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Directive 2014/65/EU of the European Parliament and of the CouncilShow full title

Directive 2014/65/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 May 2014 on markets in financial instruments and amending Directive 2002/92/EC and Directive 2011/61/EU (recast) (Text with EEA relevance)

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CHAPTER I Conditions and procedures for authorisation

Article 5Requirement for authorisation

1.Each Member State shall require that the provision of investment services and/or the performance of investment activities as a regular occupation or business on a professional basis be subject to prior authorisation in accordance with this Chapter. Such authorisation shall be granted by the home Member State competent authority designated in accordance with Article 67.

2.By way of derogation from paragraph 1, Member States shall authorise any market operator to operate an MTF or an OTF, subject to the prior verification of their compliance with this Chapter.

3.Member States shall register all investment firms. The register shall be publicly accessible and shall contain information on the services or activities for which the investment firm is authorised. It shall be updated on a regular basis. Every authorisation shall be notified to ESMA.

ESMA shall establish a list of all investment firms in the Union. That list shall contain information on the services or activities for which each investment firm is authorised and it shall be updated on a regular basis. ESMA shall publish and keep up-to-date that list on its website.

Where a competent authority has withdrawn an authorisation in accordance with points (b), (c) and (d) of Article 8, that withdrawal shall be published on the list for a period of five years.

4.Each Member State shall require that:

(a)

any investment firm which is a legal person have its head office in the same Member State as its registered office;

(b)

any investment firm which is not a legal person or any investment firm which is a legal person but under its national law has no registered office, have its head office in the Member State in which it actually carries out its business.

Article 6Scope of authorisation

1.The home Member State shall ensure that the authorisation specifies the investment services or activities which the investment firm is authorised to provide. The authorisation may cover one or more of the ancillary services set out in Section B of Annex I. Authorisation shall in no case be granted solely for the provision of ancillary services.

2.An investment firm seeking authorisation to extend its business to additional investment services or activities or ancillary services not foreseen at the time of initial authorisation shall submit a request for extension of its authorisation.

3.The authorisation shall be valid for the entire Union and shall allow an investment firm to provide the services or perform the activities, for which it has been authorised, throughout the Union, either through the right of establishment, including through a branch, or through the freedom to provide services.

Article 7Procedures for granting and refusing requests for authorisation

1.The competent authority shall not grant authorisation unless and until such time as it is fully satisfied that the applicant complies with all requirements under the provisions adopted pursuant to this Directive.

2.The investment firm shall provide all information, including a programme of operations setting out, inter alia, the types of business envisaged and the organisational structure, necessary to enable the competent authority to satisfy itself that the investment firm has established, at the time of initial authorisation, all the necessary arrangements to meet its obligations under this Chapter.

3.An applicant shall be informed, within six months of the submission of a complete application, whether or not authorisation has been granted.

4.ESMA shall develop draft regulatory technical standards to specify:

(a)

the information to be provided to the competent authorities under paragraph 2 of this Article including the programme of operations;

(b)

the requirements applicable to the management of investment firms under Article 9(6) and the information for the notifications under Article 9(5);

(c)

the requirements applicable to shareholders and members with qualifying holdings, as well as obstacles which may prevent effective exercise of the supervisory functions of the competent authority, under Article 10(1) and (2).

ESMA shall submit those draft regulatory technical standards to the Commission by 3 July 2015.

Power is delegated to the Commission to adopt the regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph in accordance with Articles 10 to 14 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010.

5.ESMA shall develop draft implementing technical standards to determine standard forms, templates and procedures for the notification or provision of information provided for in paragraph 2 of this Article and in Article 9(5).

ESMA shall submit those draft implementing technical standards to the Commission by 3 January 2016.

Power is conferred on the Commission to adopt the implementing technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph in accordance with Article 15 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010.

Article 8Withdrawal of authorisations

The competent authority may withdraw the authorisation issued to an investment firm where such an investment firm:

(a)

does not make use of the authorisation within 12 months, expressly renounces the authorisation or has provided no investment services or performed no investment activity for the preceding six months, unless the Member State concerned has provided for authorisation to lapse in such cases;

(b)

has obtained the authorisation by making false statements or by any other irregular means;

(c)

no longer meets the conditions under which authorisation was granted, such as compliance with the conditions set out in Regulation (EU) No 575/2013;

(d)

has seriously and systematically infringed the provisions adopted pursuant to this Directive or Regulation (EU) No 600/2014 governing the operating conditions for investment firms;

(e)

falls within any of the cases where national law, in respect of matters outside the scope of this Directive, provides for withdrawal.

Every withdrawal of authorisation shall be notified to ESMA.

Article 9Management body

1.Competent authorities granting the authorisation in accordance with Article 5 shall ensure that investment firms and their management bodies comply with Article 88 and Article 91 of Directive 2013/36/EU.

ESMA and EBA shall adopt, jointly, guidelines on the elements listed in Article 91(12) of Directive 2013/36/EU.

2.When granting the authorisation in accordance with Article 5, competent authorities may authorise members of the management body to hold one additional non-executive directorship than allowed in accordance with Article 91(3) of Directive 2013/36/EU. Competent authorities shall regularly inform ESMA of such authorisations.

