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Directive (EU) 2019/904 of the European Parliament and of the CouncilShow full title

Directive (EU) 2019/904 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 June 2019 on the reduction of the impact of certain plastic products on the environment (Text with EEA relevance)

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Changes over time for: Directive (EU) 2019/904 of the European Parliament and of the Council (without Annexes)

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Article 1U.K.Objectives

The objectives of this Directive are to prevent and reduce the impact of certain plastic products on the environment, in particular the aquatic environment, and on human health, as well as to promote the transition to a circular economy with innovative and sustainable business models, products and materials, thus also contributing to the efficient functioning of the internal market.

Article 2U.K.Scope

1.This Directive applies to the single-use plastic products listed in the Annex, to products made from oxo-degradable plastic and to fishing gear containing plastic.

2.Where this Directive conflicts with Directive 94/62/EC or 2008/98/EC, this Directive shall prevail.

Article 3U.K.Definitions

For the purposes of this Directive, the following definitions apply:

(1)

‘plastic’ means a material consisting of a polymer as defined in point 5 of Article 3 of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, to which additives or other substances may have been added, and which can function as a main structural component of final products, with the exception of natural polymers that have not been chemically modified;

(2)

‘single-use plastic product’ means a product that is made wholly or partly from plastic and that is not conceived, designed or placed on the market to accomplish, within its life span, multiple trips or rotations by being returned to a producer for refill or re-used for the same purpose for which it was conceived;

(3)

‘oxo-degradable plastic’ means plastic materials that include additives which, through oxidation, lead to the fragmentation of the plastic material into micro-fragments or to chemical decomposition;

(4)

‘fishing gear’ means any item or piece of equipment that is used in fishing or aquaculture to target, capture or rear marine biological resources or that is floating on the sea surface, and is deployed with the objective of attracting and capturing or of rearing such marine biological resources;

(5)

‘waste fishing gear’ means any fishing gear covered by the definition of waste in point 1 of Article 3 of Directive 2008/98/EC, including all separate components, substances or materials that were part of or attached to such fishing gear when it was discarded, including when it was abandoned or lost;

(6)

‘placing on the market’ means the first making available of a product on the market of a Member State;

(7)

‘making available on the market’ means any supply of a product for distribution, consumption or use on the market of a Member State in the course of a commercial activity, whether in return for payment or free of charge;

(8)

‘harmonised standard’ means a harmonised standard as defined in point (1)(c) of Article 2 of Regulation (EU) No 1025/2012;

(9)

‘waste’ means waste as defined in point 1 of Article 3 of Directive 2008/98/EC;

(10)

‘extended producer responsibility scheme’ means extended producer responsibility scheme as defined in point 21 of Article 3 of Directive 2008/98/EC;

(11)

‘producer’ means:

(a)

any natural or legal person established in a Member State that professionally manufactures, fills, sells or imports, irrespective of the selling technique used, including by means of distance contracts as defined in point (7) of Article 2 of Directive 2011/83/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council(1), and places on the market of that Member State single-use plastic products, filled single-use plastic products or fishing gear containing plastic, other than persons carrying out fishing activities as defined in point (28) of Article 4 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council(2); or

(b)

any natural or legal person established in one Member State or in a third country that professionally sells in another Member State directly to private households or to users other than private households, by means of distance contracts as defined in point (7) of Article 2 of Directive 2011/83/EU, single-use plastic products, filled single-use plastic products or fishing gear containing plastic, other than persons carrying out fishing activities as defined in point (28) of Article 4 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013;

(12)

‘collection’ means collection as defined in point 10 of Article 3 of Directive 2008/98/EC;

(13)

‘separate collection’ means separate collection as defined in point 11 of Article 3 of Directive 2008/98/EC;

(14)

‘treatment’ means treatment as defined in point 14 of Article 3 of Directive 2008/98/EC;

(15)

‘packaging’ means packaging as defined in point 1 of Article 3 of Directive 94/62/EC;

(16)

‘biodegradable plastic’ means a plastic capable of undergoing physical, biological decomposition, such that it ultimately decomposes into carbon dioxide (CO2), biomass and water, and is, in accordance with European standards for packaging, recoverable through composting and anaerobic digestion;

(17)

‘port reception facilities’ means port reception facilities as defined in point (e) of Article 2 of Directive 2000/59/EC;

(18)

‘tobacco products’ means tobacco products as defined in point (4) of Article 2 of Directive 2014/40/EU.

