Search Legislation

The Employment Rights (Northern Ireland) Order 1996

 Help about what version

What Version

 Help about advanced features

Advanced Features

More Resources

Changes to legislation:

The Employment Rights (Northern Ireland) Order 1996, PART VI is up to date with all changes known to be in force on or before 21 August 2019. There are changes that may be brought into force at a future date. Changes that have been made appear in the content and are referenced with annotations. Help about Changes to Legislation

Close

Changes to Legislation

Revised legislation carried on this site may not be fully up to date. Changes and effects are recorded by our editorial team in lists which can be found in the ‘Changes to Legislation’ area. Where those effects have yet to be applied to the text of the legislation by the editorial team they are also listed alongside the legislation in the affected provisions. Use the ‘more’ link to open the changes and effects relevant to the provision you are viewing.

View outstanding changes

Changes and effects yet to be applied to the whole Order associated Parts and Chapters:

Whole provisions yet to be inserted into this Order (including any effects on those provisions):

PART VIF74N.I.PROTECTION FROM SUFFERING DETRIMENT ETC. IN EMPLOYMENT

F74functions transfered SR 1999/481

Non-textual amendments applied to the whole Legislation can be found in the Introduction

CHAPTER IF74N.I.RIGHTS NOT TO SUFFER DETRIMENT

[F1Jury serviceN.I.

67M.(1) An employee has the right not to be subjected to any detriment by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, by his employer on the ground that the employee—

(a)has been summoned under the Juries (Northern Ireland) Order [F21996] (NI 6) or the Coroners (Northern Ireland) Act 1959 (c.15) to attend for service as a juror, or

(b)has been absent from work because he attended at any place in pursuance of being so summoned.

(2) This Article does not apply where the detriment in question amounts to dismissal within the meaning of Part XI.

(3) For the purposes of this Article, an employee is not to be regarded as having been subjected to a detriment by a failure to pay remuneration in respect of a relevant period unless under his contract of employment he is entitled to be paid that remuneration.

(4) In paragraph (3) “a relevant period” means any period during which the employee is absent from work because of his attendance at any place in pursuance of being summoned as mentioned in paragraph (1)(a).]

Health and safety casesN.I.

68.—(1) An employee has the right not to be subjected to any detriment by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, by his employer done on the ground that—

(a)having been designated by the employer to carry out activities in connection with preventing or reducing risks to health and safety at work, the employee carried out (or proposed to carry out) any such activities,

(b)being a representative of workers on matters of health and safety at work or member of a safety committee—

(i)in accordance with arrangements established under or by virtue of any statutory provision, or

(ii)by reason of being acknowledged as such by the employer,

the employee performed (or proposed to perform) any functions as such a representative or a member of such a committee,

[F3(ba)the employee took part (or proposed to take part) in consultation with the employer pursuant to the Health and Safety (Consultation with Employees) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 1996 or in an election of representatives of employee safety within the meaning of those Regulations (whether as a candidate or otherwise),]

(c)being an employee at a place where—

(i)there was no such representative or safety committee, or

(ii)there was such a representative or safety committee but it was not reasonably practicable for the employee to raise the matter by those means,

he brought to his employer's attention, by reasonable means, circumstances connected with his work which he reasonably believed were harmful or potentially harmful to health or safety,

(d)in circumstances of danger which the employee reasonably believed to be serious and imminent and which he could not reasonably have been expected to avert, he left (or proposed to leave) or (while the danger persisted) refused to return to, his place of work or any dangerous part of his place of work, or

(e)in circumstances of danger which the employee reasonably believed to be serious and imminent, he took (or proposed to take) appropriate steps to protect himself or other persons from the danger.

(2) For the purposes of paragraph (1)(e) whether steps which an employee took (or proposed to take) were appropriate is to be judged by reference to all the circumstances including, in particular, his knowledge and the facilities and advice available to him at the time.

(3) An employee is not to be regarded as having been subjected to any detriment on the ground specified in paragraph (1)(e) if the employer shows that it was (or would have been) so negligent for the employee to take the steps which he took (or proposed to take) that a reasonable employer might have treated him as the employer did.

(4) F4. . . this Article does not apply where the detriment in question amounts to dismissal (within the meaning of[F4 Part XI]).

F3SR 1996/511

[F5Working time casesN.I.

