuneration for the purposes of paragraph (2)(b).

(4) The regulations may make provision, in relation to the right to return mentioned in paragraph (1)(c), about—

(a)seniority, pension rights and similar rights;

(b)terms and conditions of employment on return.

Special casesN.I.

110.(1) Regulations under Article 108 may make provision—

(a)about redundancy during a period of parental leave;

(b)about dismissal (other than by reason of redundancy) during a period of parental leave.

(2) Provision by virtue of paragraph (1) may include—

(a)provision requiring an employer to offer alternative employment;

(b)provision for the consequences of failure to comply with the regulations (which may include provision for a dismissal to be treated as unfair for the purposes of Part XI).

(3) Regulations under Article 108 may provide for an employee to be entitled to choose to exercise all or part of his entitlement to parental leave—

(a)by varying the terms of his contract of employment as to hours of work, or

(b)by varying his normal working practice as to hours of work,

in a way specified in or permitted by the regulations for a period specified in the regulations.

(4) Provision by virtue of paragraph (3)—

(a)may restrict an entitlement to specified circumstances;

(b)may make an entitlement subject to specified conditions (which may include conditions relating to obtaining the employer's consent);

(c)may include consequential provision.

(5) Regulations under Article 108 may make provision permitting all or part of an employee's entitlement to parental leave in respect of a child to be transferred to another employee in specified circumstances.

(6) The reference in Article 109(1)(c) to absence on parental leave includes, where appropriate, a reference to a continuous period of absence attributable partly[F118 to parental leave and partly to—

(a)maternity leave, or

(b)adoption leave,

or to both.]

(7) Regulations under Article 108 may provide for specified provisions of the regulations not to apply in relation to an employee if any provision of his contract of employment—

(a)confers an entitlement to absence from work for the purpose of caring for a child, and

(b)incorporates or operates by reference to all or part of a collective agreement, or workforce agreement, of a kind specified in the regulations.

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SupplementalN.I.

111.(1) Regulations under Article 108 may, in particular—

(a)make provision about notices to be given and evidence to be produced by employees to employers, by employers to employees, and by employers to other employers;

(b)make provision requiring employers or employees to keep records;

(c)make provision about other procedures to be followed by employees and employers;

(d)make provision (including provision creating criminal offences) specifying the consequences of failure to give notices, to produce evidence, to keep records or to comply with other procedural requirements;

(e)make provision specifying the consequences of failure to act in accordance with a notice given by virtue of sub-paragraph (a);

(f)make special provision for cases where an employee has a right which corresponds to a right conferred by the regulations and which arises under his contract of employment or otherwise;

(g)make provision applying, modifying or excluding a statutory provision, in such circumstances as may be specified and subject to any conditions specified, in relation to a person entitled to parental leave.

(2) The regulations may make provision modifying the effect of Chapter IV of Part I (calculation of a week's pay) in relation to an employee who is or has been absent from work on parental leave.

(3) Without prejudice to the generality of Article 108, the regulations may make any provision which appears to the Department to be necessary or expedient—

(a)for the purpose of implementing Council Directive 96/34/EC on the framework agreement on parental leave, or

(b)for the purpose of dealing with any matter arising out of or related to the United Kingdom's obligations under that Directive.

Complaint to industrial tribunalN.I.

112.(1) An employee may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal that his employer—

(a)has unreasonably postponed a period of parental leave requested by the employee, or

(b)has prevented or attempted to prevent the employee from taking parental leave.

(2) An industrial tribunal shall not consider a complaint under this Article unless it is presented—

(a)before the end of the period of three months beginning with the date (or last date) of the matters complained of, or

(b)within such further period as the tribunal considers reasonable in a case where it is satisfied that it was not reasonably practicable for the complaint to be presented before the end of that period of three months.

(3) Where an industrial tribunal finds a complaint under this Article well-founded it—

(a)shall make a declaration to that effect, and

(b)may make an award of compensation to be paid by the employer to the employee.

(4) The amount of compensation shall be such as the tribunal considers just and equitable in all the circumstances having regard to—

(a)the employer's behaviour, and

(b)any loss sustained by the employee which is attributable to the matters complained of.

[F119CHAPTER IIIN.I.PATERNITY LEAVE

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Entitlement to paternity leave: birthN.I.

112A.(1) The Department shall make regulations entitling an employee who satisfies specified conditions—

(a)as to duration of employment,

(b)as to relationship with a newborn, or expected, child, and

(c)as to relationship with the child's mother,

to be absent from work on leave under this Article for the purpose of caring for the child or supporting the mother.

(2) The regulations shall include provision for determining—

(a)the extent of an employee' s entitlement to leave under this Article in respect of a child;

(b)when leave under this Article may be taken.

(3) Provision under paragraph (2)(a) shall secure that where an employee is entitled to leave under this Article in respect of a child he is entitled to at least two weeks' leave.

(4) Provision under paragraph (2)(b) shall secure that leave under this Article must be taken before the end of a period of at least 56 days beginning with the date of the child's birth.

(5) Regulations under paragraph (1) may—

(a)specify things which are, or are not, to be taken as done for the purpose of caring for a child or supporting the child's mother;

(b)make provision excluding the right to be absent on leave under this Article in respect of a child where more than one child is born as a result of the same pregnancy;

(c)make provision about how leave under this Article may be taken.

(6) Where more than one child is born as a result of the same pregnancy, the reference in paragraph (4) to the date of the child's birth shall be read as a reference to the date of birth of the first child born as a result of the pregnancy.

(7) In this Article—

  • “newborn child” includes a child stillborn after twenty-four weeks of pregnancy;

  • “week” means any period of seven days.

Prospective

[F120[F121Entitlement to additional paternity leave: birthN.I.