Article 4U.K.Consumption reduction

1.Member States shall take the necessary measures to achieve an ambitious and sustained reduction in the consumption of the single-use plastic products listed in Part A of the Annex, in line with the overall objectives of the Union’s waste policy, in particular waste prevention, leading to a substantial reversal of increasing consumption trends. Those measures shall achieve a measurable quantitative reduction in the consumption of the single-use plastic products listed in Part A of the Annex on the territory of the Member State by 2026 compared to 2022.

By 3 July 2021, Member States shall prepare a description of the measures which they have adopted pursuant to the first subparagraph, notify the description to the Commission and make it publicly available. Member States shall integrate the measures set out in the description into the plans or programmes referred to in Article 11 upon the first subsequent update of those plans or programmes in accordance with the relevant legislative acts of the Union governing those plans or programmes, or into any other programmes drawn up specifically for that purpose.

The measures may include national consumption reduction targets, measures ensuring that re-usable alternatives to the single-use plastic products listed in Part A of the Annex are made available at the point of sale to the final consumer, economic instruments such as instruments ensuring that those single-use plastic products are not provided free of charge at the point of sale to the final consumer and agreements as referred to in Article 17(3). Member States may impose marketing restrictions in derogation from Article 18 of Directive 94/62/EC for the purposes of preventing such products from becoming litter in order to ensure that they are substituted with alternatives that are re-usable or do not contain plastic. The measures may vary depending on the environmental impact of those single-use plastic products over their life cycle, including when they become litter.

Measures adopted pursuant to this paragraph shall be proportionate and non-discriminatory. Member States shall notify the Commission of those measures in accordance with Directive (EU) 2015/1535 of the European Parliament and of the Council(3) where so required by that Directive.

In order to comply with the first subparagraph of this paragraph, each Member State shall monitor the single-use plastic products listed in Part A of the Annex placed on the market and the reduction measures taken and shall report on progress made to the Commission in accordance with paragraph 2 of this Article and Article 13(1) with a view to the establishment of binding quantitative Union targets for consumption reduction.

2.By 3 January 2021, the Commission shall adopt an implementing act laying down the methodology for the calculation and verification of the ambitious and sustained reduction in the consumption of the single-use plastic products listed in Part A of the Annex. That implementing act shall be adopted in accordance with the examination procedure referred to in Article 16(2).

Article 5U.K.Restrictions on placing on the market

Member States shall prohibit the placing on the market of the single-use plastic products listed in Part B of the Annex and of products made from oxo-degradable plastic.

Article 6U.K.Product requirements

1.Member States shall ensure that single-use plastic products listed in Part C of the Annex that have caps and lids made of plastic may be placed on the market only if the caps and lids remain attached to the containers during the products’ intended use stage.

2.For the purposes of this Article, metal caps or lids with plastic seals shall not be considered to be made of plastic.

3.By 3 October 2019, the Commission shall request the European standardisation organisations to develop harmonised standards relating to the requirement referred to in paragraph 1. Those standards shall in particular address the need to ensure the necessary strength, reliability and safety of beverage container closures, including those for carbonated drinks.

4.From the date of publication of the references to harmonised standards referred to in paragraph 3 in the Official Journal of the European Union, single-use plastic products referred to in paragraph 1 which are in conformity with those standards or parts thereof shall be presumed to be in conformity with the requirement laid down in paragraph 1.

5.With regard to beverage bottles listed in Part F of the Annex, each Member State shall ensure that:

(a)

from 2025, beverage bottles listed in Part F of the Annex which are manufactured from polyethylene terephthalate as the major component (‘PET bottles’) contain at least 25 % recycled plastic, calculated as an average for all PET bottles placed on the market on the territory of that Member State; and

(b)

from 2030, beverage bottles listed in Part F of the Annex contain at least 30 % recycled plastic, calculated as an average for all such beverage bottles placed on the market on the territory of that Member State.

By 1 January 2022, the Commission shall adopt implementing acts laying down the rules for the calculation and verification of the targets established in the first subparagraph of this paragraph. Those implementing acts shall be adopted in accordance with the examination procedure referred to in Article 16(2).