68A.(1) A worker has the right not to be subjected to any detriment by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, by his employer done on the ground that the worker-

(a)refused (or proposed to refuse) to comply with a requirement which the employer imposed (or proposed to impose) in contravention of [F6the Working Time Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2016] ,

(b)refused (or proposed to refuse) to forgo a right conferred on him by those Regulations,

(c)failed to sign a workforce agreement for the purposes of those Regulations, or to enter into, or agree to vary or extend, any other agreement with his employer which is provided for in those Regulations,

(d)being—

(i)a representative of members of the workforce for the purposes of Schedule 1 to those Regulations, or

(ii)a candidate in an election in which any person elected will, on being elected, be such a representative,

performed (or proposed to perform) any functions or activities as such a representative or candidate,

(e)brought proceedings against the employer to enforce a right conferred on him by those Regulations, or

(f)alleged that the employer had infringed such a right.

(2) It is immaterial for the purposes of paragraph (1)(e) or (f)—

(a)whether or not the worker has the right, or

(b)whether or not the right has been infringed,

but, for those provisions to apply, the claim to the right and that it has been infringed must be made in good faith.

(3) It is sufficient for paragraph (1)(f) to apply that the worker, without specifying the right, made it reasonably clear to the employer what the right claimed to have been infringed was.

(4) This Article does not apply where a worker is an employee and the detriment in question amounts to dismissal within the meaning of Part XIF7. . . .

[F8(5) A reference in this Article to [F9the Working Time Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2016] includes a reference to

(a)]the Merchant Shipping (Working Time: Inland Waterways) Regulations 2003.

[F10(b)the Fishing Vessels (Working Time: Sea-fishermen) Regulations 2004 [F11; F12...

(c)the Cross-border Railway Services (Working Time) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2008[F13; and]

[F14(d)the Merchant Shipping (Maritime Labour Convention) (Hours of Work) Regulations 2018.]]]]

Trustees of occupational pension schemesN.I.

69.—(1) An employee has the right not to be subjected to any detriment by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, by his employer done on the ground that, being a trustee of a relevant occupational pension scheme which relates to his employment, the employee performed (or proposed to perform) any functions as such a trustee.

(2) F15. . . this Article does not apply where the detriment in question amounts to dismissal (within the meaning of[F15 Part XI]).

[F16(2A) This Article applies to an employee who is a director of a company which is a trustee of a relevant occupational pension scheme as it applies to an employee who is a trustee of such a scheme (references to such a trustee being read for this purpose as references to such a director).]

(3) In this Article “relevant occupational pension scheme” means an occupational pension scheme (as defined in section 1 of the [1993 c. 49.] Pension Schemes (Northern Ireland) Act 1993) established under a trust.

Employee representativesN.I.

70.—(1) An employee has the right not to be subjected to any detriment by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, by his employer done on the ground that, being—

(a)an employee representative for the purposes of Part XIII of this Order or[F17regulations 9, 13 and 15 of the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006][F18 or regulations 9, 13 and 15 of the Service Provision Change (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006], or

(b)a candidate in an election in which any person elected will, on being elected, be such an employee representative,

he performed (or proposed to perform) any functions or activities as such an employee representative or candidate.

[F19(1A) An employee has the right not to be subjected to any detriment by any act, or by any deliberate failure to act, by his employer done on the ground of his participation in an election of employee representatives for the purposes of Part XIII of this Order or [F20regulations 9, 13 and 15 of the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006][F21or regulations 9, 13 and 15 of the Service Provision Change (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006] .]

(2) F22. . . this Article does not apply where the detriment in question amounts to a dismissal (within the meaning of[F22 Part XI]).

[F23Employees exercising right to time off work for study or trainingN.I.

70A.(1) An employee has the right not to be subjected to any detriment by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, by his employer or the principal (within the meaning of Article 91A(3)) done on the ground that, being a person entitled to—

(a)time off under Article 91A(1) or (3), and

(b)remuneration under Article 91B(1) in respect of that time taken off,

the employee exercised (or proposed to exercise) that right or received (or sought to receive) such remuneration.

(2) F24. . . this Article does not apply where the detriment in question amounts to dismissal (within the meaning of[F24 Part XI]).]

[F25Protected disclosuresN.I.

70B.(1) A worker has the right not to be subjected to any detriment by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, by his employer done on the ground that the worker has made a protected disclosure.

[F26(1A) A worker (“W”) has the right not to be subjected to any detriment by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, done—

(a)by another worker of W's employer in the course of that other worker's employment, or

(b)by an agent of W's employer with the employer's authority,

on the ground that W has made a protected disclosure.

(1B) Where a worker is subjected to detriment by anything done as mentioned in paragraph (1A), that thing is treated as also done by the worker's employer.

