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Directive 2009/110/EC of the European Parliament and of the CouncilShow full title

Directive 2009/110/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 September 2009 on the taking up, pursuit and prudential supervision of the business of electronic money institutions amending Directives 2005/60/EC and 2006/48/EC and repealing Directive 2000/46/EC (Text with EEA relevance)

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TITLE IIU.K. REQUIREMENTS FOR THE TAKING UP, PURSUIT AND PRUDENTIAL SUPERVISION OF THE BUSINESS OF ELECTRONIC MONEY INSTITUTIONS

Article 3U.K.General prudential rules

[F11. Without prejudice to this Directive, Article 5, Articles 11 to 17, Article 19(5) and (6) and Articles 20 to 31 of Directive (EU) 2015/2366 of the European Parliament and of the Council (1) , including the delegated acts adopted under Article 15(4), Article 28(5) and Article 29(7) thereof, shall apply to electronic money institutions mutatis mutandis .]

2.Electronic money institutions shall inform the competent authorities in advance of any material change in measures taken for safeguarding of funds that have been received in exchange for electronic money issued.

3.Any natural or legal person who has taken a decision to acquire or dispose of, directly or indirectly, a qualifying holding within the meaning of point 11 of Article 4 of Directive 2006/48/EC in an electronic money institution, or to further increase or reduce, directly or indirectly, such qualifying holding as a result of which the proportion of the capital or of the voting rights held would reach, exceed or fall below 20 %, 30 % or 50 %, or so that the electronic money institution would become or cease to be its subsidiary, shall inform the competent authorities of their intention in advance of such acquisition, disposal, increase or reduction.

The proposed acquirer shall supply to the competent authority information indicating the size of the intended holding and relevant information referred to in Article 19a(4) of Directive 2006/48/EC.

Where the influence exercised by the persons referred to in the second subparagraph is likely to operate to the detriment of the prudent and sound management of the institution, the competent authorities shall express their opposition or take other appropriate measures to bring that situation to an end. Such measures may include injunctions, sanctions against directors or managers, or the suspension of the exercise of the voting rights attached to the shares held by the shareholders or members in question.

Similar measures shall apply to natural or legal persons who fail to comply with the obligation to provide prior information, as laid down in this paragraph.

If a holding is acquired despite the opposition of the competent authorities, those authorities shall, regardless of any other sanction to be adopted, provide for the exercise of the voting rights of the acquirer to be suspended, the nullity of votes cast or the possibility of annulling those votes.

The Member States may waive or allow their competent authorities to waive the application of all or part of the obligations pursuant to this paragraph in respect of electronic money institutions that carry out one or more of the activities listed in Article 6(1)(e).

[F14. Member States shall allow electronic money institutions to distribute and redeem electronic money through natural or legal persons which act on their behalf. Where the electronic money institution distributes electronic money in another Member State by engaging such a natural or legal person, Articles 27 to 31, with exception of Article 29(4) and (5), of Directive (EU) 2015/2366, including the delegated acts adopted in accordance with Article 28(5) and Article 29(7) thereof, shall apply mutatis mutandis to such electronic money institution.

5. Notwithstanding paragraph 4 of this Article, electronic money institutions shall not issue electronic money through agents. Electronic money institutions shall be allowed to provide payment services referred to in point (a) of Article 6(1) of this Directive through agents subject to the conditions laid down in Article 19 of Directive (EU) 2015/2366.]

Article 4U.K.Initial capital

Member States shall require electronic money institutions to hold, at the time of authorisation, initial capital, comprised of the items set out in Article 57(a) and (b) of Directive 2006/48/EC, of not less than EUR 350 000.

Article 5U.K.Own funds

1.The electronic money institution’s own funds, as set out in Articles 57 to 61, 63, 64 and 66 of Directive 2006/48/EC shall not fall below the amount required under paragraphs 2 to 5 of this Article or under Article 4 of this Directive, whichever the higher.

2.In regard to the activities referred to in Article 6(1)(a) that are not linked to the issuance of electronic money, the own funds requirements of an electronic money institution shall be calculated in accordance with one of the three methods (A, B or C) set out in Article 8(1) and (2) of Directive 2007/64/EC. The appropriate method shall be determined by the competent authorities in accordance with national legislation.

In regard to the activity of issuing electronic money, the own funds requirements of an electronic money institution shall be calculated in accordance with Method D as set out in paragraph 3.

Electronic money institutions shall at all times hold own funds that are at least equal to the sum of the requirements referred to in the first and second subparagraphs.

