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Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the CouncilShow full title

Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 2003 establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community and amending Council Directive 96/61/EC (Text with EEA relevance)

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Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council

of 13 October 2003

establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community and amending Council Directive 96/61/EC

(Text with EEA relevance)

THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,

Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Community, and in particular Article 175(1) thereof,

Having regard to the proposal from the Commission(1),

Having regard to the opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee(2),

Having regard to the opinion of the Committee of the Regions(3),

Acting in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 251 of the Treaty(4),

Whereas:

(1) The Green Paper on greenhouse gas emissions trading within the European Union launched a debate across Europe on the suitability and possible functioning of greenhouse gas emissions trading within the European Union. The European Climate Change Programme has considered Community policies and measures through a multi-stakeholder process, including a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community (the Community scheme) based on the Green Paper. In its Conclusions of 8 March 2001, the Council recognised the particular importance of the European Climate Change Programme and of work based on the Green Paper, and underlined the urgent need for concrete action at Community level.

(2) The Sixth Community Environment Action Programme established by Decision No 1600/2002/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council(5) identifies climate change as a priority for action and provides for the establishment of a Community-wide emissions trading scheme by 2005. That Programme recognises that the Community is committed to achieving an 8 % reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases by 2008 to 2012 compared to 1990 levels, and that, in the longer-term, global emissions of greenhouse gases will need to be reduced by approximately 70 % compared to 1990 levels.

(3) The ultimate objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was approved by Council Decision 94/69/EC of 15 December 1993 concerning the conclusion of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(6), is to achieve stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level which prevents dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.

(4) Once it enters into force, the Kyoto Protocol, which was approved by Council Decision 2002/358/EC of 25 April 2002 concerning the approval, on behalf of the European Community, of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the joint fulfilment of commitments thereunder(7), will commit the Community and its Member States to reducing their aggregate anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases listed in Annex A to the Protocol by 8 % compared to 1990 levels in the period 2008 to 2012.

(5) The Community and its Member States have agreed to fulfil their commitments to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions under the Kyoto Protocol jointly, in accordance with Decision 2002/358/EC. This Directive aims to contribute to fulfilling the commitments of the European Community and its Member States more effectively, through an efficient European market in greenhouse gas emission allowances, with the least possible diminution of economic development and employment.

(6) Council Decision 93/389/EEC of 24 June 1993 for a monitoring mechanism of Community CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions(8), established a mechanism for monitoring greenhouse gas emissions and evaluating progress towards meeting commitments in respect of these emissions. This mechanism will assist Member States in determining the total quantity of allowances to allocate.

(7) Community provisions relating to allocation of allowances by the Member States are necessary to contribute to preserving the integrity of the internal market and to avoid distortions of competition.

(8) Member States should have regard when allocating allowances to the potential for industrial process activities to reduce emissions.

(9) Member States may provide that they only issue allowances valid for a five-year period beginning in 2008 to persons in respect of allowances cancelled, corresponding to emission reductions made by those persons on their national territory during a three-year period beginning in 2005.

(10) Starting with the said five-year period, transfers of allowances to another Member State will involve corresponding adjustments of assigned amount units under the Kyoto Protocol.

(11) Member States should ensure that the operators of certain specified activities hold a greenhouse gas emissions permit and that they monitor and report their emissions of greenhouse gases specified in relation to those activities.

(12) Member States should lay down rules on penalties applicable to infringements of this Directive and ensure that they are implemented. Those penalties must be effective, proportionate and dissuasive.

(13) In order to ensure transparency, the public should have access to information relating to the allocation of allowances and to the results of monitoring of emissions, subject only to restrictions provided for in Directive 2003/4/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2003 on public access to environmental information(9).

(14) Member States should submit a report on the implementation of this Directive drawn up on the basis of Council Directive 91/692/EEC of 23 December 1991 standardising and rationalising reports on the implementation of certain Directives relating to the environment(10).

(15) The inclusion of additional installations in the Community scheme should be in accordance with the provisions laid down in this Directive, and the coverage of the Community scheme may thereby be extended to emissions of greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide, inter alia from aluminium and chemicals activities.