[F121112AA.(1) The Department may make regulations entitling an employee who satisfies specified conditions—

(a)as to duration of employment,

(b)as to relationship with a child, and

(c)as to relationship with the child's mother,

to be absent from work on leave under this Article for the purpose of caring for the child, at a time when the child's mother satisfies any conditions prescribed under paragraph (2).

(2) The conditions that may be prescribed under this paragraph are conditions relating to any one or more of the following—

(a)any employment or self-employment of the child's mother;

(b)her entitlement (or lack of entitlement) to leave under this Part or to statutory maternity pay or maternity allowance;

(c)whether, and to what extent, she is exercising or has exercised any such entitlement.

(3) Any regulations under this Article shall include provision for determining—

(a)the extent of an employee's entitlement to leave under this Article in respect of a child;

(b)when leave under this Article may be taken.

(4) Provision under paragraph (3)(a) shall secure that an employee is not entitled to more than 26 weeks' leave in respect of a child.

(5) Provision under paragraph (3)(b) shall secure that leave under this Article—

(a)may not be taken before the end of a specified period beginning with the date of the child's birth, but

(b)must be taken before the end of the period of twelve months beginning with that date.

(6) Paragraphs (4) and (5)(a) do not limit the provision that may be made under paragraph (3) in relation to cases where the child's mother has died before the end of the period mentioned in paragraph (5)(b).

(7) Regulations under paragraph (1) may—

(a)specify things which are, or are not, to be taken as done for the purpose of caring for a child;

(b)make provision excluding the right to be absent on leave under this Article in respect of a child where more than one child is born as a result of the same pregnancy;

(c)specify a minimum period which may be taken as leave under this Article;

(d)make provision about how leave under this Article may be taken;

(e)specify circumstances in which an employee may work for his employer during a period of leave under this Article without bringing the period of leave to an end.

(8) Where more than one child is born as a result of the same pregnancy, the reference in paragraph (5) to the date of the child's birth shall be read as a reference to the date of birth of the first child born as a result of the pregnancy.

(9) In this Article “week” means any period of seven days.]]

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Entitlement to paternity leave: adoptionN.I.

112B .F122(1) The Department shall make regulations entitling an employee who satisfies specified conditions—

(a)as to duration of employment,

(b)as to relationship with a child placed, or expected to be placed, for adoption under the law of any part of the United Kingdom, and

(c)as to relationship with a person with whom the child is, or is expected to be, so placed for adoption,

to be absent from work on leave under this Article for the purpose of caring for the child or supporting the person by reference to whom he satisfies the condition under sub-paragraph (c).

(2) The regulations shall include provision for determining—

(a)the extent of an employee's entitlement to leave under this Article in respect of a child;

(b)when leave under this Article may be taken.

(3) Provision under paragraph (2)(a) shall secure that where an employee is entitled to leave under this Article in respect of a child he is entitled to at least two weeks' leave.

(4) Provision under paragraph (2)(b) shall secure that leave under this Article must be taken before the end of a period of at least 56 days beginning with the date of the child's placement for adoption.

(5) Regulations under paragraph (1) may—

(a)specify things which are, or are not, to be taken as done for the purpose of caring for a child or supporting a person with whom a child is placed for adoption;

(b)make provision excluding the right to be absent on leave under this Article in the case of an employee who exercises a right to be absent from work on adoption leave;

(c)make provision excluding the right to be absent on leave under this Article in respect of a child where more than one child is placed for adoption as part of the same arrangement;

(d)make provision about how leave under this Article may be taken.

(6) Where more than one child is placed for adoption as part of the same arrangement, the reference in paragraph (4) to the date of the child's placement shall be read as a reference to the date of placement of the first child to be placed as part of the arrangement.

(7) In this Article, “week” means any period of seven days.

(8) The Department may by regulations provide for this Article to have effect in relation to cases which involve adoption, but not the placement of a child for adoption under the law of any part of the United Kingdom, with such modifications as the regulations may prescribe.

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F122mod. by SR 2003/220

Prospective

[F123Entitlement to additional paternity leave: adoptionN.I.

[F123112BB.(1) The Department may make regulations entitling an employee who satisfies specified conditions—

(a)as to duration of employment,

(b)as to relationship with a child placed for adoption under the law of any part of the United Kingdom, and

(c)as to relationship with a person with whom the child is so placed for adoption (“the adopter”),

to be absent from work on leave under this Article for the purpose of caring for the child, at a time when the adopter satisfies any conditions prescribed under paragraph (2).

(2) The conditions that may be prescribed under this paragraph are conditions relating to any one or more of the following—

(a)any employment or self-employment of the adopter;

(b)the adopter's entitlement (or lack of entitlement) to leave under this Part or to statutory adoption pay;

(c)whether, and to what extent, the adopter is exercising or has exercised any such entitlement.

(3) Any regulations under this Article shall include provision for determining—

(a)the extent of an employee's entitlement to leave under this Article in respect of a child;

(b)when leave under this Article may be taken.

(4) Provision under paragraph (3)(a) shall secure that an employee is not entitled to more than 26 weeks' leave in respect of a child.

(5) Provision under paragraph (3)(b) shall secure that leave under this Article—

(a)may not be taken before the end of a specified period beginning with the date of the child's placement for adoption, but

(b)must be taken before the end of the period of twelve months beginning with that date.

(6) Paragraphs (4) and (5)(a) do not limit the provision that may be made under paragraph (3) in relation to cases where the adopter has died before the end of the period mentioned in paragraph (5)(b).