(1C) For the purposes of paragraph (1B), it is immaterial whether the thing is done with the knowledge or approval of the worker's employer.

(1D) In proceedings against W's employer in respect of anything alleged to have been done as mentioned in paragraph (1A)(a), it is a defence for the employer to show that the employer took all reasonable steps to prevent the other worker—

(a)from doing that thing, or

(b)from doing anything of that description.

(1E) A worker or agent of W's employer is not liable by reason of paragraph (1A) for doing something that subjects W to detriment if—

(a)the worker or agent does that thing in reliance on a statement by the employer that doing it does not contravene this Order, and

(b)it is reasonable for the worker or agent to rely on the statement.

But this does not prevent the employer from being liable by reason of paragraph (1B).]

(2) F27. . . this Article does not apply where—

(a)the worker is an employee, and

(b)the detriment in question amounts to dismissal (within the meaning of[F27 Part XI]).

(3) For the purposes of this Article, and of Articles 71 and 72 so far as relating to this Article, “worker”, “worker's contract”, “employment” and “employer” have the extended meaning given by Article 67K.]

[F28Leave for family and domestic reasonsN.I.

70C.(1) An employee has the right not to be subjected to any detriment by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, by his employer done for a prescribed reason.

(2) A prescribed reason is one which is prescribed by regulations made by the Department and which relates to—

(a)pregnancy, childbirth or maternity,

[F29(aa)time off under Article 85ZE,]

[F30(ab)time off under Article 85ZJ or 85ZL,]

(b)ordinary, compulsory or additional maternity leave,

[F31(ba)ordinary or additional adoption leave,]

[F32(bb)shared parental leave,]

(c)parental leave,

[F33(ca)paternity leave,]

(d)time off under Article 85A.

(3) A reason prescribed under this Article in relation to parental leave may relate to action which an employee takes, agrees to take or refuses to take under or in respect of a collective or workforce agreement.

[F34(4) An agency worker has the right not to be subjected to any detriment by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, by the temporary work agency or the hirer done on the ground that—

(a)being a person entitled to the following time off or remuneration, the agency worker exercised (or proposed to exercise) that right or received (or sought to receive) that remuneration—

(i)time off under Article 85ZA, and

(ii)remuneration under Article 85ZB in respect of that time off,

(b)being a person entitled to time off under Article 85ZG, the agency worker exercised (or proposed to exercise) that right,

(c)being a person entitled to the following time off or remuneration, the agency worker exercised (or proposed to exercise) that right or received (or sought to receive) that remuneration—

(i)time off under Article 85ZN, and

(ii)remuneration under Article 85ZO in respect of that time off, or

(d)being a person entitled to time off under Article 85ZP, the agency worker exercised (or proposed to exercise) that right.

(5) Paragraph (4) does not apply where the agency worker is an employee.

(6) In this Article, the following have the same meaning as in the Agency Workers Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2011 (see regulations 2(2), 3 and 4 of the regulations)—

  • “agency worker”,

  • “hirer”,

  • “temporary work agency”]]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .F35N.I.

F35prosp. in pt. inserted by 2002 c. 21 for the purpose of rights conferred on employees by virtue of regulations under s. 25

[F36 Flexible workingN.I.

[F3770E.](1) An employee has the right not to be subjected to any detriment by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, by his employer done on the ground that the employee—

(a)made (or proposed to make) an application under Article 112F,

(b)exercised (or proposed to exercise) a right conferred on him under Article 112G,

(c)brought proceedings against the employer under Article 112H, or

(d)alleged the existence of any circumstance which would constitute a ground for bringing such proceedings.

(2) This Article does not apply where the detriment in question amounts to dismissal within the meaning of Part XI.]

Complaints to industrial tribunalsN.I.

71.—(1) An employee may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal that he has been subjected to a detriment in contravention of Article[F38 67M,] 68,[F39 69, 70[F40,70A[F41, [F4270C(1)] or[F43 70E]]]].

[F44(1ZA) A worker may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal that he has been subjected to a detriment in contravention of Article 68A.]

[F45(1A) A worker may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal that he has been subjected to a detriment in contravention of Article 70B.]

[F46(1AA) An agency worker may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal that the agency worker has been subjected to a detriment in contravention of Article 70C(4) by the temporary work agency or the hirer.]

[F47(1B) A person may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal that he has been subjected to a detriment in contravention of Article 70D.]

(2) [F45On a complaint under [F48paragraph (1), (1ZA), (1A) or (1B)]] it is for the employer to show the ground on which any act, or deliberate failure to act, was done.