Article 7U.K.Marking requirements

1.Member States shall ensure that each single-use plastic product listed in Part D of the Annex placed on the market bears a conspicuous, clearly legible and indelible marking on its packaging or on the product itself informing consumers of the following:

(a)

appropriate waste management options for the product or waste disposal means to be avoided for that product, in line with the waste hierarchy; and

(b)

the presence of plastics in the product and the resulting negative impact of littering or other inappropriate means of waste disposal of the product on the environment.

The harmonised marking specifications shall be established by the Commission in accordance with paragraph 2.

2.By 3 July 2020, the Commission shall adopt an implementing act establishing harmonised specifications for the marking referred to in paragraph 1 that:

(a)

provide that the marking of single-use plastic products listed in points (1), (2) and (3) of Part D of the Annex shall be placed on the sales and grouped packaging of those products. Where multiple sales units are grouped at the point of purchase, each sales unit shall bear a marking on its packaging. The marking shall not be required for packaging with a surface area of less than 10 cm2;

(b)

provide that the marking of single-use plastic products listed in point (4) of Part D of the Annex shall be placed on the product itself; and

(c)

consider existing sectoral voluntary approaches and pay particular attention to the need to avoid information that misleads consumers.

That implementing act shall be adopted in accordance with the examination procedure referred to in Article 16(2).

3.The provisions of this Article concerning tobacco products are in addition to those laid down in Directive 2014/40/EU.

Article 8U.K.Extended producer responsibility

1.Member States shall ensure that extended producer responsibility schemes are established for all single-use plastic products listed in Part E of the Annex which are placed on the market of the Member State, in accordance with Articles 8 and 8a of Directive 2008/98/EC.

2.Member States shall ensure that the producers of the single-use plastic products listed in Section I of Part E of the Annex to this Directive cover the costs pursuant to the extended producer responsibility provisions in Directives 2008/98/EC and 94/62/EC and, insofar as not already included, cover the following costs:

(a)

the costs of the awareness raising measures referred to in Article 10 of this Directive regarding those products;

(b)

the costs of waste collection for those products that are discarded in public collection systems, including the infrastructure and its operation, and the subsequent transport and treatment of that waste; and

(c)

the costs of cleaning up litter resulting from those products and the subsequent transport and treatment of that litter.

3.Member States shall ensure that the producers of the single-use plastic products listed in Sections II and III of Part E of the Annex cover at least the following costs:

(a)

the costs of the awareness raising measures referred to in Article 10 regarding those products;

(b)

the costs of cleaning up litter resulting from those products and the subsequent transport and treatment of that litter; and

(c)

the costs of data gathering and reporting in accordance with point (c) of Article 8a(1) of Directive 2008/98/EC.

With regard to the single-use plastic products listed in Section III of Part E of the Annex to this Directive, Member States shall ensure that the producers cover, in addition, the costs of waste collection for those products that are discarded in public collection systems, including the infrastructure and its operation, and the subsequent transport and treatment of that waste. The costs may include the setting up of specific infrastructure for the waste collection for those products, such as appropriate waste receptacles in common litter hotspots.

4.The costs to be covered referred to in paragraphs 2 and 3 shall not exceed the costs that are necessary to provide the services referred to therein in a cost-efficient way and shall be established in a transparent way between the actors concerned. The costs of cleaning up litter shall be limited to activities undertaken by public authorities or on their behalf. The calculation methodology shall be developed in a way that allows for the costs of cleaning up litter to be established in a proportionate way. To minimise administrative costs, Member States may determine financial contributions towards the costs of cleaning up litter by setting appropriate multiannual fixed amounts.

The Commission shall publish guidelines for criteria, in consultation with Member States, on the costs of cleaning up litter referred to in paragraphs 2 and 3.

5.Member States shall define in a clear way the roles and responsibilities of all relevant actors involved.

With regard to packaging, those roles and responsibilities shall be defined in line with Directive 94/62/EC.

6.Each Member State shall allow the producers established in another Member State and placing products on its market to appoint a legal or natural person established on its territory as an authorised representative for the purposes of fulfilling the obligations of a producer related to extended producer responsibility schemes on its territory.