(7) Regulations under paragraph (1) may—

(a)specify things which are, or are not, to be taken as done for the purpose of caring for a child;

(b)make provision excluding the right to be absent on leave under this Article in the case of an employee who exercises a right to be absent from work on adoption leave;

(c)make provision excluding the right to be absent on leave under this Article in respect of a child where more than one child is placed for adoption as part of the same arrangement;

(d)specify a minimum period which may be taken as leave under this Article;

(e)make provision about how leave under this Article may be taken;

(f)specify circumstances in which an employee may work for his employer during a period of leave under this Article without bringing the period of leave to an end.

(8) Where more than one child is placed for adoption as part of the same arrangement, the reference in paragraph (5) to the date of the child's placement shall be read as a reference to the date of placement of the first child to be placed as part of the arrangement.

(9) In this Article “week” means any period of seven days.

(10) The Department may by regulations provide for this Article to have effect in relation to cases which involve adoption, but not the placement of a child for adoption under the law of any part of the United Kingdom, with such modifications as the regulations may prescribe.]]]

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Rights during and after paternity leaveN.I.

112C.(1) Regulations under Article 112A shall provide—

(a)that an employee who is absent on leave under that Article is entitled, for such purposes and to such extent as the regulations may prescribe, to the benefit of the terms and conditions of employment which would have applied if he had not been absent;

(b)that an employee who is absent on leave under that Article is bound, for such purposes and to such extent as the regulations may prescribe, by obligations arising under those terms and conditions (except in so far as they are inconsistent with paragraph (1) of that Article), and

(c)that an employee who is absent, on leave under that Article is entitled to return from leave to a job of a kind prescribed by regulations, subject to Article 112D(1).

(2) The reference in paragraph (1)(c) to absence on leave under Article 112A includes, where appropriate, a reference to a continuous period of absence attributable partly to leave under that Article and partly to any one or more of the following—

(a)maternity leave,

(b)adoption leave, and

(c)parental leave.

(3) Paragraph (1) shall apply to regulations under Article 112B as it applies to regulations under Article 112A.

(4) In the application of paragraph (1)(c) to regulations under Article l12B, the reference to absence on leave under that Article includes, where appropriate, a reference to a continuous period of absence attributable partly to leave under that Article and partly to anyone or more of the following—

(a)maternity leave,

(b)adoption leave,

(c)parental leave, and

(d)leave under Article 112A.

(5) In paragraph (1)(a), “terms and conditions of employment”

(a)includes matters connected with an employee's employment whether or not they arise under his contract of employment, but

(b)does not include terms and conditions about remuneration.

(6) Regulations under Article 112A or l12B may specify matters which are, or are not, to be treated as remuneration for the purposes of this Article.

(7) Regulations under Article 112A or 112B may make provision, in relation to the right to return mentioned in paragraph (1)(c), about—

(a)seniority, pension rights and similar rights;

(b)terms and conditions of employment on return.

Special casesN.I.

112D.(1) Regulations under Article 112A or 112B may make provision about—

(a)redundancy, or

(b)dismissal (other than by reason of redundancy),

during a period of leave under that Article.

(2) Provision by virtue of paragraph (1) may include—

(a)provision requiring an employer to offer alternative employment;

(b)provision for the consequences of failure to comply with the regulations (which may include provision for a dismissal to be treated as unfair for the purposes of Part XI).

Chapter III: supplementalN.I.

112E.  Regulations under Article 112A or 112B may—

(a)make provision about notices to be given, evidence to be produced and other procedures to be followed by employees and employers;

(b)make provision requiring employers or employees to keep records;

(c)make provision for the consequences of failure to give notices, to produce evidence, to keep records or to comply with other procedural requirements;

(d)make provision for the consequences of failure to act in accordance with a notice given by virtue of sub-paragraph (a);

(e)make special provision for cases where an employee has a right which corresponds to a right under Article 112A or 112B and which arises under his contract of employment or otherwise;

(f)make provision modifying the effect of Chapter IV of Part I (calculation of a week's pay) in relation to an employee who is or has been absent from work on leave under Article 112A or 112B;

(g)make provision applying, modifying or excluding a statutory provision, in such circumstances as may be specified and subject to any conditions which may be specified, in relation to a person entitled to take leave under Article 112A or 112B.]]

[F124PART IXAN.I.FLEXIBLE WORKING

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Statutory right to request contract variationN.I.

112F.(1) A qualifying employee may apply to his employer for a change in his terms and conditions of employment if—

(a)the change relates to—

(i)the hours he is required to work,

(ii)the times when he is required to work,

(iii)where, as between his home and a place of business of his employer, he is required to work, or

(iv)such other aspect of his terms and conditions of employment as the Department may specify by regulations, and

[F125(b)his purpose in applying for the change is to enable him to care for someone who, at the time of application, is—

(i)a child who has not reached the prescribed age or falls within a prescribed description and in respect of whom (in either case) the employee satisfies prescribed conditions as to relationship, or

(ii)a person aged 18 or over who falls within a prescribed description and in respect of whom the employee satisfies prescribed conditions as to relationship.]

(2) An application under this Article must—

(a)state that it is such an application,

(b)specify the change applied for and the date on which it is proposed the change should become effective,

(c)explain what effect, if any, the employee thinks making the change applied for would have on his employer and how, in his opinion, any such effect might be dealt with, and

(d)explain how the employee meets, in respect of the [F126child or other person to be cared for, the conditions as to relationship mentioned in paragraph (1)(b)(i) or (ii).]

(3) F127. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(4) If an employee has made an application under this Article, he may not make a further application under this Article to the same employer before the end of the period of twelve months beginning with the date on which the previous application was made.

(5) The Department may by regulations make provision about—

(a)the form of applications under this Article, and

(b)when such an application is to be taken as made.