[F49(2A) On a complaint under paragraph (1AA) it is for the temporary work agency or (as the case may be) the hirer to show the ground on which any act, or deliberate failure to act, was done.]

(3) An industrial tribunal shall not consider a complaint under this Article unless it is presented—

(a)before the end of the period of three months beginning with the date of the act or failure to act to which the complaint relates or, where that act or failure is part of a series of similar acts or failures, the last of them, or

(b)within such further period as the tribunal considers reasonable in a case where it is satisfied that it was not reasonably practicable for the complaint to be presented before the end of that period of three months.

(4) For the purposes of paragraph (3)—

(a)where an act extends over a period, the “date of the act” means the last day of that period, and

(b)a deliberate failure to act shall be treated as done when it was decided on;

and, in the absence of evidence establishing the contrary, an employer [F50, a temporary work agency or a hirer] shall be taken to decide on a failure to act when he does an act inconsistent with doing the failed act or, if he has done no such inconsistent act, when the period expires within which he might reasonably have been expected to do the failed act if it was to be done.

[F39(5) In this Article and Article 72 any reference to the employer [F51includes—

(a)where] a person complains that he has been subjected to a dertiment in contravention of Article 70A, the principal (within the meaning of Article 91A(3)).

[F52(b)in the case of proceedings against a worker or agent under Article 70B(1A), the worker or agent.]]

[F53(6) In—

(a)this Article, “agency worker”, and

(b)this Article and Article 72, “hirer” and “temporary work agency”,

have the same meaning as in the Agency Workers Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2011.]

F44SR 1998/386

F47Art. 71(1B) inserted (1.9.2002 for certain purposes, otherwise prosp.) by Tax Credits Act 2002 (c. 21), ss. 27, 61, Sch. 1 para. 2(3); S.I. 2002/1727, art. 2

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C4Art. 71(2)-(4) applied (with modifications) (1.10.2009) by European Public Limited-Liability Company (Employee Involvement) (Northern Ireland) Regulations 2009 (S.I. 2009/2402), reg. 32(2) (with reg. 39)

C5Art. 71(2)-(4) applied (with modifications) (30.6.2012) by Pensions (No. 2) Act (Northern Ireland) 2008 (c. 13), ss. 56, 118(1) (with s. 73); S.R. 2012/266, art. 2(b), Sch. Pt. 2

RemediesN.I.

72.—(1) Where an industrial tribunal finds a complaint under [F54Article 71(1), (1ZA), (1A) or (1B)] well-founded, the tribunal—

(a)shall make a declaration to that effect, and

(b)may make an award of compensation to be paid by the employer to the complainant in respect of the act or failure to act to which the complaint relates.

[F55(1A) Where an industrial tribunal finds a complaint under Article 71(1AA) well-founded, the tribunal—

(a)shall make a declaration to that effect, and

(b)may make an award of compensation to be paid by the temporary work agency or (as the case may be) the hirer to the complainant in respect of the act or failure to act to which the complaint relates.]

(2) [F56Subject to[F57 paragraphs (5A) and (6)],] the amount of the compensation awarded shall be such as the tribunal considers just and equitable in all the circumstances having regard to—

(a)the infringement to which the complaint relates, and

(b)any loss which is attributable to the act, or failure to act, which infringed the complainant's right.

(3) The loss shall be taken to include—

(a)any expenses reasonably incurred by the complainant in consequence of the act, or failure to act, to which the complaint relates, and

(b)loss of any benefit which he might reasonably be expected to have had but for that act or failure to act.

(4) In ascertaining the loss the tribunal shall apply the same rule concerning the duty of a person to mitigate his loss as applies to damages recoverable under the common law of Northern Ireland.

(5) Where the tribunal finds that the act, or failure to act, to which the complaint relates was to any extent caused or contributed to by action of the complainant, it shall reduce the amount of the compensation by such proportion as it considers just and equitable having regard to that finding.

[F57(5A) Where—

(a)the complaint is made under Article 71(1ZA),

(b)the detriment to which the worker is subjected is the termination of his worker's contract, and

(c)that contract is not a contract of employment,

any compensation must not exceed the compensation that would be payable under Chapter II of Part XI if the worker had been an employee and had been dismissed for the reason specified in Article 132A.]

[F56(6) Where—

(a)the complaint is made under Article 71(1A),

(b)the detriment to which the worker is subject is the termination of his worker's contract, and

(c)that contract is not a contract of employment,

any compensation must not exceed the compensation that would be payable under Chapter II of Part XI if the worker had been an employee and had been dismissed for the reason specified in Article 134A.]