EBA and ESMA shall coordinate the collection of information provided for under the first subparagraph of this paragraph and under Article 91(6) of Directive 2013/36/EU in relation to investment firms.

3.Member States shall ensure that the management body of an investment firm defines, oversees and is accountable for the implementation of the governance arrangements that ensure effective and prudent management of the investment firm including the segregation of duties in the investment firm and the prevention of conflicts of interest, and in a manner that promotes the integrity of the market and the interest of clients.

Without prejudice to the requirements established in Article 88(1) of Directive 2013/36/EU, those arrangements shall also ensure that the management body define, approve and oversee:

(a)

the organisation of the firm for the provision of investment services and activities and ancillary services, including the skills, knowledge and expertise required by personnel, the resources, the procedures and the arrangements for the provision of services and activities, taking into account the nature, scale and complexity of its business and all the requirements the firm has to comply with;

(b)

a policy as to services, activities, products and operations offered or provided, in accordance with the risk tolerance of the firm and the characteristics and needs of the clients of the firm to whom they will be offered or provided, including carrying out appropriate stress testing, where appropriate;

(c)

a remuneration policy of persons involved in the provision of services to clients aiming to encourage responsible business conduct, fair treatment of clients as well as avoiding conflict of interest in the relationships with clients.

The management body shall monitor and periodically assess the adequacy and the implementation of the firm’s strategic objectives in the provision of investment services and activities and ancillary services, the effectiveness of the investment firm’s governance arrangements and the adequacy of the policies relating to the provision of services to clients and take appropriate steps to address any deficiencies.

Members of the management body shall have adequate access to information and documents which are needed to oversee and monitor management decision-making.

4.The competent authority shall refuse authorisation if it is not satisfied that the members of the management body of the investment firm are of sufficiently good repute, possess sufficient knowledge, skills and experience and commit sufficient time to perform their functions in the investment firm, or if there are objective and demonstrable grounds for believing that the management body of the firm may pose a threat to its effective, sound and prudent management and to the adequate consideration of the interest of its clients and the integrity of the market.

5.Member States shall require the investment firm to notify the competent authority of all members of its management body and of any changes to its membership, along with all information needed to assess whether the firm complies with paragraphs 1, 2 and 3.

6.Member States shall require that at least two persons meeting the requirements laid down in paragraph 1 effectively direct the business of the applicant investment firm.

By way of derogation from the first subparagraph, Member States may grant authorisation to investment firms that are natural persons or to investment firms that are legal persons managed by a single natural person in accordance with their constitutive rules and national laws. Member States shall nevertheless require that:

(a)

alternative arrangements be in place which ensure the sound and prudent management of such investment firms and the adequate consideration of the interest of clients and the integrity of the market;

(b)

the natural persons concerned are of sufficiently good repute, possess sufficient knowledge, skills and experience and commit sufficient time to perform their duties.

Article 10Shareholders and members with qualifying holdings

1.The competent authorities shall not authorise the provision of investment services or performance of investment activities by an investment firm until they have been informed of the identities of the shareholders or members, whether direct or indirect, natural or legal persons, that have qualifying holdings and the amounts of those holdings.

The competent authorities shall refuse authorisation if, taking into account the need to ensure the sound and prudent management of an investment firm, they are not satisfied as to the suitability of the shareholders or members that have qualifying holdings.

Where close links exist between the investment firm and other natural or legal persons, the competent authority shall grant authorisation only if those links do not prevent the effective exercise of the supervisory functions of the competent authority.

2.The competent authority shall refuse authorisation if the laws, regulations or administrative provisions of a third country governing one or more natural or legal persons with which the undertaking has close links, or difficulties involved in their enforcement, prevent the effective exercise of its supervisory functions.

3.Member States shall require that, where the influence exercised by the persons referred to in the first subparagraph of paragraph 1 is likely to be prejudicial to the sound and prudent management of an investment firm, the competent authority take appropriate measures to put an end to that situation.

Such measures may include applications for judicial orders or the imposition of sanctions against directors and those responsible for management, or suspension of the exercise of the voting rights attaching to the shares held by the shareholders or members in question.

Article 11Notification of proposed acquisitions

1.Member States shall require any natural or legal person or such persons acting in concert (the ‘proposed acquirer’), who have taken a decision either to acquire, directly or indirectly, a qualifying holding in an investment firm or to further increase, directly or indirectly, such a qualifying holding in an investment firm as a result of which the proportion of the voting rights or of the capital held would reach or exceed 20 %, 30 % or 50 % or so that the investment firm would become its subsidiary (the ‘proposed acquisition’), first to notify in writing the competent authorities of the investment firm in which they are seeking to acquire or increase a qualifying holding, indicating the size of the intended holding and relevant information, as referred to in Article 13(4).

Member States shall require any natural or legal person who has taken a decision to dispose, directly or indirectly, of a qualifying holding in an investment firm first to notify in writing the competent authorities, indicating the size of the intended holding. Such a person shall likewise notify the competent authorities if he has taken a decision to reduce his qualifying holding so that the proportion of the voting rights or of the capital held would fall below 20 %, 30 % or 50 % or so that the investment firm would cease to be his subsidiary.