(6) F128. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(7) F129. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(8) For the purposes of this Article, an employee is—

(a)a qualifying employee if he—

(i)satisfies such conditions as to duration of employment as the Department may specify by regulations, and

(ii)is not an agency worker;

(b)an agency worker if he is supplied by a person ( “the agent”) to do work for another ( “the principal”) under a contract or other arrangement made between the agent and the principal.

[F130(9) In this Article—

child” means a person aged under 18;

prescribed” means prescribed by regulations made by the Department.]

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Employer's duties in relation to application under Artice 112FN.I.

112G.(1) An employer to whom an application under Article 112F is made—

(a)shall deal with the application in accordance with regulations made by the Department, and

(b)shall only refuse the application because he considers that one or more of the following grounds applies—

(i)the burden of additional costs,

(ii)detrimental effect on ability to meet customer demand,

(iii)inability to re-organise work among existing staff,

(iv)inability to recruit additional staff,

(v)detrimental impact on quality,

(vi)detrimental impact on performance,

(vii)insufficiency of work during the periods the employee proposes to work,

(viii)planned structural changes, and

(ix)such other grounds as the Department may specify by regulations.

(2) Regulations under paragraph (l)(a) shall include—

(a)provision for the holding of a meeting between the employer and the employee to discuss an application under Article 112F within twenty-eight days after the date the application is made;

(b)provision for the giving by the employer to the employee of notice of his decision on the application within fourteen days after the date of the meeting under sub-paragraph (a);

(c)provision for notice' under sub-paragraph (b) of a decision to refuse the application to state the grounds for the decision;

(d)provision for the employee to have a right, if he is dissatisfied with the employer's decision, to appeal against it within fourteen days after the date on which notice under sub-paragraph (b) is given;

(e)provision about the procedure for exercising the right of appeal under sub-paragraph (d), including provision requiring the employee to set out the grounds of appeal;

(f)provision for notice under sub-paragraph (b) to include such information as the regulations may specify relating to the right of appeal under sub-paragraph (d);

(g)provision for the holding, within fourteen days after the date on which notice of appeal is given by the employee, of a meeting between the employer and the employee to discuss the appeal;

(h)provision for the employer to give the employee notice of his decision on any appeal within fourteen days after the date of the meeting under sub-paragraph (g);

(i)provision for notice under sub-paragraph (h) of a decision to dismiss an appeal to state the grounds for the decision;

(j)provision for a statement under sub-paragraph (c) or (i) to contain a sufficient explanation of the grounds for the decision;

(k)provision for the employee to have a right to be accompanied at meetings under sub-paragraph (a) or (g) by a person of such description as the regulations may specify;

(l)provision for postponement in relation to any meeting under sub-paragraph (a) or (g) which a companion under sub-paragraph (k) is not available to attend;

(m)provision in relation to companions under sub-paragraph (k) corresponding to Article 12(6) and (7) of the Employment Relations (Northern Ireland) Order 1999 (NI 9) (right to paid time off to act as companion, etc.);

(n)provision, in relation to the rights under sub-paragraphs (k) and (l), for the application (with or without modification) of Articles 13 to 15 of the Employment Relations (Northern Ireland) Order 1999 (provisions ancillary to right to be accompanied under Article 12 of that Order).

(3) Regulations under paragraph (1)(a) may include—

(a)provision for any requirement of the regulations not to apply where an application is disposed of by agreement or withdrawn;

(b)provision for extension of a time limit where the employer and employee agree, or in such other circumstances as the regulations may specify;

(c)provision for applications to be treated as withdrawn in specified circumstances.

(4) The Department may by order amend paragraph (2).

Complaints to industrial tribunalsN.I.

112H.(1) An employee who makes an application under Article 112F may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal—

(a)that his employer has failed in relation to the application to comply with Article 112G(1), or

(b)that a decision by his employer to reject the application was based on incorrect facts.

(2) No complaint under this Article may be made in respect of an application which has been disposed of by agreement or withdrawn.

(3) In the case of an application which has not been disposed of by agreement or withdrawn, no complaint under this Article may be made until the employer—

(a)notifies the employee of a decision to reject the application on appeal, or

(b)commits a breach of regulations under Article 112G(1)(a) of such description as the Department may specify by regulations.

(4) No complaint under this Article may be made in respect of failure to comply with provision included in regulations under paragraph (1)(a) of Article 112G because of paragraph (2)(k), (l) or (m) of that Article.

(5) An industrial tribunal shall not consider a complaint under this Article unless it is presented—

(a)before the end of the period of three months beginning with the relevant date, or

(b)within such further period as the tribunal considers reasonable in a case where it is satisfied that it was not reasonably practicable for the complaint to be presented before the end of that period of three months.

(6) In paragraph (5)(a), the reference to the relevant date is—

(a)in the case of a complaint permitted by paragraph (3)(a), the date on which the employee is notified of the decision on the appeal, and

(b)in the case of a complaint permitted by paragraph (3)(b), the date on which the breach concerned was committed.

RemediesN.I.

112I.(1) Where an industrial tribunal finds a complaint under Article l12H well-founded it shall make a declaration to that effect and may—

(a)make an order for reconsideration of the application, and

(b)make an award of compensation to be paid by the employer to the employee.

(2) The amount of compensation shall be such amount, not exceeding the permitted maximum, as the tribunal considers just and equitable in all the circumstances.

(3) For the purposes of paragraph (2), the permitted maximum is such number of weeks' pay as the Department may specify by regulations.

(4) Where an industrial tribunal makes an order under paragraph (1)(a), Article 112G, and the regulations under that Article, shall apply as if the application had been made on the date of the order.]

PART XN.I.TERMINATION OF EMPLOYMENT

Minimum period of noticeN.I.