[F58(6A) Where—

(a)the complaint is made under Article 71(1A), and

(b)it appears to the tribunal that the protected disclosure was not made in good faith,

the tribunal may, if it considers it just and equitable in all the circumstances to do so, reduce any award it makes to the worker by no more than 25%.]

[F59(7) Where—

(a)the complaint is made under Article 71(1B) by a person who is not an employee, and

(b)the detriment to which he is subjected is the termination of his contract with the person who is his employer for the purposes of section 25 of the Tax Credits Act 2002,

any compensation must not exceed the compensation that would be payable under Chapter 2 of Part 11 if the complainant had been an employee and had been dismissed for the reason specified in Article 135B.]

[F60Application to police of Article 68 and related provisionsN.I.

72A.(1) For the purposes of Article 68, and of Articles 71 and 72 so far as relating to that Article, the holding, otherwise than under a contract of employment, of the office of constable -shall be treated as employment by the relevant officer under a contract of employment.

[F61(2) In this Article “the relevant officer”, in relation to a person holding the office of constable, means the person who under Article 47A of the Health and Safety at Work (Northern Ireland) Order 1978 is to be treated as his employer for the purposes of Part II of that Order.]]

F61Art. 72A(2) substituted (25.7.2006 with effect as mentioned in s. 27(4) of the amending Act) by Northern Ireland (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 2006 (c. 33), ss. 27(2)(a)(3), 31(1)(f) (with s. 27(5))

CHAPTER IIF74N.I.[F62DETRIMENT]

[F63Detriment] on grounds related to union membership or activitiesN.I.

73.—(1) [F63A worker] has the right not to[F64 be subjected to any detriment as an individual by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, by his employer if the act or failure takes place] for[F63 the sole or main purpose] of—

(a)preventing or deterring him from being or seeking to become a member of an independent trade union, or penalising him for doing so.

(b)preventing or deterring him from taking part in the activities of an independent trade union at an appropriate time, or penalising him for doing so,F63. . .

[F63(ba)preventing or deterring him from making use of trade union services at an appropriate time, or penalising him for doing so, or]

(c)compelling him to be or become a member of any trade union or of a particular trade union or of one of a number of particular trade unions.

(2) In paragraph[F63 (1)] “an appropriate time” means—

(a)a time outside the[F63 worker's] working hours, or

(b)a time within his working hours at which, in accordance with arrangements agreed with or consent given by his employer, it is permissible for him to take part in the activities of a trade union[F63 or (as the case may be) make use of trade union services];

and for this purpose “working hours”, in relation to[F63 a worker], means any time when, in accordance with his contract of employment[F63 (or other contract personally to do work or perform services)], he is required to be at work.

[F63(2A) In this Article—

(a)“trade union services” means services made available to the worker by an independent trade union by virtue of his membership of the union, and

(b)references to a worker's “making use” of trade union services include his consenting to the raising of a matter on his behalf by an independent trade union of which he is a member.

(2B) If an independent trade union of which a worker is a member raises a matter on his behalf (with or without his consent), penalising the worker for that is to be treated as penalising him as mentioned in paragraph (1)(ba).

(2C) A worker also has the right not to be subjected to any detriment as an individual by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, by his employer if the act or failure takes place because of the worker's failure to accept an offer made in contravention of Article 77A or 77B.

(2D) For the purposes of paragraph (2C), not conferring a benefit that, if the offer had been accepted by the worker, would have been conferred on him under the resulting agreement shall be taken to be subjecting him to a detriment as an individual (and to be a deliberate failure to act).]

(3) [F63A worker] also has the right not to[F64 be subjected to any detriment as an individual by any act, or any deliberate failure to act, by his employer if the act or failure takes place] for[F63 the sole or main purpose] of enforcing a requirement (whether or not imposed by[F63 a contract of employment] or in writing) that, in the event of his not being a member of any trade union or of a particular trade union or of one of a number of particular trade unions, he must make one or more payments.

(4) For the purposes of paragraph (3) any deduction made by an employer from the remuneration payable to[F63 a worker] in respect of his employment shall, if it is attributable to his not being a member of any trade union or of a particular trade union or of one of a number of particular trade unions, be treated as[F64 a detriment to which he has been subjected as an individual by an act of his employer taking place] for[F63 the sole or main purpose] of enforcing a requirement of a kind mentioned in that paragraph.