7.Each Member State shall ensure that a producer established on its territory, which sells single-use plastic products listed in Part E of the Annex and fishing gear containing plastic in another Member State in which it is not established, appoints an authorised representative in that other Member State. The authorised representative shall be the person responsible for fulfilling the obligations of that producer pursuant to this Directive on the territory of that other Member State.

8.Member States shall ensure that extended producer responsibility schemes are established for fishing gear containing plastic placed on the market of the Member State, in accordance with Articles 8 and 8a of Directive 2008/98/EC.

Member States that have marine waters as defined in point 1 of Article 3 of Directive 2008/56/EC shall set a national minimum annual collection rate of waste fishing gear containing plastic for recycling.

Member States shall monitor fishing gear containing plastic placed on the market of the Member State as well as waste fishing gear containing plastic collected and shall report to the Commission in accordance with Article 13(1) of this Directive with a view to the establishment of binding quantitative Union collection targets.

9.With regard to the extended producer responsibility schemes established pursuant to paragraph 8 of this Article, Member States shall ensure that the producers of fishing gear containing plastic cover the costs of the separate collection of waste fishing gear containing plastic that has been delivered to adequate port reception facilities in accordance with Directive (EU) 2019/883 or to other equivalent collection systems that fall outside the scope of that Directive and the costs of its subsequent transport and treatment. The producers shall also cover the costs of the awareness raising measures referred to in Article 10 regarding fishing gear containing plastic.

The requirements laid down in this paragraph supplement the requirements applicable to waste from fishing vessels in Union law on port reception facilities.

Without prejudice to technical measures laid down in Council Regulation (EC) No 850/98(4), the Commission shall request the European standardisation organisations to develop harmonised standards relating to the circular design of fishing gear to encourage preparing for re-use and facilitate recyclability at end of life.

Article 9U.K.Separate collection

1.Member States shall take the necessary measures to ensure the separate collection for recycling:

(a)

by 2025, of an amount of waste single-use plastic products listed in Part F of the Annex equal to 77 % of such single-use plastic products placed on the market in a given year by weight;

(b)

by 2029, of an amount of waste single-use plastic products listed in Part F of the Annex equal to 90 % of such single-use plastic products placed on the market in a given year by weight.

Single-use plastic products listed in Part F of the Annex placed on the market in a Member State may be deemed to be equal to the amount of waste generated from such products, including as litter, in the same year in that Member State.

In order to achieve that objective, Member States may inter alia:

(a)

establish deposit-refund schemes;

(b)

establish separate collection targets for relevant extended producer responsibility schemes.

The first subparagraph shall apply without prejudice to point (a) of Article 10(3) of Directive 2008/98/EC.

2.The Commission shall facilitate the exchange of information and sharing of best practices among Member States on the appropriate measures to meet the targets laid down in paragraph 1, inter alia, on deposit-refund schemes. The Commission shall make the results of such exchange of information and sharing of best practices publicly available.

3.By 3 July 2020, the Commission shall adopt an implementing act laying down the methodology for the calculation and verification of the separate collection targets laid down in paragraph 1 of this Article. That implementing act shall be adopted in accordance with the examination procedure referred to in Article 16(2).

Article 10U.K.Awareness raising measures

Member States shall take measures to inform consumers and to incentivise responsible consumer behaviour, in order to reduce litter from products covered by this Directive, and shall take measures to inform consumers of the single-use plastic products listed in Part G of the Annex and users of fishing gear containing plastic about the following:

(a)

the availability of re-usable alternatives, re-use systems and waste management options for those single-use plastic products and for fishing gear containing plastic as well as best practices in sound waste management carried out in accordance with Article 13 of Directive 2008/98/EC;

(b)

the impact of littering and other inappropriate waste disposal of those single-use plastic products and of fishing gear containing plastic on the environment, in particular on the marine environment; and

(c)

the impact of inappropriate means of waste disposal of those single-use plastic products on the sewer network.

Article 11U.K.Coordination of measures

Without prejudice to the first subparagraph of Article 4(1) of this Directive, each Member State shall ensure that the measures taken to transpose and implement this Directive form an integral part of and are consistent with its programmes of measures established in accordance with Article 13 of Directive 2008/56/EC for those Member States that have marine waters, the programmes of measures established in accordance with Article 11 of Directive 2000/60/EC, waste management plans and waste prevention programmes established in accordance with Articles 28 and 29 of Directive 2008/98/EC and the waste reception and handling plans established under Directive (EU) 2019/883.