Rights of employer and employee to minimum noticeN.I.

118.—(1) The notice required to be given by an employer to terminate the contract of employment of a person who has been continuously employed for one month or more—

(a)is not less than one week's notice if his period of continuous employment is less than two years,

(b)is not less than one week's notice for each year of continuous employment if his period of continuous employment is two years or more but less than twelve years, and

(c)is not less than twelve weeks' notice if his period of continuous employment is twelve years or more.

(2) The notice required to be given by an employee who has been continuously employed for one month or more to terminate his contract of employment is not less than one week.

(3) Any provision for shorter notice in any contract of employment with a person who has been continuously employed for one month or more has effect subject to paragraphs (1) and (2); but this Article does not prevent either party from waiving his right to notice on any occasion or from accepting a payment in lieu of notice.

(4) Any contract of employment of a person who has been continuously employed for three months or more which is a contract for a term certain of one month or less shall have effect as if it were for an indefinite period; and, accordingly, paragraphs (1) and (2) apply to the contract.

Para. (5) rep. by SR 2002/298

(6) This Article does not affect any right of either party to a contract of employment to treat the contract as terminable without notice by reason of the conduct of the other party.

Rights of employee in period of noticeN.I.

119.—(1) If an employer gives notice to terminate the contract of employment of a person who has been continuously employed for one month or more, the provisions of Articles 120 to 123 have effect as respects the liability of the employer for the period of notice required by Article 118(1).

(2) If an employee who has been continuously employed for one month or more gives notice to terminate his contract of employment, the provisions of Articles 120 to 123 have effect as respects the liability of the employer for the period of notice required by Article 118(2).

(3) In Articles 120 to 123 “period of notice” means—

(a)where notice is given by an employer, the period of notice required by Article 118(1), and

(b)where notice is given by an employee, the period of notice required by Article 118(2).

(4) This Article does not apply in relation to a notice given by the employer or the employee if the notice to be given by the employer to terminate the contract must be at least one week more than the notice required by Article 118(1).

Employments with normal working hoursN.I.

120.—(1) If an employee has normal working hours under the contract of employment in force during the period of notice and during any part of those normal working hours—

(a)the employee is ready and willing to work but no work is provided for him by his employer,

(b)the employee is incapable of work because of sickness or injury,

(c)the employee is absent from work wholly or partly because of pregnancy or childbirth[F131 or on[F132 adoption leave, parental leave or paternity leave]], or

(d)the employee is absent from work in accordance with the terms of his employment relating to holidays,

the employer is liable to pay the employee for the part of normal 8 working hours covered by any of sub-paragraphs (a), (b), (c) and (d) a sum not less than the amount of remuneration for that part of normal working hours calculated at the average hourly rate of remuneration produced by dividing a week's pay by the number of normal working hours.

(2) Any payments made to the employee by his employer in respect of the relevant part of the period of notice (whether by way of sick pay, statutory sick pay, maternity pay, statutory maternity pay,[F132 paternity pay, statutory paternity pay, adoption pay, statutory adoption pay,] holiday pay or otherwise) go towards meeting the employer's liability under this Article.

(3) Where notice was given by the employee, the employer's liability under this Article does not arise unless and until the employee leaves the service of the employer in pursuance of the notice.

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Employments without normal working hoursN.I.

121.—(1) If an employee does not have normal working hours under the contract of employment in force in the period of notice, the employer is liable to pay the employee for each week of the period of notice a sum not less than a week's pay.

(2) The employer's liability under this Article is conditional on the employee being ready and willing to do work of a reasonable nature and amount to earn a week's pay.

(3) Paragraph (2) does not apply—

(a)in respect of any period during which the employee is incapable of work because of sickness or injury,

(b)in respect of any period during which the employee is absent from work wholly or partly because of pregnancy or childbirth[F133 or on[F134 adoption leave, parental leave or paternity leave]], or

(c)in respect of any period during which the employee is absent from work in accordance with the terms of his employment relating to holidays.

(4) Any payment made to an employee by his employer in respect of a period within paragraph (3) (whether by way of sick pay, statutory sick pay, maternity pay, statutory maternity pay,[F134 paternity pay, statutory paternity pay, adoption pay, statutory adoption pay,] holiday pay or otherwise) shall be taken into account for the purposes of this Article as if it were remuneration paid by the employer in respect of that period.

(5) Where notice was given by the employee, the employer's liability under this Article does not arise unless and until the employee leaves the service of the employer in pursuance of the notice.

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Short-term incapacity benefit [F135, contributory employment and support allowance] and industrial injury benefitN.I.

122.—(1) This Article has effect where the arrangements in force relating to the employment are such that—

(a)payments by way of sick pay are made by the employer to employees to whom the arrangements apply, in cases where any such employees are incapable of work because of sickness or injury, and

(b)in calculating any payment so made to any such employee an amount representing, or treated as representing, short-term incapacity benefit [F136, contributory employment and support allowance] or industrial injury benefit is taken into account, whether by way of deduction or by way of calculating the payment as a supplement to that amount.

(2) If—

(a)during any part of the period of notice the employee is incapable of work because of sickness or injury,

(b)one or more payments by way of sick pay are made to him by the employer in respect of that part of the period of notice, and

(c)in calculating any such payment such an amount as is referred to in sub-paragraph (b) of paragraph (1) is taken into account as mentioned in that sub-paragraph,

for the purposes of Article 120 or 121 the amount so taken into account shall be treated as having been paid by the employer to the employee by way of sick pay in respect of that part of that period, and shall go towards meeting the liability of the employer under that Article accordingly.

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SupplementaryN.I.