(5) References in this Chapter to being or becoming a member of a trade union include references to being or becoming a member of a particular branch or section of that union and to being or becoming a member of one of a number of particular branches or sections of that unionF63. . . .

[F63(5A) References in this Chapter—

(a)to taking part in the activities of a trade union, and

(b)to services made available by a trade union by virtue of membership of the union,

shall be construed in accordance with paragraph (5).]

[F63(6) This Article does not apply where—

(a)the worker is an employee; and

(b)the detriment in question amounts to dismissal.

(7) In this Chapter—

  • “worker” means an individual who works, or normally works as mentioned in paragraphs (a) to (c) of the definition of “worker” in Article 2(2) of the 1995 Order; and

  • “employer” means—

    (a)

    in relation to a worker, the person for whom he works;

    (b)

    in relation to a former worker, the person for whom he worked.]

Complaints to industrial tribunalN.I.

74.—(1) [F65A worker or former worker] may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal on the ground that[F66 he has been subjected to a detriment] by his employer in contravention of Article 73.

(2) An industrial tribunal shall not consider a complaint under this Article unless it is presented—

(a)before the end of the period of three months beginning with the date of the[F66 act or failure to which the complaint relates or, where that act or failure is part of a series of similar acts or failures (or both) the last of them], or

(b)within such further period as the tribunal considers reasonable in a case where it is satisfied that it was not reasonably practicable for the complaint to be presented before the end of that period of three months.

[F66(3) For the purposes of paragraph (2)—

(a)where an act extends over a period, the reference to the date of the act is a reference to the last day of that period;

(b)a failure to act shall be treated as done when it was decided on.

(4) For the purposes of paragraph (3), in the absence of evidence establishing the contrary an employer shall be taken to decide on a failure to act—

(a)when he does an act inconsistent with doing the failed act; or

(b)if he has done no such inconsistent act, when the period expires within which he might reasonably have been expected to do the failed act if it was to be done.]

Consideration of complaintN.I.

75.—(1) On a complaint under Article 74 it shall be for the employer to show[F67 what was the sole or main purpose] for which[F68 he acted or failed to act].

(2) In determining any question whether[F68 the employer acted or failed to act, or the purpose for which he did so], no account shall be taken of any pressure which was exercised on him by calling, organising, procuring or financing a strike or other industrial action, or by threatening to do so; and that question shall be determined as if no such pressure had been exercised.

Paras. (3)-(5) rep. by 2004 NI 19

RemediesN.I.

76.—(1) Where the industrial tribunal finds that a complaint under Article 74 is well-founded, the tribunal—

(a)shall make a declaration to that effect, and

(b)may make an award of compensation to be paid by the employer to the complainant in respect of the[F69 act of failure] complained of.

(2) The amount of the compensation awarded shall be such as the tribunal considers just and equitable in all the circumstances having regard to—

(a)the infringement complained of; and

(b)any loss sustained by the complainant which is attributable to the[F69 act or failure] which infringed his right.

(3) The loss shall be taken to include—

(a)any expenses reasonably incurred by the complainant in consequence of the[F69 act or failure] complained of, and

(b)loss of any benefit which he might reasonably be expected to have had but for that[F69 act or failure].

(4) In ascertaining the loss, the tribunal shall apply the same rule concerning the duty of a person to mitigate his loss as applies to damages recoverable under the common law of Northern Ireland.

(5) In determining the amount of compensation to be awarded no account shall be taken of any pressure which was exercised on the employer by calling, organising, procuring or financing a strike or other industrial action, or by threatening to do so; and that question shall be determined as if no such pressure had been exercised.

(6) Where the tribunal finds that the[F69 act or failure] complained of was to any extent caused or contributed to by action of the complainant, it shall reduce the amount of the compensation by such proportion as it considers just and equitable having regard to that finding.

Awards against third partiesN.I.

77.—(1) If in proceedings on a complaint under Article 74—

(a)the complaint is made on the ground that[F70 the complainant has been subjected to detriment by an act or failure by his employer taking place] for[F71 the sole or main purpose] of compelling him to be or become a member of any trade union or of a particular trade union or of one of a number of particular trade unions, and

(b)either the complainant or the employer claims in proceedings before the tribunal that the employer was induced to[F70 act or fail to act in the way] complained of by pressure which a trade union or other person exercised on him by calling, organising, procuring or financing a strike or other industrial action, or by threatening to do so,

the complainant or the employer may request the tribunal to direct that the person who he claims exercised the pressure be joined as a party to the proceedings.