Member States need not apply the 30 % threshold where, in accordance with point (a) of Article 9(3) of Directive 2004/109/EC, they apply a threshold of one-third.

In determining whether the criteria for a qualifying holding referred to in Article 10 and in this Article are fulfilled, Member States shall not take into account voting rights or shares which investment firms or credit institutions may hold as a result of providing the underwriting of financial instruments and/or placing of financial instruments on a firm commitment basis included under point 6 of Section A of Annex I, provided that those rights are, on the one hand, not exercised or otherwise used to intervene in the management of the issuer and, on the other, disposed of within one year of acquisition.

2.The relevant competent authorities shall work in full consultation with each other when carrying out the assessment provided for in Article 13(1) (the ‘assessment’) if the proposed acquirer is one of the following:

(a)

a credit institution, assurance undertaking, insurance undertaking, reinsurance undertaking, investment firm or UCITS management company authorised in another Member State or in a sector other than that in which the acquisition is proposed;

(b)

the parent undertaking of a credit institution, assurance undertaking, insurance undertaking, reinsurance undertaking, investment firm or UCITS management company authorised in another Member State or in a sector other than that in which the acquisition is proposed; or

(c)

a natural or legal person controlling a credit institution, assurance undertaking, insurance undertaking, reinsurance undertaking, investment firm or UCITS management company authorised in another Member State or in a sector other than that in which the acquisition is proposed.

The competent authorities shall, without undue delay, provide each other with any information which is essential or relevant for the assessment. In that regard, the competent authorities shall communicate to each other upon request all relevant information and shall communicate on their own initiative all essential information. A decision by the competent authority that has authorised the investment firm in which the acquisition is proposed shall indicate any views or reservations expressed by the competent authority responsible for the proposed acquirer.

3.Member States shall require that, if an investment firm becomes aware of any acquisitions or disposals of holdings in its capital that cause holdings to exceed or fall below any of the thresholds referred to in the first subparagraph of paragraph 1, that investment firm is to inform the competent authority without delay.

At least once a year, investment firms shall also inform the competent authority of the names of shareholders and members possessing qualifying holdings and the sizes of such holdings as shown, for example, by the information received at annual general meetings of shareholders and members or as a result of compliance with the regulations applicable to companies whose transferable securities are admitted to trading on a regulated market.

4.Member States shall require that competent authorities take measures similar to those referred to in Article 10(3) in respect of persons who fail to comply with the obligation to provide prior information in relation to the acquisition or increase of a qualifying holding. If a holding is acquired despite the opposition of the competent authorities, the Member States shall, regardless of any other sanctions to be adopted, provide either for exercise of the corresponding voting rights to be suspended, for the nullity of the votes cast or for the possibility of their annulment.

Article 12Assessment period

1.The competent authorities shall, promptly and in any event within two working days following receipt of the notification required under the first subparagraph of Article 11(1), as well as following the possible subsequent receipt of the information referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article, acknowledge receipt thereof in writing to the proposed acquirer.

The competent authorities shall have a maximum of sixty working days as from the date of the written acknowledgement of receipt of the notification and all documents required by the Member State to be attached to the notification on the basis of the list referred to in Article 13(4) (the ‘assessment period’), to carry out the assessment.

The competent authorities shall inform the proposed acquirer of the date of the expiry of the assessment period at the time of acknowledging receipt.

2.The competent authorities may, during the assessment period, if necessary, and no later than on the 50th working day of the assessment period, request any further information that is necessary to complete the assessment. Such request shall be made in writing and shall specify the additional information needed.

For the period between the date of request for information by the competent authorities and the receipt of a response thereto by the proposed acquirer, the assessment period shall be interrupted. The interruption shall not exceed 20 working days. Any further requests by the competent authorities for completion or clarification of the information shall be at their discretion but may not result in an interruption of the assessment period.

3.The competent authorities may extend the interruption referred to in the second subparagraph of paragraph 2 up to 30 working days if the proposed acquirer is one of the following:

(a)

a natural or legal person situated or regulated outside the Union;

(b)

a natural or legal person not subject to supervision under this Directive or Directives 2009/65/EC, 2009/138/EC or 2013/36/EU.

4.If the competent authorities, upon completion of the assessment, decide to oppose the proposed acquisition, they shall, within two working days, and not exceeding the assessment period, inform the proposed acquirer in writing and provide the reasons for that decision. Subject to national law, an appropriate statement of the reasons for the decision may be made accessible to the public at the request of the proposed acquirer. This shall not prevent a Member State from allowing the competent authority to make such disclosure in the absence of a request by the proposed acquirer.

5.If the competent authorities do not oppose the proposed acquisition within the assessment period in writing, it shall be deemed to be approved.

6.The competent authorities may fix a maximum period for concluding the proposed acquisition and extend it where appropriate.

7.Member States may not impose requirements for the notification to and approval by the competent authorities of direct or indirect acquisitions of voting rights or capital that are more stringent than those set out in this Directive.