The measures that Member States take to transpose and implement Articles 4 to 9 of this Directive shall comply with Union food law to ensure that food hygiene and food safety are not compromised. Member States shall encourage the use of sustainable alternatives to single-use plastic where possible for materials intended to come into contact with food.

Article 12U.K.Specifications and guidelines on single-use plastic products

In order to determine whether a food container is to be considered as a single-use plastic product for the purposes of this Directive, in addition to the criteria listed in the Annex as regards food containers, its tendency to become litter, due to its volume or size, in particular single-serve portions, shall play a decisive role.

By 3 July 2020, the Commission shall publish guidelines, in consultation with Member States, including examples of what is to be considered a single-use plastic product for the purposes of this Directive, as appropriate.

Article 13U.K.Information systems and reporting

1.Member States shall, for each calendar year, report to the Commission the following:

(a)

data on single-use plastic products listed in Part A of the Annex that have been placed on the market of the Member State each year, to demonstrate the consumption reduction in accordance with Article 4(1);

(b)

information on the measures taken by the Member State for the purposes of Article 4(1);

(c)

data on single-use plastic products listed in Part F of the Annex that have been separately collected in the Member State each year, to demonstrate the attainment of the separate collection targets in accordance with Article 9(1);

(d)

data on fishing gear containing plastic placed on the market and on waste fishing gear collected in the Member State each year;

(e)

information on recycled content in beverage bottles listed in Part F of the Annex to demonstrate the attainment of the targets laid down in Article 6(5); and

(f)

data on the post-consumption waste of single-use plastic products listed in Section III of Part E of the Annex that has been collected in accordance with Article 8(3).

Member States shall report the data and information electronically within 18 months of the end of the reporting year for which they were collected. The data and information shall be reported in the format established by the Commission in accordance with paragraph 4 of this Article.

The first reporting period shall be the calendar year 2022, with the exception of points (e) and (f) of the first subparagraph for which the first reporting period shall be the calendar year 2023.

2.The data and information reported by Member States in accordance with this Article shall be accompanied by a quality check report. The data and information shall be reported in the format established by the Commission in accordance with paragraph 4.

3.The Commission shall review the data and information reported in accordance with this Article and publish a report on the results of its review. The report shall assess the organisation of the collection of the data and information, the sources of data and information and the methodology used in Member States as well as the completeness, reliability, timeliness and consistency of that data and information. The assessment may include specific recommendations for improvement. The report shall be drawn up after the first reporting of the data and information by the Member States and thereafter at the intervals envisaged in Article 12(3c) of Directive 94/62/EC.

4.By 3 January 2021, the Commission shall adopt implementing acts laying down the format for reporting data and information in accordance with points (a) and (b) of paragraph 1 and with paragraph 2 of this Article.

By 3 July 2020, the Commission shall adopt implementing acts laying down the format for reporting data in accordance with points (c) and (d) of paragraph 1 and with paragraph 2 of this Article.

By 1 January 2022, the Commission shall adopt implementing acts laying down the format for reporting data and information in accordance with points (e) and (f) of paragraph 1 and with paragraph 2 of this Article.

Those implementing acts shall be adopted in accordance with the examination procedure referred to in Article 16(2). The format developed according to Article 12 of Directive 94/62/EC shall be taken into consideration.

Article 14U.K.Penalties

Member States shall lay down the rules on penalties applicable to infringements of national provisions adopted pursuant to this Directive and shall take all measures necessary to ensure that they are implemented. The penalties provided for shall be effective, proportionate and dissuasive. Member States shall, by 3 July 2021, notify the Commission of those rules and those measures and shall notify it of any subsequent amendment affecting them.

Article 15U.K.Evaluation and review

1.The Commission shall carry out an evaluation of this Directive by 3 July 2027. The evaluation shall be based on the information available in accordance with Article 13. Member States shall provide the Commission with any additional information necessary for the purposes of the evaluation and the preparation of the report referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article.