(2) The request shall be granted if it is made before the hearing of the complaint begins, but may be refused if it is made after that time; and no such request may be made after the tribunal has made a declaration that the complaint is well-founded.

(3) Where a person has been so joined as a party to proceedings and the tribunal—

(a)makes an award of compensation, and

(b)finds that the claim mentioned in paragraph (1)(b) is well-founded,

it may order that the compensation shall be paid by the person joined instead of by the employer, or partly by that person and partly by the employer, as the tribunal may consider just and equitable in the circumstances.

[F72CHAPTER IIIF74N.I.INDUCEMENTS

Inducements relating to union membership or activitiesN.I.

77A.(1) A worker has the right not to have an offer made to him by his employer for the sole or main purpose of inducing the worker—

(a)not to be or seek to become a member of an independent trade union,

(b)not to take part, at an appropriate time, in the activities of an independent trade union,

(c)not to make use, at an appropriate time, of trade union services, or

(d)to be or become a member of any trade union or of a particular trade union or of one of a number of particular trade unions.

(2) In paragraph (1) “an appropriate time” means—

(a)a time outside the worker's working hours, or

(b)a time within his working hours at which, in accordance with arrangements agreed with or consent given by his employer, it is permissible for him to take part in the activities of a trade union or (as the case may be) make use of trade union services.

(3) In paragraph (2) “working hours”, in relation to a worker, means any time when, in accordance with his contract of employment (or other contract personally to do work or perform services), he is required to be at work.

(4) In paragraphs (1) and (2)—

(a)“trade union services” means services made available to the worker by an independent trade union by virtue of his membership of the union, and

(b)references to a worker's “making use” of trade union services include his consenting to the raising of a matter on his behalf by an independent trade union of which he is a member.

(5) A worker or former worker may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal on the ground that his employer has made him an offer in contravention of this Article.

Inducements relating to collective bargainingN.I.

77B.(1) A worker who is a member of an independent trade union which is recognised, or seeking to be recognised, by his employer has the right not to have an offer made to him by his employer if—

(a)acceptance of the offer, together with other workers' acceptance of offers which the employer also makes to them, would have the prohibited result, and

(b)the employer's sole or main purpose in making the offers is to achieve that result.

(2) The prohibited result is that the workers' terms of employment, or any of those terms, will not (or will no longer) be determined by collective agreement negotiated by or on behalf of the union.

(3) It is immaterial for the purposes of paragraph (1) whether the offers are made to the workers simultaneously.

(4) Having terms of employment determined by collective agreement shall not be regarded for the purposes of Article 77A (or Article 73 or 136) as making use of a trade union service.

(5) A worker of former worker may present a complaint to an industrial tribunal on the ground that his employer has made him an offer in contravention of this Article.

Time limit for proceedingsN.I.

77C.  An industrial tribunal shall not consider a complaint under Article 77A or 77B unless it is presented—

(a)before the end of the period of three months beginning with the date when the offer was made or, where the offer is part of a series of similar offers to the complainant, the date when the last of them was made, or

(b)where the tribunal is satisfied that it was not reasonably practicable for the complaint to be presented before the end of that period, within such further period as it considers reasonable.

Consideration of complaintN.I.

77D.(1) On a complaint under Article 77A it shall be for the employer to show what was his sole or main purpose in making the offer.

(2) On a complaint under Article 77B it shall be for the employer to show what was his sole or main purpose in making the offers.

(3) On a complaint under Article 77A or 77B, in determining any question whether the employer made the offer (or offers) or the purpose for which he did so, no account shall be taken of any pressure which was exercised on him by calling, organising, procuring or financing a strike or other industrial action, or by threatening to do so; and that question shall be determined as if no such pressure had been exercised.

(4) In determining whether an employer's sole or main purpose in making offers was the purpose mentioned in Article 77B(1), the matters taken into account must include any evidence—

(a)that when the offers were made the employer had recently changed or sought to change, or did not wish to use, arrangements agreed with the union for collective bargaining,

(b)that when the offers were made the employer did not wish to enter into arrangements proposed by the union for collective bargaining, or

(c)that the offers were made only to particular workers, and were made with the sole or main purpose of rewarding those particular workers for their high level of performance or of retaining them because of their special value to the employer.

RemediesN.I.

77E.(1) Paragraphs (2) and (3) apply where the industrial tribunal finds that a complaint under Article 77A or 77B is well‐founded.

(2) The tribunal—

(a)shall make a declaration to that effect, and

(b)shall make an award to be paid by the employer to the complainant in respect of the offer complained of.