8.ESMA shall develop draft regulatory technical standards to establish an exhaustive list of information, referred to in Article 13(4) to be included by proposed acquirers in their notification, without prejudice to paragraph 2 of this Article.

ESMA shall submit those draft regulatory technical standards to the Commission by 1 January 2014.

Power is delegated to the Commission to adopt the regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph in accordance with Articles 10 to 14 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010.

9.ESMA shall develop draft implementing technical standards to determine standard forms, templates and procedures for the modalities of the consultation process between the relevant competent authorities as referred to in Article 11(2).

ESMA shall submit those draft implementing technical standards to the Commission by 1 January 2014.

Power is conferred on the Commission to adopt the implementing technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph in accordance with Article 15 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010.

Article 13Assessment

1.In assessing the notification provided for in Article 11(1) and the information referred to in Article 12(2), the competent authorities shall, in order to ensure the sound and prudent management of the investment firm in which an acquisition is proposed, and having regard to the likely influence of the proposed acquirer on the investment firm, appraise the suitability of the proposed acquirer and the financial soundness of the proposed acquisition against all of the following criteria:

(a)

the reputation of the proposed acquirer;

(b)

the reputation and experience of any person who will direct the business of the investment firm as a result of the proposed acquisition;

(c)

the financial soundness of the proposed acquirer, in particular in relation to the type of business pursued and envisaged in the investment firm in which the acquisition is proposed;

(d)

whether the investment firm will be able to comply and continue to comply with the prudential requirements based on this Directive and, where applicable, other Directives, in particular Directives 2002/87/EC and 2013/36/EU, in particular, whether the group of which it will become a part has a structure that makes it possible to exercise effective supervision, effectively exchange information among the competent authorities and determine the allocation of responsibilities among the competent authorities;

(e)

whether there are reasonable grounds to suspect that, in connection with the proposed acquisition, money laundering or terrorist financing within the meaning of Article 1 of Directive 2005/60/EC is being or has been committed or attempted, or that the proposed acquisition could increase the risk thereof.

The Commission shall be empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 89 which adjust the criteria set out in the first subparagraph of this paragraph.

2.The competent authorities may oppose the proposed acquisition only if there are reasonable grounds for doing so on the basis of the criteria set out in paragraph 1 or if the information provided by the proposed acquirer is incomplete.

3.Member States shall neither impose any prior conditions in respect of the level of holding that must be acquired nor allow their competent authorities to examine the proposed acquisition in terms of the economic needs of the market.

4.Member States shall make publicly available a list specifying the information that is necessary to carry out the assessment and that must be provided to the competent authorities at the time of notification referred to in Article 11(1). The information required shall be proportionate and adapted to the nature of the proposed acquirer and the proposed acquisition. Member States shall not require information that is not relevant for a prudential assessment.

5.Notwithstanding Article 12(1), (2) and (3), where two or more proposals to acquire or increase qualifying holdings in the same investment firm have been notified to the competent authority, the latter shall treat the proposed acquirers in a non-discriminatory manner.

Article 14Membership of an authorised investor compensation scheme

The competent authority shall verify that any entity seeking authorisation as an investment firm meets its obligations under Directive 97/9/EC at the time of authorisation.

The obligation laid down in the first paragraph shall be met in relation to structured deposits where the structured deposit is issued by a credit institution which is a member of a deposit guarantee scheme recognised under Directive 2014/49/EU.

Article 15Initial capital endowment

Member States shall ensure that the competent authorities do not grant authorisation unless the investment firm has sufficient initial capital in accordance with the requirements of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 having regard to the nature of the investment service or activity in question.

Article 16Organisational requirements

1.The home Member State shall require that investment firms comply with the organisational requirements laid down in paragraphs 2 to 10 of this Article and in Article 17.

2.An investment firm shall establish adequate policies and procedures sufficient to ensure compliance of the firm including its managers, employees and tied agents with its obligations under this Directive as well as appropriate rules governing personal transactions by such persons.

3.An investment firm shall maintain and operate effective organisational and administrative arrangements with a view to taking all reasonable steps designed to prevent conflicts of interest as defined in Article 23 from adversely affecting the interests of its clients.

An investment firm which manufactures financial instruments for sale to clients shall maintain, operate and review a process for the approval of each financial instrument and significant adaptations of existing financial instruments before it is marketed or distributed to clients.

The product approval process shall specify an identified target market of end clients within the relevant category of clients for each financial instrument and shall ensure that all relevant risks to such identified target market are assessed and that the intended distribution strategy is consistent with the identified target market.

An investment firm shall also regularly review financial instruments it offers or markets, taking into account any event that could materially affect the potential risk to the identified target market, to assess at least whether the financial instrument remains consistent with the needs of the identified target market and whether the intended distribution strategy remains appropriate.

An investment firm which manufactures financial instruments shall make available to any distributor all appropriate information on the financial instrument and the product approval process, including the identified target market of the financial instrument.

Where an investment firm offers or recommends financial instruments which it does not manufacture, it shall have in place adequate arrangements to obtain the information referred to in the fifth subparagraph and to understand the characteristics and identified target market of each financial instrument.

