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The Employment Rights (Northern Ireland) Order 1996

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This is the original version (as it was originally made).

Orders for reinstatement or re-engagement

The orders

147.  An order under this Article may be—

(a)an order for reinstatement (in accordance with Article 148),

(b)an order for re-engagement (in accordance with Article 149),

as the tribunal may decide.

Order for reinstatement

148.—(1) An order for reinstatement is an order that the employer shall treat the complainant in all respects as if he had not been dismissed.

(2) an order for reinstatement the tribunal shall specify—

(a)any amount payable by the employer in respect of any benefit which the complainant might reasonably be expected to have had but for the dismissal (including arrears of pay) for the period between the date of termination of employment and the date of reinstatement,

(b)any rights and privileges (including seniority and pension rights) which must be restored to the employee, and

(c)the date by which the order must be complied with.

(3) If the complainant would have benefited from an improvement in his terms and conditions of employment had he not been dismissed, an order for reinstatement shall require him to be treated as if he had benefited from that improvement from the date on which he would have done so but for being dismissed.

(4) In calculating for the purposes of paragraph (2)(a) any amount payable by the employer, the tribunal shall take into account, so as to reduce the employer’s liability, any sums received by the complainant in respect of the period between the date of termination of employment and the date of reinstatement by way of—

(a)wages in lieu of notice or ex gratia payments paid by the employer, or

(b)remuneration paid in respect of employment with another employer,

and such other benefits as the tribunal thinks appropriate in the circumstances.

(5) Where a dismissal is treated as taking place by virtue of Article 128, references in this Article to the date of termination of employment are to the notified date of return.

Order for re-engagement

149.—(1) An order for re-engagement is an order, on such terms as the tribunal may decide, that the complainant be engaged by the employer, or by a successor of the employer or by an associated employer, in employment comparable to that from which he was dismissed or other suitable employment.

(2) On making an order for re-engagement the tribunal shall specify the terms on which re-engagement is to take place, including—

(a)the identity of the employer,

(b)the nature of the employment,

(c)the remuneration for the employment,

(d)any amount payable by the employer in respect of any benefit which the complainant might reasonably be expected to have had but for the dismissal (including arrears of pay) for the period between the date of termination of employment and the date of re-engagement,

(e)any rights and privileges (including seniority and pension rights) which must be restored to the employee, and

(f)the date by which the order must be complied with.

(3) In calculating for the purposes of paragraph (2)(d) any amount payable by the employer, the tribunal shall take into account, so as to reduce the employer’s liability, any sums received by the complainant in respect of the period between the date of termination of employment and the date of re-engagement by way of—

(a)wages in lieu of notice or ex gratia payments paid by the employer, or

(b)remuneration paid in respect of employment with another employer,

and such other benefits as the tribunal thinks appropriate in the circumstances.

(4) Where a dismissal is treated as taking place by virtue of Article 128, references in this Article to the date of termination of employment are to the notified date of return.

Choice of order and its terms

150.—(1) In exercising its discretion under Article 147 the tribunal shall first consider whether to make an order for reinstatement and in so doing shall take into account—

(a)whether the complainant wishes to be reinstated,

(b)whether it is practicable for the employer to comply with an order for reinstatement, and

(c)where the complainant caused or contributed to some extent to the dismissal, whether it would be just to order his reinstatement.

(2) If the tribunal decides not to make an order for reinstatement it shall then consider whether to make an order for re-engagement and, if so, on what terms.

(3) In so doing the tribunal shall take into account—

(a)any wish expressed by the complainant as to the nature of the order to be made,

(b)whether it is practicable for the employer (or a successor or an associated employer) to comply with an order for re-engagement, and

(c)where the complainant caused or contributed to some extent to the dismissal, whether it would be just to order his re-engagement and (if so) on what terms.

(4) Except in a case where the tribunal takes into account contributory fault under paragraph (3)(c) it shall, if it orders re-engagement, do so on terms which are, so far as is reasonably practicable, as favourable as an order for reinstatement.

(5) Where in any case an employer has engaged a permanent replacement for a dismissed employee, the tribunal shall not take that fact into account in determining, for the purposes of paragraph (1)(b) or (3)(b), whether it is practicable to comply with an order for reinstatement or re-engagement.

(6) Paragraph (5) does not apply where the employer shows—

(a)that it was not practicable for him to arrange for the dismissed employee’s work to be done without engaging a permanent replacement, or

(b)that—

(i)he engaged the replacement after the lapse of a reasonable period, without having heard from the dismissed employee that he wished to be reinstated or re-engaged, and

(ii)when the employer engaged the replacement it was no longer reasonable for him to arrange for the dismissed employee’s work to be done except by a permanent replacement.

Enforcement of order and compensation

151.—(1) An industrial tribunal shall make an award of compensation, to be paid by the employer to the employee, if—

(a)an order under Article 147 is made and the complainant is reinstated or re-engaged, but

(b)the terms of the order are not fully complied with.

(2) Subject to Article 158, the amount of the compensation shall be such as the tribunal thinks fit having regard to the loss sustained by the complainant in consequence of the failure to comply fully with the terms of the order.

(3) Subject to paragraphs (1) and (2), if an order under Article 147 is made but the complainant is not reinstated or re-engaged in accordance with the order, the tribunal shall make—

(a)an award of compensation for unfair dismissal (calculated in accordance with Articles 152 to 162), and

(b)except where this sub-paragraph does not apply, an additional award of compensation of the appropriate amount,

to be paid by the employer to the employee.

(4) Paragraph (3)(b) does not apply where—

(a)the employer satisfies the tribunal that it was not practicable to comply with the order, or

(b)the reason (or, if more than one, the principal reason)—

(i)in a redundancy case, for selecting the employee for dismissal, or

(ii)otherwise, for the dismissal,

is one of those specified in Article 132(1)(a) and (b), 133(1), 134 or 136(1).

(5) In paragraph (3)(b) “the appropriate amount” means—

(a)where the dismissal is of a description referred to in paragraph (6), not less than twenty-six nor more than fifty-two weeks' pay, and

(b)in any other case, not less than thirteen nor more than twenty-six weeks' pay.

(6) The descriptions of dismissal in respect of which an employer may incur a higher additional award in accordance with paragraph (5)(a) are—

(a)a dismissal which is an act of discrimination within the meaning of the [1976 NI 15.] Sex Discrimination (Northern Ireland) Order 1976 which is unlawful by virtue of that Order, and

(b)a dismissal which is an act of discrimination within the meaning of the [1976 c. 25.] Fair Employment (Northern Ireland) Act 1976 which is unlawful by virtue of Part III of that Act.

(7) Where in any case an employer has engaged a permanent replacement for a dismissed employee, the tribunal shall not take that fact into account in determining for the purposes of paragraph (4)(a) whether it was practicable to comply with the order for reinstatement or re-engagement unless the employer shows that it was not practicable for him to arrange for the dismissed employee’s work to be done without engaging a permanent replacement.

(8) Where in any case an industrial tribunal finds that the complainant has unreasonably prevented an order under Article 147 from being complied with, in making an award of compensation for unfair dismissal (in accordance with Articles 152 to 162) it shall take that conduct into account as a failure on the part of the complainant to mitigate his loss.

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