123.—(1) An employer is not liable under Article 120 or 121 to make any payment in respect of a period during which an employee is absent from work with the leave of the employer granted at the request of the employee, including any period of time off taken in accordance with Part VII.

(2) No payment is due under Article 120 or 121 in consequence of a notice to terminate a contract given by an employee if, after the notice is given and on or before the termination of the contract, the employee takes part in a strike of employees of the employer.

(3) If, during the period of notice, the employer breaks the contract of employment, payments received under Article 120 or 121 in respect of the part of the period after the breach go towards mitigating the damages recoverable by the employee for loss of earnings in that part of the period of notice.

(4) If, during the period of notice, the employee breaks the contract and the employer rightfully treats the breach as terminating the contract, no payment is due to the employee under Article 120 or 121 in respect of the part of the period falling after the termination of the contract.

(5) If an employer fails to give the notice required by Article 118, the rights conferred by Articles 119 to 122 and this Article shall be taken into account in assessing his liability for breach of the contract.

(6) Articles 118 to 122 and this Article apply in relation to a contract all or any of the terms of which are terms which take effect by virtue of any statutory provision as in relation to any other contract.

Written statement of reasons for dismissalN.I.

Right to written statement of reasons for dismissalN.I.

124.—(1) An employee is entitled to be provided by his employer with a written statement giving particulars of the reasons for the employee's dismissal—

(a)if the employee is given by the employer notice of termination of his contract of employment,

(b)if the employee's contract of employment is terminated by the employer without notice, or

[F137(c)if the employee is employed under a limited-term contract and the contract terminates by virtue of the limiting event without being renewed.]

(2) Subject to[F138 paragraphs (4) and (4A)], an employee is entitled to a written statement under this Article only if he makes a request for one; and a statement shall be provided within fourteen days of such a request.

(3) Subject to[F138 paragraphs (4) and (4A)], an employee is not entitled to a written statement under this Article unless on the effective date of termination he has been, or will have been, continuously employed for a period of not less than[F139 one year] ending with that date.

(4) An employee is entitled to a written statement under this Article without having to request it and irrespective of whether she has been continuously employed for any period if she is dismissed—

(a)at any time while she is pregnant, or

(b)after childbirth in circumstances in which her[F140 ordinary or additional maternity leave period] ends by reason of the dismissal.

[F138(4A) An employee who is dismissed while absent from work during an ordinary or additional adoption leave period is entitled to a written statement under this Article without having to request it and irrespective of whether he has been continuously employed for any period if he is dismissed in circumstances in which that period ends by reason of the dismissal.]

(5) A written statement under this Article is admissible in evidence in any proceedings.

(6) Subject to paragraph (7), in this Article “the effective date of termination”

(a)in relation to an employee whose contract of employment is terminated by notice, means the date on which the notice expires,

(b)in relation to an employee whose contract of employment is terminated without notice, means the date on which the termination takes effect, and

[F137(c)in relation to an employee who is employed under a limited-term contract which terminates by virtue of the limiting event without being renewed under the same contract, means the date on which the termination takes effect.]

(7) Where—

(a)the contract of employment is terminated by the employer, and

(b)the notice required by Article 118 to be given by an employer would, if duly given on the material date, expire on a date later than the effective date of termination (as defined by paragraph (6)),

the later date is the effective date of termination.

(8) In paragraph (7)(b) “the material date” means—

(a)the date when notice of termination was given by the employer, or

(b)where no notice was given, the date when the contract of employment was terminated by the employer.

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F137SR 2002/298

F139SR 1999/277

Complaints to industrial tribunalN.I.

125.—(1) A complaint may be presented to an industrial tribunal by an employee on the ground that—

(a)the employer unreasonably failed to provide a written statement under Article 124, or

(b)the particulars of reasons given in purported compliance with that Article are inadequate or untrue.

(2) Where an industrial tribunal finds a complaint under this Article well-founded, the tribunal—

(a)may make a declaration as to what it finds the employer's reasons were for dismissing the employee, and

(b)shall make an award that the employer pay to the employee a sum equal to the amount of two weeks' pay.

(3) An industrial tribunal shall not consider a complaint under this Article relating to the reasons for a dismissal unless it is presented to the tribunal at such a time that the tribunal would, in accordance with Article 145, consider a complaint of unfair dismissal in respect of that dismissal presented at the same time.

PART XIN.I.UNFAIR DISMISSAL

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C46Pt. XI (arts. 126-169A) modified (1.10.2009) by European Public Limited-Liability Company (Employee Involvement) (Northern Ireland) Regulations 2009 (S.I. 2009/2402), reg. 29 (with reg. 39)

CHAPTER IN.I.RIGHT NOT TO BE UNFAIRLY DISMISSED

The rightN.I.

The rightN.I.

126.—(1) An employee has the right not to be unfairly dismissed by his employer.

(2) Paragraph (1) has effect subject to the following provisions of this Part (in particular Articles 140 to 144).

DismissalN.I.

Circumstances in which an employee is dismissedN.I.

127.—(1) For the purposes of this Part an employee is dismissed by his employer if (and, subject to paragraph (2) F141. . . , only if)—

(a)the contract under which he is employed is terminated by the employer (whether with or without notice),

[F142(b)he is employed under a limited-term contract that terminates by virtue of the limiting event without being renewed, or]

(c)the employee terminates the contract under which he is employed (with or without notice) in circumstances in which he is entitled to terminate it without notice by reason of the employer's conduct.

(2) An employee shall be taken to be dismissed by his employer for the purposes of this Part if—

(a)the employer gives notice to the employee to terminate his contract of employment, and

(b)at a time within the period of that notice the employee gives notice to the employer to terminate the contract of employment on a date earlier than the date on which the employer's notice is due to expire;

and the reason for the dismissal is to be taken to be the reason for which the employer's notice is given.