The policies, processes and arrangements referred to in this paragraph shall be without prejudice to all other requirements under this Directive and Regulation (EU) No 600/2014, including those relating to disclosure, suitability or appropriateness, identification and management of conflicts of interests, and inducements.

4.An investment firm shall take reasonable steps to ensure continuity and regularity in the performance of investment services and activities. To that end the investment firm shall employ appropriate and proportionate systems, resources and procedures.

5.An investment firm shall ensure, when relying on a third party for the performance of operational functions which are critical for the provision of continuous and satisfactory service to clients and the performance of investment activities on a continuous and satisfactory basis, that it takes reasonable steps to avoid undue additional operational risk. Outsourcing of important operational functions may not be undertaken in such a way as to impair materially the quality of its internal control and the ability of the supervisor to monitor the firm’s compliance with all obligations.

An investment firm shall have sound administrative and accounting procedures, internal control mechanisms, effective procedures for risk assessment, and effective control and safeguard arrangements for information processing systems.

Without prejudice to the ability of competent authorities to require access to communications in accordance with this Directive and Regulation (EU) No 600/2014, an investment firm shall have sound security mechanisms in place to guarantee the security and authentication of the means of transfer of information, minimise the risk of data corruption and unauthorised access and to prevent information leakage maintaining the confidentiality of the data at all times.

6.An investment firm shall arrange for records to be kept of all services, activities and transactions undertaken by it which shall be sufficient to enable the competent authority to fulfil its supervisory tasks and to perform the enforcement actions under this Directive, Regulation (EU) No 600/2014, Directive 2014/57/EU and Regulation (EU) No 596/2014, and in particular to ascertain that the investment firm has complied with all obligations including those with respect to clients or potential clients and to the integrity of the market.

7.Records shall include the recording of telephone conversations or electronic communications relating to, at least, transactions concluded when dealing on own account and the provision of client order services that relate to the reception, transmission and execution of client orders.

Such telephone conversations and electronic communications shall also include those that are intended to result in transactions concluded when dealing on own account or in the provision of client order services that relate to the reception, transmission and execution of client orders, even if those conversations or communications do not result in the conclusion of such transactions or in the provision of client order services.

For those purposes, an investment firm shall take all reasonable steps to record relevant telephone conversations and electronic communications, made with, sent from or received by equipment provided by the investment firm to an employee or contractor or the use of which by an employee or contractor has been accepted or permitted by the investment firm.

An investment firm shall notify new and existing clients that telephone communications or conversations between the investment firm and its clients that result or may result in transactions will be recorded.

Such a notification may be made once, before the provision of investment services to new and existing clients.

An investment firm shall not provide, by telephone, investment services and activities to clients who have not been notified in advance about the recording of their telephone communications or conversations, where such investment services and activities relate to the reception, transmission and execution of client orders.

Orders may be placed by clients through other channels, however such communications must be made in a durable medium such as mails, faxes, emails or documentation of client orders made at meetings. In particular, the content of relevant face-to-face conversations with a client may be recorded by using written minutes or notes. Such orders shall be considered equivalent to orders received by telephone.

An investment firm shall take all reasonable steps to prevent an employee or contractor from making, sending or receiving relevant telephone conversations and electronic communications on privately-owned equipment which the investment firm is unable to record or copy.

The records kept in accordance with this paragraph shall be provided to the client involved upon request and shall be kept for a period of five years and, where requested by the competent authority, for a period of up to seven years.

8.An investment firm shall, when holding financial instruments belonging to clients, make adequate arrangements so as to safeguard the ownership rights of clients, especially in the event of the investment firm’s insolvency, and to prevent the use of a client’s financial instruments on own account except with the client’s express consent.

9.An investment firm shall, when holding funds belonging to clients, make adequate arrangements to safeguard the rights of clients and, except in the case of credit institutions, prevent the use of client funds for its own account.

10.An investment firm shall not conclude title transfer financial collateral arrangements with retail clients for the purpose of securing or covering present or future, actual or contingent or prospective obligations of clients.

11.In the case of branches of investment firms, the competent authority of the Member State in which the branch is located shall, without prejudice to the possibility of the competent authority of the home Member State of the investment firm to have direct access to those records, enforce the obligation laid down in paragraphs 6 and 7 with regard to transactions undertaken by the branch.

Member States may, in exceptional circumstances, impose requirements on investment firms concerning the safeguarding of client assets additional to the provisions set out in paragraphs 8, 9 and 10 and the respective delegated acts as referred to in paragraph 12. Such requirements must be objectively justified and proportionate so as to address, where investment firms safeguard client assets and client funds, specific risks to investor protection or to market integrity which are of particular importance in the circumstances of the market structure of that Member State.

Member States shall notify, without undue delay, the Commission of any requirement which they intend to impose in accordance with this paragraph and at least two months before the date appointed for that requirement to come into force. The notification shall include a justification for that requirement. Any such additional requirements shall not restrict or otherwise affect the rights of investment firms under Articles 34 and 35.

The Commission shall within two months of the notification referred to in the third subparagraph provide its opinion on the proportionality of and justification for the additional requirements.