2.The Commission shall submit a report on the main findings of the evaluation carried out in accordance with paragraph 1 to the European Parliament, the Council and the European Economic and Social Committee. The report shall be accompanied by a legislative proposal, if appropriate. That proposal shall, if appropriate, set binding quantitative consumption reduction targets and set binding collection rates for waste fishing gear.

3.The report shall include:

(a)

an assessment of the need to review the Annex listing single-use plastic products, including as regards caps and lids made of plastic which are used for glass and metal beverage containers;

(b)

a study of the feasibility of establishing binding collection rates for waste fishing gear and binding quantitative Union targets for the consumption reduction of, in particular, single-use plastic products listed in Part A of the Annex, taking into account consumption levels and already achieved reductions in Member States;

(c)

an assessment of the change in materials used in the single-use plastic products covered by this Directive as well as of new consumption patterns and business models based on re-usable alternatives; this shall, wherever possible, include an overall life cycle analysis to assess the environmental impact of such products and their alternatives; and

(d)

an assessment of the scientific and technical progress concerning criteria or a standard for biodegradability in the marine environment applicable to single-use plastic products within the scope of this Directive and their single-use substitutes which ensure full decomposition into carbon dioxide (CO2), biomass and water within a timescale short enough for the plastics not to be harmful to marine life and not to lead to an accumulation of plastics in the environment.

4.As part of the evaluation carried out pursuant to paragraph 1, the Commission shall review the measures taken under this Directive as regards single-use plastic products listed in Section III of Part E of the Annex and shall submit a report on the main findings. The report shall also consider the options for binding measures for the reduction of the post-consumption waste of single-use plastic products listed in Section III of Part E of the Annex, including the possibility of setting binding collection rates for that post-consumption waste. The report shall, if appropriate, be accompanied by a legislative proposal.

Article 16U.K.Committee procedure

1.The Commission shall be assisted by the Committee established by Article 39 of Directive 2008/98/EC. That committee shall be a committee within the meaning of Regulation (EU) No 182/2011.

2.Where reference is made to this paragraph, Article 5 of Regulation (EU) No 182/2011 shall apply.

Where the committee delivers no opinion, the Commission shall not adopt the draft implementing act and the third subparagraph of Article 5(4) of Regulation (EU) No 182/2011 shall apply.

Article 17U.K.Transposition

1.Member States shall bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with this Directive by 3 July 2021. They shall immediately inform the Commission thereof.

However, the Member States shall apply the measures necessary to comply with:

  • Article 5 from 3 July 2021,

  • Article 6(1) from 3 July 2024,

  • Article 7(1) from 3 July 2021,

  • Article 8 by 31 December 2024 but, in relation to extended producer responsibility schemes established before 4 July 2018 and in relation to single-use plastic products listed in Section III of Part E of the Annex, by 5 January 2023.

When Member States adopt the measures referred to in this paragraph, they shall contain a reference to this Directive or shall be accompanied by such a reference on the occasion of their official publication. The methods of making such reference shall be laid down by Member States.

2.Member States shall communicate to the Commission the text of the main measures of national law which they adopt in the field covered by this Directive.

3.Provided that the waste management targets and objectives set out in Articles 4 and 8 are achieved, Member States may transpose the provisions set out in Articles 4(1) and 8(1) and (8), except as regards single-use plastic products listed in Section III of Part E of the Annex, by means of agreements between the competent authorities and the economic sectors concerned.

Such agreements shall meet the following requirements:

(a)

agreements shall be enforceable;

(b)

agreements need to specify objectives with the corresponding deadlines;

(c)

agreements shall be published in the national official journal or an official document equally accessible to the public and transmitted to the Commission;

(d)

the results achieved under an agreement shall be monitored regularly, reported to the competent authorities and to the Commission and made available to the public under the conditions set out in the agreement;

(e)

the competent authorities shall make provisions to examine the progress reached under an agreement; and

(f)

in case of non-compliance with an agreement Member States shall implement the relevant provisions of this Directive by legislative, regulatory or administrative measures.

Article 18U.K.Entry into force

This Directive shall enter into force on the twentieth day following that of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.

Article 19U.K.Addressees

This Directive is addressed to the Member States.

Done at Brussels, 5 June 2019.

For the European Parliament

The President

A. TAJANI

For the Council

The President

G. CIAMBA

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