(16) This Directive should not prevent any Member State from maintaining or establishing national trading schemes regulating emissions of greenhouse gases from activities other than those listed in Annex I or included in the Community scheme, or from installations temporarily excluded from the Community scheme.

(17) Member States may participate in international emissions trading as Parties to the Kyoto Protocol with any other Party included in Annex B thereto.

(18) Linking the Community scheme to greenhouse gas emission trading schemes in third countries will increase the cost-effectiveness of achieving the Community emission reductions target as laid down in Decision 2002/358/EC on the joint fulfilment of commitments.

(19) Project-based mechanisms including Joint Implementation (JI) and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) are important to achieve the goals of both reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and increasing the cost-effective functioning of the Community scheme. In accordance with the relevant provisions of the Kyoto Protocol and Marrakech Accords, the use of the mechanisms should be supplemental to domestic action and domestic action will thus constitute a significant element of the effort made.

(20) This Directive will encourage the use of more energy-efficient technologies, including combined heat and power technology, producing less emissions per unit of output, while the future directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of cogeneration based on useful heat demand in the internal energy market will specifically promote combined heat and power technology.

(21) Council Directive 96/61/EC of 24 September 1996 concerning integrated pollution prevention and control(11) establishes a general framework for pollution prevention and control, through which greenhouse gas emissions permits may be issued. Directive 96/61/EC should be amended to ensure that emission limit values are not set for direct emissions of greenhouse gases from an installation subject to this Directive and that Member States may choose not to impose requirements relating to energy efficiency in respect of combustion units or other units emitting carbon dioxide on the site, without prejudice to any other requirements pursuant to Directive 96/61/EC.

(22) This Directive is compatible with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. It should be reviewed in the light of developments in that context and to take into account experience in its implementation and progress achieved in monitoring of emissions of greenhouse gases.

(23) Emission allowance trading should form part of a comprehensive and coherent package of policies and measures implemented at Member State and Community level. Without prejudice to the application of Articles 87 and 88 of the Treaty, where activities are covered by the Community scheme, Member States may consider the implications of regulatory, fiscal or other policies that pursue the same objectives. The review of the Directive should consider the extent to which these objectives have been attained.

(24) The instrument of taxation can be a national policy to limit emissions from installations temporarily excluded.

(25) Policies and measures should be implemented at Member State and Community level across all sectors of the European Union economy, and not only within the industry and energy sectors, in order to generate substantial emissions reductions. The Commission should, in particular, consider policies and measures at Community level in order that the transport sector makes a substantial contribution to the Community and its Member States meeting their climate change obligations under the Kyoto Protocol.

(26) Notwithstanding the multifaceted potential of market-based mechanisms, the European Union strategy for climate change mitigation should be built on a balance between the Community scheme and other types of Community, domestic and international action.

(27) This Directive respects the fundamental rights and observes the principles recognised in particular by the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.

(28) The measures necessary for the implementation of this Directive should be adopted in accordance with Council Decision 1999/468/EC of 28 June 1999 laying down the procedures for the exercise of implementing powers conferred on the Commission(12).

(29) As the criteria (1), (5) and (7) of Annex III cannot be amended through comitology, amendments in respect of periods after 2012 should only be made through codecision.

(30) Since the objective of the proposed action, the establishment of a Community scheme, cannot be sufficiently achieved by the Member States acting individually, and can therefore by reason of the scale and effects of the proposed action be better achieved at Community level, the Community may adopt measures, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity as set out in Article 5 of the Treaty. In accordance with the principle of proportionality, as set out in that Article, this Directive does not go beyond what is necessary in order to achieve that objective,

HAVE ADOPTED THIS DIRECTIVE:

(4)

Opinion of the European Parliament of 10 October 2002 (not yet published in the Official Journal), Council Common Position of 18 March 2003 (OJ C 125 E, 27.5.2003, p. 72), Decision of the European Parliament of 2 July 2003 (not yet published in the Official Journal) and Council Decision of 22 July 2003.

(8)

OJ L 167, 9.7.1993, p. 31. Decision as amended by Decision 1999/296/EC (OJ L 117, 5.5.1999, p. 35).

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