Member States may retain additional requirements provided that they were notified to the Commission in accordance with Article 4 of Directive 2006/73/EC before 2 July 2014 and that the conditions laid down in that Article are met.

The Commission shall communicate to Member States and make public on its website the additional requirements imposed in accordance with this paragraph.

12.The Commission shall be empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 89 to specify the concrete organisational requirements laid down in paragraphs 2 to 10 of this Article to be imposed on investment firms and on branches of third-country firms authorised in accordance with Article 41 performing different investment services and/or activities and ancillary services or combinations thereof.

Article 17Algorithmic trading

1.An investment firm that engages in algorithmic trading shall have in place effective systems and risk controls suitable to the business it operates to ensure that its trading systems are resilient and have sufficient capacity, are subject to appropriate trading thresholds and limits and prevent the sending of erroneous orders or the systems otherwise functioning in a way that may create or contribute to a disorderly market. Such a firm shall also have in place effective systems and risk controls to ensure the trading systems cannot be used for any purpose that is contrary to Regulation (EU) No 596/2014 or to the rules of a trading venue to which it is connected. The investment firm shall have in place effective business continuity arrangements to deal with any failure of its trading systems and shall ensure its systems are fully tested and properly monitored to ensure that they meet the requirements laid down in this paragraph.

2.An investment firm that engages in algorithmic trading in a Member State shall notify this to the competent authorities of its home Member State and of the trading venue at which the investment firm engages in algorithmic trading as a member or participant of the trading venue.

The competent authority of the home Member State of the investment firm may require the investment firm to provide, on a regular or ad-hoc basis, a description of the nature of its algorithmic trading strategies, details of the trading parameters or limits to which the system is subject, the key compliance and risk controls that it has in place to ensure the conditions laid down in paragraph 1 are satisfied and details of the testing of its systems. The competent authority of the home Member State of the investment firm may, at any time, request further information from an investment firm about its algorithmic trading and the systems used for that trading.

The competent authority of the home Member State of the investment firm shall, on the request of a competent authority of a trading venue at which the investment firm as a member or participant of the trading venue is engaged in algorithmic trading and without undue delay, communicate the information referred to in the second subparagraph that it receives from the investment firm that engages in algorithmic trading.

The investment firm shall arrange for records to be kept in relation to the matters referred to in this paragraph and shall ensure that those records be sufficient to enable its competent authority to monitor compliance with the requirements of this Directive.

An investment firm that engages in a high-frequency algorithmic trading technique shall store in an approved form accurate and time sequenced records of all its placed orders, including cancellations of orders, executed orders and quotations on trading venues and shall make them available to the competent authority upon request.

3.An investment firm that engages in algorithmic trading to pursue a market making strategy shall, taking into account the liquidity, scale and nature of the specific market and the characteristics of the instrument traded:

(a)

carry out this market making continuously during a specified proportion of the trading venue’s trading hours, except under exceptional circumstances, with the result of providing liquidity on a regular and predictable basis to the trading venue;

(b)

enter into a binding written agreement with the trading venue which shall at least specify the obligations of the investment firm in accordance with point (a); and

(c)

have in place effective systems and controls to ensure that it fulfils its obligations under the agreement referred to in point (b) at all times.

4.For the purposes of this Article and of Article 48 of this Directive, an investment firm that engages in algorithmic trading shall be considered to be pursuing a market making strategy when, as a member or participant of one or more trading venues, its strategy, when dealing on own account, involves posting firm, simultaneous two-way quotes of comparable size and at competitive prices relating to one or more financial instruments on a single trading venue or across different trading venues, with the result of providing liquidity on a regular and frequent basis to the overall market.

5.An investment firm that provides direct electronic access to a trading venue shall have in place effective systems and controls which ensure a proper assessment and review of the suitability of clients using the service, that clients using the service are prevented from exceeding appropriate pre-set trading and credit thresholds, that trading by clients using the service is properly monitored and that appropriate risk controls prevent trading that may create risks to the investment firm itself or that could create or contribute to a disorderly market or could be contrary to Regulation (EU) No 596/2014 or the rules of the trading venue. Direct electronic access without such controls is prohibited.

An investment firm that provides direct electronic access shall be responsible for ensuring that clients using that service comply with the requirements of this Directive and the rules of the trading venue. The investment firm shall monitor the transactions in order to identify infringements of those rules, disorderly trading conditions or conduct that may involve market abuse and that is to be reported to the competent authority. The investment firm shall ensure that there is a binding written agreement between the investment firm and the client regarding the essential rights and obligations arising from the provision of the service and that under the agreement the investment firm retains responsibility under this Directive.

An investment firm that provides direct electronic access to a trading venue shall notify the competent authorities of its home Member State and of the trading venue at which the investment firm provides direct electronic access accordingly.

The competent authority of the home Member State of the investment firm may require the investment firm to provide, on a regular or ad-hoc basis, a description of the systems and controls referred to in first subparagraph and evidence that those have been applied.

The competent authority of the home Member State of the investment firm shall, on the request of a competent authority of a trading venue in relation to which the investment firm provides direct electronic access, communicate without undue delay the information referred to in the fourth subparagraph that it receives from the investment firm.