(3) The amount of the award shall be [F73£4,401] (subject to any adjustment of the award that may fall to be made under Part IV of the Employment (Northern Ireland) Order 2003).

(4) Where an offer made in contravention of Article 77A or 77B is accepted—

(a)if the acceptance results in the worker's agreeing to vary his terms of employment, the employer cannot enforce the agreement to vary, or recover any sum paid or other asset transferred by him under the agreement to vary;

(b)if as a result of the acceptance the worker's terms of employment are varied, nothing in Article 77A or 77B makes the variation unenforceable by either party.

(5) Nothing in this Article or Articles 77A and 77B prejudices any right conferred by Article 73 or 76.

(6) In ascertaining any amount of compensation under Article 76, no reduction shall be made on the ground—

(a)that the complainant caused or contributed to his loss, or to the act or failure complained of, by accepting or not accepting an offer made in contravention of Article 77A or 77B, or

(b)that the complainant has received or is entitled to an award under this Article.

Interpretation and other supplementary provisionsN.I.

77F.(1) References in Articles 77A to 77E to being or becoming a member of a trade union include references—

(a)to being or becoming a member of a particular branch or section of that union, and

(b)to being or becoming a member of one of a number of particular branches or sections of that union.

(2) References in those Articles—

(a)to taking part in the activities of a trade union, and

(b)to services made available by a trade union by virtue of membership of the union,

shall be construed in accordance with paragraph (1).

(3) In Articles 77A to 77E—

  • “worker” means an individual who works, or normally works as mentioned in paragraphs (a) to (c) of the definition of “worker” in Article 2(2) of the 1995 Order; and

  • “employer” means—

    (a)

    in relation to a worker, the person for whom he works;

    (b)

    in relation to a former worker, the person for whom he worked.]

Back to top

Options/Help

Print Options

You have chosen to open The Whole Order

The Whole Order you have selected contains over 200 provisions and might take some time to download. You may also experience some issues with your browser, such as an alert box that a script is taking a long time to run.

Would you like to continue?

You have chosen to open The Whole Order as a PDF

The Whole Order you have selected contains over 200 provisions and might take some time to download.

Would you like to continue?

You have chosen to open The Whole Order without Schedules

The Whole Order without Schedules you have selected contains over 200 provisions and might take some time to download. You may also experience some issues with your browser, such as an alert box that a script is taking a long time to run.

Would you like to continue?

You have chosen to open The Whole Order without Schedules as a PDF

The Whole Order without Schedules you have selected contains over 200 provisions and might take some time to download.

Would you like to continue?

You have chosen to open the Whole Order

The Whole Order you have selected contains over 200 provisions and might take some time to download. You may also experience some issues with your browser, such as an alert box that a script is taking a long time to run.

Would you like to continue?

You have chosen to open the Whole Order without Schedules

The Whole Order without Schedules you have selected contains over 200 provisions and might take some time to download. You may also experience some issues with your browser, such as an alert box that a script is taking a long time to run.

Would you like to continue?

Close

Legislation is available in different versions:

Latest Available (revised):The latest available updated version of the legislation incorporating changes made by subsequent legislation and applied by our editorial team. Changes we have not yet applied to the text, can be found in the ‘Changes to Legislation’ area.

Original (As Enacted or Made): The original version of the legislation as it stood when it was enacted or made. No changes have been applied to the text.

Close

See additional information alongside the content

Geographical Extent: Indicates the geographical area that this provision applies to. For further information see ‘Frequently Asked Questions’.

Show Timeline of Changes: See how this legislation has or could change over time. Turning this feature on will show extra navigation options to go to these specific points in time. Return to the latest available version by using the controls above in the What Version box.

Close

Opening Options

Different options to open legislation in order to view more content on screen at once

Close

More Resources

Access essential accompanying documents and information for this legislation item from this tab. Dependent on the legislation item being viewed this may include:

  • the original print PDF of the as enacted version that was used for the print copy
  • lists of changes made by and/or affecting this legislation item
  • confers power and blanket amendment details
  • all formats of all associated documents
  • correction slips
  • links to related legislation and further information resources
Close

Timeline of Changes

This timeline shows the different points in time where a change occurred. The dates will coincide with the earliest date on which the change (e.g an insertion, a repeal or a substitution) that was applied came into force. The first date in the timeline will usually be the earliest date when the provision came into force. In some cases the first date is 01/02/1991 (or for Northern Ireland legislation 01/01/2006). This date is our basedate. No versions before this date are available. For further information see the Editorial Practice Guide and Glossary under Help.