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F142SR 2002/298

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

Art. 128 rep. by 1999 NI 9

Effective date of terminationN.I.

129.—(1) Subject to the following provisions of this Article, in this Part “the effective date of termination”

(a)in relation to an employee whose contract of employment is terminated by notice, whether given by his employer or by the employee, means the date on which the notice expires,

(b)in relation to an employee whose contract of employment is terminated without notice, means the date on which the termination takes effect, and

[F143(c)in relation to an employee who is employed under a limited-term contract which terminates by virtue of the limiting event without being renewed, means the date on which the termination takes effect.]

(2) Where—

(a)the contract of employment is terminated by the employer, and

(b)the notice required by Article 118 to be given by an employer would, if duly given on the material date, expire on a date later than the effective date of termination (as defined by paragraph (1)),

for the purposes of Articles 23(3), 140(1) and 153(1) the later date is the effective date of termination.

(3) In paragraph (2)(b) “the material date” means—

(a)the date when notice of termination was given by the employer, or

(b)where no notice was given, the date when the contract of employment was terminated by the employer.

(4) Where—

(a)the contract of employment is terminated by the employee,

(b)the material date does not fall during a period of notice given by the employer to terminate that contract, and

(c)had the contract been terminated not by the employee but by notice given on the material date by the employer, that notice would have been required by Article 118 to expire on a date later than the effective date of termination (as defined by paragraph (1)),

for the purposes of Articles 23(3), 140(1) and 153(1) the later date is the effective date of termination.

(5) In paragraph (4) “the material date” means—

(a)the date when notice of termination was given by the employee, or

(b)where no notice was given, the date when the contract of employment was terminated by the employee.

Para. (6) rep. by 1999 NI 9

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F143SR 2002/298

FairnessN.I.

GeneralN.I.

130.—(1) In determining for the purposes of this Part whether the dismissal of an employee is fair or unfair, it is for the employer to show—

(a)the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason) for the dismissal, and

(b)that it is either a reason falling within paragraph (2) or some other substantial reason of a kind such as to justify the dismissal of an employee holding the position which the employee held.

(2) A reason falls within this paragraph if it—

(a)relates to the capability or qualifications of the employee for performing work of the kind which he was employed by the employer to do,

(b)relates to the conduct of the employee,

[F144(ba)is retirement of the employee,]

(c)is that the employee was redundant, or

(d)is that the employee could not continue to work in the position which he held without contravention (either on his part or on that of his employer) of a duty or restriction imposed by or under a statutory provision.

[F145(2A) Paragraphs (1) and (2) are subject to Articles 130ZA to 130ZF.]

(3) In paragraph (2)(a)—

(a)“capability”, in relation to an employee, means his capability assessed by reference to skill, aptitude, health or any other physical or mental quality, and

(b)“qualifications”, in relation to an employee, means any degree, diploma or other academic, technical or professional qualification relevant to the position which he held.

[F146(3A) In any case where the employer has fulfilled the requirements of paragraph (1) by showing that the reason (or the principal reason) for the dismissal is retirement of the employee, the question whether the dismissal is fair or unfair shall be determined in accordance with Article 130ZG.]

(4) [F147In any other case where] the employer has fulfilled the requirements of paragraph (1), the determination of the question whether the dismissal is fair or unfair (having regard to the reason shown by the employer)—

(a)depends on whether in the circumstances (including the size and administrative resources of the employer's undertaking) the employer acted reasonably or unreasonably in treating it as a sufficient reason for dismissing the employee, and

(b)shall be determined in accordance with equity and the substantial merits of the case.

Para. (5) rep. by 1999 NI 9

(6) [F148Paragraph (4) is] subject to Articles[F149 130A] to 139[F150, 144 and 144A].

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[F151RetirementN.I.

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F151Arts. 130ZA-130ZH and crossheadings preceding and following said arts. inserted (1.10.2006) by The Employment Equality (Age) Regulations (Northern Ireland) (S.R. 2006/261), arts. 1(1), 53(1), {Sch. 7 para. 3(4)}

No normal retirement age: dismissal before 65N.I.

130ZA.(1) This Article applies to the dismissal of an employee if—

(a)the employee has no normal retirement age, and

(b)the operative date of termination falls before the date when the employee reaches the age of 65.

(2) Retirement of the employee shall not be taken to be the reason (or a reason) for the dismissal.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

No normal retirement age: dismissal at or after 65N.I.

130ZB.(1) This Article applies to the dismissal of an employee if—

(a)the employee has no normal retirement age, and

(b)the operative date of termination falls on or after the date when the employee reaches the age of 65.

(2) In a case where—

(a)the employer has notified the employee in accordance with paragraph 2 of Schedule 5 to the 2006 Regulations, and

(b)the contract of employment terminates on the intended date of retirement,

retirement of the employee shall be taken to be the only reason for dismissal by the employer and any other reason shall be disregarded.

(3) In a case where—

(a)the employer has notified the employee in accordance with paragraph 2 of Schedule 5 to the 2006 Regulations, but

(b)the contract of employment terminates before the intended date of retirement,

retirement of the employee shall not be taken to be the reason (or a reason) for dismissal.

(4) In a case where—

(a)the employer has not notified the employee in accordance with paragraph 2 of Schedule 5 to the 2006 Regulations, and

(b)there is an intended date of retirement in relation to the dismissal, but

(c)the contract of employment terminates before the intended date of retirement,

retirement of the employee shall not be taken to be the reason (or a reason) for dismissal.