The investment firm shall arrange for records to be kept in relation to the matters referred to in this paragraph and shall ensure that those records be sufficient to enable its competent authority to monitor compliance with the requirements of this Directive.

6.An investment firm that acts as a general clearing member for other persons shall have in place effective systems and controls to ensure clearing services are only applied to persons who are suitable and meet clear criteria and that appropriate requirements are imposed on those persons to reduce risks to the investment firm and to the market. The investment firm shall ensure that there is a binding written agreement between the investment firm and the person regarding the essential rights and obligations arising from the provision of that service.

7.ESMA shall develop draft regulatory technical standards to specify the following:

(a)

the details of organisational requirements laid down in paragraphs 1 to 6 to be imposed on investment firms providing different investment services and/or activities and ancillary services or combinations thereof, whereby the specifications in relation to the organisational requirements laid down in paragraph 5 shall set out specific requirements for direct market access and for sponsored access in such a way as to ensure that the controls applied to sponsored access are at least equivalent to those applied to direct market access;

(b)

the circumstances in which an investment firm would be obliged to enter into the market making agreement referred to in point (b) of paragraph 3 and the content of such agreements, including the proportion of the trading venue’s trading hours laid down in paragraph 3;

(c)

the situations constituting exceptional circumstances referred to in paragraph 3, including circumstances of extreme volatility, political and macroeconomic issues, system and operational matters, and circumstances which contradict the investment firm’s ability to maintain prudent risk management practices as laid down in paragraph 1;

(d)

the content and format of the approved form referred to in the fifth subparagraph of paragraph 2 and the length of time for which such records must be kept by the investment firm.

ESMA shall submit those draft regulatory technical standards to the Commission by 3 July 2015.

Power is delegated to the Commission to adopt the regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph in accordance with Articles 10 to 14 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010.

Article 18Trading process and finalisation of transactions in an MTF and an OTF

1.Member States shall require that investment firms and market operators operating an MTF or an OTF, in addition to meeting the organisational requirements laid down in Article 16, establish transparent rules and procedures for fair and orderly trading and establish objective criteria for the efficient execution of orders. They shall have arrangements for the sound management of the technical operations of the facility, including the establishment of effective contingency arrangements to cope with risks of systems disruption.

2.Member States shall require that investment firms and market operators operating an MTF or an OTF establish transparent rules regarding the criteria for determining the financial instruments that can be traded under its systems.

Member States shall require that, where applicable, investment firms and market operators operating an MTF or an OTF provide, or are satisfied that there is access to, sufficient publicly available information to enable its users to form an investment judgement, taking into account both the nature of the users and the types of instruments traded.

3.Member States shall require that investment firms and market operators operating an MTF or an OTF establish, publish and maintain and implement transparent and non-discriminatory rules, based on objective criteria, governing access to its facility.

4.Member States shall require that investment firms and market operators operating an MTF or an OTF have arrangements to identify clearly and manage the potential adverse consequences for the operation of the MTF or OTF, or for the members or participants and users, of any conflict of interest between the interest of the MTF, the OTF, their owners or the investment firm or market operator operating the MTF or OTF and the sound functioning of the MTF or OTF.

5.Member States shall require that investment firms and market operators operating an MTF or OTF comply with Articles 48 and 49 and have in place all the necessary effective systems, procedures and arrangements to do so.

6.Member States shall require that investment firms and market operators operating an MTF or an OTF clearly inform its members or participants of their respective responsibilities for the settlement of the transactions executed in that facility. Member States shall require that investment firms and market operators operating an MTF or an OTF have put in place the necessary arrangements to facilitate the efficient settlement of the transactions concluded under the systems of that MTF or OTF.

7.Member States shall require that MTFs and OTFs have at least three materially active members or users, each having the opportunity to interact with all the others in respect to price formation.

8.Where a transferable security that has been admitted to trading on a regulated market is also traded on an MTF or an OTF without the consent of the issuer, the issuer shall not be subject to any obligation relating to initial, ongoing or ad hoc financial disclosure with regard to that MTF or an OTF.

9.Member States shall require that any investment firm and market operator operating an MTF or an OTF comply immediately with any instruction from its competent authority pursuant to Article 69(2) to suspend or remove a financial instrument from trading.

10.Member States shall require that investment firms and market operators operating an MTF or an OTF provide the competent authority with a detailed description of the functioning of the MTF or OTF, including, without prejudice to Article 20(1), (4) and (5), any links to or participation by a regulated market, an MTF, an OTF or a systematic internaliser owned by the same investment firm or market operator, and a list of their members, participants and/or users. Competent authorities shall make that information available to ESMA on request. Every authorisation to an investment firm or market operator as an MTF and an OTF shall be notified to ESMA. ESMA shall establish a list of all MTFs and OTFs in the Union. The list shall contain information on the services an MTF or an OTF provides and entail the unique code identifying the MTF and the OTF for use in reports in accordance with Articles 6, 10 and 26 of Regulation (EU) No 600/2014. It shall be updated on a regular basis. ESMA shall publish and keep up-to-date that list on its website.

