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Commission Directive 2014/88/EUShow full title

Commission Directive 2014/88/EU of 9 July 2014 amending Directive 2004/49/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards common safety indicators and common methods of calculating accident costs (Text with EEA relevance)

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5. Common methodologies to calculate the economic impact of accidents U.K.

5.1.The Value of Preventing a Casualty (VPC) is composed of:U.K.
(1)

Value of safety per se: Willingness to Pay (WTP) values based on stated preference studies carried out in the Member State for which they are applied.

(2)

Direct and indirect economic costs: cost values appraised in the Member State, composed of:

  • medical and rehabilitation cost,

  • legal court cost, cost for police, private crash investigations, the emergency service and administrative costs of insurance,

  • production losses: value to society of goods and services that could have been produced by the person if the accident had not occurred.

When calculating the costs of casualties, fatalities and serious injuries shall be considered separately (different VPC for fatality and serious injury).

5.2.Common principles to appraise the value of safety per se and direct/indirect economic costs:U.K.

For the value of safety per se, the assessment of whether available estimates are appropriate or not shall be based on the following considerations:

  • estimates shall relate to a system for valuation of mortality risk reduction in the transport sector and follow a Willingness to Pay (WTP) approach according to stated preference methods,

  • the respondent sample used for the values shall be representative of the population concerned. In particular, the sample has to reflect the age/income distribution along with other relevant socioeconomic/demographic characteristics of the population,

  • method for eliciting WTP values: survey design shall be such that questions are clear/meaningful to respondents.

Direct and indirect economic costs shall be appraised on the basis of the real costs borne by society.

5.3.DefinitionsU.K.
5.3.1.“Cost of damage to environment” means costs that are to be met by Railway Undertakings and Infrastructure Managers, appraised on the basis of their experience, in order to restore the damaged area to its state before the railway accident.U.K.
5.3.2.“Cost of material damage to rolling stock or infrastructure” means the cost of providing new rolling stock or infrastructure, with the same functionalities and technical parameters as that damaged beyond repair, and the cost of restoring repairable rolling stock or infrastructure to its state before the accident, to be estimated by Railway Undertakings and Infrastructure Managers on the basis of their experience, including also costs related to the leasing of rolling stock, as a consequence of non-availability due to damaged vehicles.U.K.
5.3.3.“Cost of delays as a consequence of accidents” means the monetary value of delays incurred by users of rail transport (passengers and freight customers) as a consequence of accidents, calculated by the following model:U.K.
VT = monetary value of travel time savings U.K.
Value of time for a passenger of a train (an hour) U.K.

VTP = [VT of work passengers] * [Average percentage of work passengers per year] + [VT of non-work passengers] * [Average percentage of non-work passengers per year]

VTP is measured in EUR per passenger per hour

“Work passenger” means a passenger travelling in connection with their professional activities excluding commuting.

Value of time for a freight train (an hour) U.K.

VTF = [VT of freight trains] * [(Tonne-Km)/(Train-Km)]

VTF is measured in EUR per freight tonne per hour

Average tonnes of goods transported per train in one year = (Tonne-Km)/(Train-Km)

CM = Cost of 1 minute of delay of a train U.K.
Passenger train U.K.

CMP = K1 * (VTP/60) * [(Passenger-Km)/(Train-Km)]

Average number of passengers per train in one year = (Passenger-Km)/(Train-Km)

Freight train U.K.

CMF = K2 * (VTF/60)

Factors K1 and K2 are between the value of time and the value of delay, as estimated by stated preference studies, to take into account that the time lost as a result of delays is perceived significantly more negatively than normal travel time.

Cost of delays of an accident = CMP * (Minutes of delay of passenger trains) + CMF * (Minutes of delay of freight trains)

Scope of the model U.K.

Cost of delays is to be calculated for significant accidents, as follows:

  • real delays on the railway lines where accidents occurred as measured at terminal station

  • real delays or, if not possible, estimated delays on the other affected lines.

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