(5) In all other cases where the employer has not notified the employee in accordance with paragraph 2 of Schedule 5 to the 2006 Regulations, particular regard shall be had to the matters in Article 130ZF when determining the reason (or principal reason) for dismissal.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

Normal retirement age: dismissal before retirement ageN.I.

130ZC.(1) This Article applies to the dismissal of an employee if—

(a)the employee has a normal retirement age, and

(b)the operative date of termination falls before the date when the employee reaches the normal retirement age.

(2) Retirement of the employee shall not be taken to be the reason (or a reason) for the dismissal.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

Normal retirement age 65 or higher: dismissal at or after retirement ageN.I.

130ZD.(1) This Article applies to the dismissal of an employee if—

(a)the employee has a normal retirement age,

(b)the normal retirement age is 65 or higher, and

(c)the operative date of termination falls on or after the date when the employee reaches the normal retirement age.

(2) In a case where—

(a)the employer has notified the employee in accordance with paragraph 2 of Schedule 5 to the 2006 Regulations, and

(b)the contract of employment terminates on the intended date of retirement,

retirement of the employee shall be taken to be the only reason for the dismissal by the employer and any other reason shall be disregarded.

(3) In a case where—

(a)the employer has notified the employee in accordance with paragraph 2 of Schedule 5 to the 2006 Regulations, but

(b)the contract of employment terminates before the intended date of retirement,

retirement of the employee shall not be taken to be the reason (or a reason) for dismissal.

(4) In a case where—

(a)the employer has not notified the employee in accordance with paragraph 2 of Schedule 5 to the 2006 Regulations, and

(b)there is an intended date of retirement in relation to the dismissal, but

(c)the contract of employment terminates before the intended date of retirement,

retirement of the employee shall not be taken to be the reason (or a reason) for dismissal.

(5) In all other cases where the employer has not notified the employee in accordance with paragraph 2 of Schedule 5 to the 2006 Regulations, particular regard shall be had to the matters in Article 130ZF when determining the reason (or principal reason) for dismissal.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

Normal retirement age below 65: dismissal at or after retirement ageN.I.

130ZE.(1) This Article applies to the dismissal of an employee if—

(a)the employee has a normal retirement age,

(b)the normal retirement age is below 65, and

(c)the operative date of termination falls on or after the date when the employee reaches the normal retirement age.

(2) If it is unlawful discrimination under the 2006 Regulations for the employee to have that normal retirement age, retirement of the employee shall not be taken to be the reason (or a reason) for dismissal.

(3) Paragraphs (4) to (7) apply if it is not unlawful discrimination under the 2006 Regulations for the employee to have that normal retirement age.

(4) In a case where—

(a)the employer has notified the employee in accordance with paragraph 2 of Schedule 5 to the 2006 Regulations, and

(b)the contract of employment terminates on the intended date of retirement,

retirement of the employee shall be taken to be the only reason for dismissal by the employer and any other reason shall be disregarded.

(5) In a case where—

(a)the employer has notified the employee in accordance with paragraph 2 of Schedule 5 to the 2006 Regulations, but

(b)the contract of employment terminates before the intended date of retirement,

retirement of the employee shall not be taken to be the reason (or a reason) for dismissal.

(6) In a case where—

(a)the employer has not notified the employee in accordance with paragraph 2 of Schedule 5 to the 2006 Regulations, and

(b)there is an intended date of retirement in relation to the dismissal, but

(c)the contract of employment terminates before the intended date of retirement,

retirement of the employee shall not be taken to be the reason (or a reason) for dismissal.

(7) In all other cases where the employer has not notified the employee in accordance with paragraph 2 of Schedule 5 to the 2006 Regulations, particular regard shall be had to the matters in Article 130ZF when determining the reason (or principal reason) for dismissal.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

Reason for dismissal: particular mattersN.I.

130ZF.(1) These are the matters to which particular regard is to be had in accordance with Article 130ZB(5), 130ZD(5) or 130ZE(7)—

(a)whether or not the employer has notified the employee in accordance with paragraph 4 of Schedule 5 to the 2006 Regulations,

(b)if the employer has notified the employee in accordance with that paragraph, how long before the notified retirement date the notification was given,

(c)whether or not the employer has followed, or sought to follow, the procedures in paragraph 7 of Schedule 5 to the 2006 Regulations.

(2) In paragraph (1)(b), “notified retirement date” means the date notified to the employee in accordance with paragraph 4 of Schedule 5 to the 2006 Regulations as the date on which the employer intends to retire the employee.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

Retirement dismissals: fairnessN.I.

130ZG.(1) This Article applies if the reason (or principal reason) for a dismissal is retirement of the employee.

(2) The employee shall be regarded as unfairly dismissed if, and only if, there has been a failure on the part of the employer to comply with an obligation imposed on him by any of the following provisions of Schedule 5 to the 2006 Regulations—

(a)paragraph 4 (notification of retirement, if not already given under paragraph 2),

(b)paragraphs 6 and 7 (duty to consider employee's request not to be retired),

(c)paragraph 8 (duty to consider appeal against decision to refuse request not to be retired).

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)

InterpretationN.I.

130ZH.  In Articles 130ZA to 130ZG—

the 2006 Regulations” means the Employment Equality (Age) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2006;

intended date of retirement” means the date which, by virtue of paragraph 1(2) of Schedule 5 to the 2006 Regulations, is the intended date of retirement in relation to a particular dismissal;

normal retirement age”, in relation to an employee, means the age at which employees in the employer's undertaking who hold, or have held, the same kind of position as the employee are normally required to retire;

operative date of termination” means—

(a)

where the employer terminates the employee's contract of employment by notice, the date on which the notice expires, or

(b)

where the employer terminates the contract of employment without notice, the date on which the termination takes effect.

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Modifications etc. (not altering text)