11.ESMA shall develop draft implementing technical standards to determine the content and format of the description and notification referred to in paragraph 10.

ESMA shall submit those draft implementing technical standards to the Commission by 3 January 2016.

Power is conferred on the Commission to adopt the implementing technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph in accordance with Article 15 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010.

Article 19Specific requirements for MTFs

1.Member States shall require that investment firms and market operators operating an MTF, in addition to meeting the requirements laid down in Articles 16 and 18, shall establish and implement non-discretionary rules for the execution of orders in the system.

2.Member States shall require that the rules referred to in Article 18(3) governing access to an MTF comply with the conditions established in Article 53(3).

3.Member States shall require that investment firms and market operators operating an MTF to have arrangements:

(a)

to be adequately equipped to manage the risks to which it is exposed, to implement appropriate arrangements and systems to identify all significant risks to its operation, and to put in place effective measures to mitigate those risks;

(b)

to have effective arrangements to facilitate the efficient and timely finalisation of the transactions executed under its systems; and

(c)

to have available, at the time of authorisation and on an ongoing basis, sufficient financial resources to facilitate its orderly functioning, having regard to the nature and extent of the transactions concluded on the market and the range and degree of the risks to which it is exposed.

4.Member States shall ensure that Articles 24, 25, Article 27(1), (2) and (4) to (10) and Article 28 are not applicable to the transactions concluded under the rules governing an MTF between its members or participants or between the MTF and its members or participants in relation to the use of the MTF. However, the members of or participants in the MTF shall comply with the obligations provided for in Articles 24, 25, 27 and 28 with respect to their clients when, acting on behalf of their clients, they execute their orders through the systems of an MTF.

5.Member States shall not allow investment firms or market operators operating an MTF to execute client orders against proprietary capital, or to engage in matched principal trading.

Article 20Specific requirements for OTFs

1.Member States shall require that an investment firm and a market operator operating an OTF establishes arrangements preventing the execution of client orders in an OTF against the proprietary capital of the investment firm or market operator operating the OTF or from any entity that is part of the same group or legal person as the investment firm or market operator.

2.Member States shall permit an investment firm or market operator operating an OTF to engage in matched principal trading in bonds, structured finance products, emission allowances and certain derivatives only where the client has consented to the process.

An investment firm or market operator operating an OTF shall not use matched principal trading to execute client orders in an OTF in derivatives pertaining to a class of derivatives that has been declared subject to the clearing obligation in accordance with Article 5 of Regulation (EU) No 648/2012.

An investment firm or market operator operating an OTF shall establish arrangements ensuring compliance with the definition of matched principal trading in point (38) of Article 4(1).

3.Member States shall permit an investment firm or market operator operating an OTF to engage in dealing on own account other than matched principal trading only with regard to sovereign debt instruments for which there is not a liquid market.

4.Member States shall not allow the operation of an OTF and of a systematic internaliser to take place within the same legal entity. An OTF shall not connect with a systematic internaliser in a way which enables orders in an OTF and orders or quotes in a systematic internaliser to interact. An OTF shall not connect with another OTF in a way which enables orders in different OTFs to interact.

5.Member States shall not prevent an investment firm or a market operator operating an OTF from engaging another investment firm to carry out market making on that OTF on an independent basis.

For the purposes of this Article, an investment firm shall not be deemed to be carrying out market making on an OTF on an independent basis if it has close links with the investment firm or market operator operating the OTF.

6.Member States shall require that the execution of orders on an OTF is carried out on a discretionary basis.

An investment firm or market operator operating an OTF shall exercise discretion only in either or both of the following circumstances:

(a)

when deciding to place or retract an order on the OTF they operate;

(b)

when deciding not to match a specific client order with other orders available in the systems at a given time, provided it is in compliance with specific instructions received from a client and with its obligations in accordance with Article 27.

For the system that crosses client orders the investment firm or market operator operating the OTF may decide if, when and how much of two or more orders it wants to match within the system. In accordance with paragraphs 1, 2, 4 and 5 and without prejudice to paragraph 3, with regard to a system that arranges transactions in non-equities, the investment firm or market operator operating the OTF may facilitate negotiation between clients so as to bring together two or more potentially compatible trading interest in a transaction.

That obligation shall be without prejudice to Articles 18 and 27.

7.The competent authority may require, either when an investment firm or market operator requests to be authorised for the operation of an OTF or on ad-hoc basis, a detailed explanation why the system does not correspond to and cannot operate as a regulated market, MTF, or systematic internaliser, a detailed description as to how discretion will be exercised, in particular when an order to the OTF may be retracted and when and how two or more client orders will be matched within the OTF. In addition, the investment firm or market operator of an OTF shall provide the competent authority with information explaining its use of matched principal trading. The competent authority shall monitor an investment firm’s or market operator’s engagement in matched principal trading to ensure that it continues to fall within the definition of such trading and that its engagement in matched principal trading does not give rise to conflicts of interest between the investment firm or market operator and its clients.

8.Member States shall ensure that Articles 24, 25, 27 and 28 are applied to the transactions concluded on an OTF.

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