3.Method D: The own funds of an electronic money institution for the activity of issuing electronic money shall amount to at least 2 % of the average outstanding electronic money.

4.Where an electronic money institution carries out any of the activities referred to in Article 6(1)(a) that are not linked to the issuance of electronic money or any of the activities referred to in Article 6(1)(b) to (e) and the amount of outstanding electronic money is unknown in advance, the competent authorities shall allow that electronic money institution to calculate its own funds requirements on the basis of a representative portion assumed to be used for the issuance of electronic money, provided such a representative portion can be reasonably estimated on the basis of historical data and to the satisfaction of the competent authorities. Where an electronic money institution has not completed a sufficient period of business, its own funds requirements shall be calculated on the basis of projected outstanding electronic money evidenced by its business plan subject to any adjustment to that plan having been required by the competent authorities.

5.On the basis of an evaluation of the risk-management processes, of the risk loss databases and internal control mechanisms of the electronic money institution, the competent authorities may require the electronic money institution to hold an amount of own funds which is up to 20 % higher than the amount which would result from the application of the relevant method in accordance with paragraph 2, or permit the electronic money institution to hold an amount of own funds which is up to 20 % lower than the amount which would result from the application of the relevant method in accordance with paragraph 2.

6.Member States shall take the necessary measures to prevent the multiple use of elements eligible for own funds:

(a)

where the electronic money institution belongs to the same group as another electronic money institution, a credit institution, a payment institution, an investment firm, an asset management company or an insurance or reinsurance undertaking;

(b)

where an electronic money institution carries out activities other than the issuance of electronic money.

7.Where the conditions laid down in Article 69 of Directive 2006/48/EC are met, Member States or their competent authorities may choose not to apply paragraphs 2 and 3 of this Article to electronic money institutions which are included in the consolidated supervision of the parent credit institutions pursuant to Directive 2006/48/EC.

Article 6U.K.Activities

1.In addition to issuing electronic money, electronic money institutions shall be entitled to engage in any of the following activities:

(a)

the provision of payment services listed in the Annex to Directive 2007/64/EC;

(b)

the granting of credit related to payment services referred to in points 4, 5 or 7 of the Annex to Directive 2007/64/EC, where the conditions laid down in Article 16(3) and (5) of that Directive are met;

(c)

the provision of operational services and closely related ancillary services in respect of the issuing of electronic money or to the provision of payment services referred to in point (a);

(d)

the operation of payment systems as defined in point 6 of Article 4 of Directive 2007/64/EC and without prejudice to Article 28 of that Directive;

(e)

business activities other than issuance of electronic money, having regard to the applicable Community and national law.

Credit referred to in point (b) of the first subparagraph shall not be granted from the funds received in exchange of electronic money and held in accordance with Article 7(1).

2.Electronic money institutions shall not take deposits or other repayable funds from the public within the meaning of Article 5 of Directive 2006/48/EC.

3.Any funds received by electronic money institutions from the electronic money holder shall be exchanged for electronic money without delay. Such funds shall not constitute either a deposit or other repayable funds received from the public within the meaning of Article 5 of Directive 2006/48/EC.

4.Article 16(2) and (4) of Directive 2007/64/EC shall apply to funds received for the activities referred to in paragraph 1(a) of this Article that are not linked to the activity of issuing electronic money.

Article 7U.K.Safeguarding requirements

1.Member States shall require an electronic money institution to safeguard funds that have been received in exchange for electronic money that has been issued, in accordance with Article 9(1) and (2) of Directive 2007/64/EC. Funds received in the form of payment by payment instrument need not be safeguarded until they are credited to the electronic money institution’s payment account or are otherwise made available to the electronic money institution in accordance with the execution time requirements laid down in the Directive 2007/64/EC, where applicable. In any event, such funds shall be safeguarded by no later than five business days, as defined in point 27 of Article 4 of that Directive, after the issuance of electronic money.

2.For the purposes of paragraph 1, secure, low-risk assets are asset items falling into one of the categories set out in Table 1 of point 14 of Annex I to Directive 2006/49/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 June 2006 on the capital adequacy of investment firms and credit institutions(2) for which the specific risk capital charge is no higher than 1,6 %, but excluding other qualifying items as defined in point 15 of that Annex.

For the purposes of paragraph 1, secure, low-risk assets are also units in an undertaking for collective investment in transferable securities (UCITS) which invests solely in assets as specified in the first subparagraph.

In exceptional circumstances and with adequate justification, the competent authorities may, based on an evaluation of security, maturity, value or other risk element of the assets as specified in the first and second subparagraphs, determine which of those assets do not constitute secure, low-risk assets for the purposes of paragraph 1.

3.Article 9 of Directive 2007/64/EC shall apply to electronic money institutions for the activities referred to in Article 6(1)(a) of this Directive that are not linked to the activity of issuing electronic money.

4.For the purposes of paragraphs 1 and 3, Member States or their competent authorities may determine, in accordance with national legislation, which method shall be used by the electronic money institutions to safeguard funds.

Article 8U.K.Relations with third countries

1.Member States shall not apply to a branch of an electronic money institution having its head office outside the Community, when taking up or pursuing its business, provisions which result in more favourable treatment than that accorded to an electronic money institution having its head office within the Community.

2.The competent authorities shall notify the Commission of all authorisations for branches of electronic money institutions having their head office outside the Community.

3.Without prejudice to paragraph 1, the Community may, through agreements concluded with one or more third countries, agree to apply provisions that ensure that branches of an electronic money institution having its head office outside the Community are treated identically throughout the Community.

Article 9U.K.Optional exemptions

1.Member States may waive or allow their competent authorities to waive the application of all or part of the procedures and conditions set out in Articles 3, 4, 5 and 7 of this Directive, with the exception of Articles 20, 22, 23 and 24 of Directive 2007/64/EC, and allow legal persons to be entered in the register for electronic money institutions if both of the following requirements are complied with:

(a)

the total business activities generate an average outstanding electronic money that does not exceed a limit set by the Member State but that, in any event, amounts to no more than EUR 5 000 000; and

(b)

none of the natural persons responsible for the management or operation of the business has been convicted of offences relating to money laundering or terrorist financing or other financial crimes.

Where an electronic money institution carries out any of the activities referred to in Article 6(1)(a) that are not linked to the issuance of electronic money or any of the activities referred to in Article 6(1)(b) to (e) and the amount of outstanding electronic money is unknown in advance, the competent authorities shall allow that electronic money institution to apply point (a) of the first subparagraph on the basis of a representative portion assumed to be used for the issuance of electronic money, provided that such a representative portion can be reasonably estimated on the basis of historical data and to the satisfaction of the competent authorities. Where an electronic money institution has not completed a sufficiently long period of business, that requirement shall be assessed on the basis of projected outstanding electronic money evidenced by its business plan subject to any adjustment to that plan having been required by the competent authorities.

Member States may also provide for the granting of the optional exemptions under this Article to be subject to an additional requirement of a maximum storage amount on the payment instrument or payment account of the consumer where the electronic money is stored.

A legal person registered in accordance with this paragraph may provide payment services not related to electronic money issued in accordance with this Article only if conditions set out in Article 26 of Directive 2007/64/EC are met.

2.A legal person registered in accordance with paragraph 1 shall be required to have its head office in the Member State in which it actually pursues its business.

3.A legal person registered in accordance with paragraph 1 shall be treated as an electronic money institution. However, Article 10(9) and Article 25 of Directive 2007/64/EC shall not apply to it.

4.Member States may provide for a legal person registered in accordance with paragraph 1 to engage only in some of the activities listed in Article 6(1).

5.A legal person referred to in paragraph 1 shall:

(a)

notify the competent authorities of any change in its situation which is relevant to the conditions specified in paragraph 1; and

(b)

at least annually, on date specified by the competent authorities, report on the average outstanding electronic money.

6.Member States shall take the necessary steps to ensure that where the conditions set out in paragraphs 1, 2 and 4 are no longer met, the legal person concerned shall seek authorisation within 30 calendar days in accordance with Article 3. Any such person that has not sought authorisation within that period shall be prohibited, in accordance with Article 10, from issuing electronic money.

7.Member States shall ensure that their competent authorities are sufficiently empowered to verify continued compliance with the requirements laid down in this Article.

8.This Article shall not apply in respect of the provisions of Directive 2005/60/EC or national anti-money-laundering provisions.

9.Where a Member State avails itself of the waiver provided for in paragraph 1, it shall notify the Commission accordingly by 30 April 2011. The Member State shall notify the Commission forthwith of any subsequent change. In addition, the Member State shall inform the Commission of the number of legal persons concerned and, on an annual basis, of the total amount of outstanding electronic money issued at 31 December of each calendar year, as referred to in paragraph 1.

(1)

[F1Directive (EU) 2015/2366 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 November 2015 on payment services in the internal market and amending Directives 2002/65/EC, 2009/110/EC, 2013/36/EU and Regulation (EU) No 1093/2010 and repealing Directive 2007/64/EC ( OJ L 337, 23.12.2015, p. 35 ).]

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