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Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the CouncilShow full title

Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 2003 establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community and amending Council Directive 96/61/EC (Text with EEA relevance)

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Article 1Subject matter

This Directive establishes a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community (hereinafter referred to as the ‘Community scheme’) in order to promote reductions of greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective and economically efficient manner.

Article 2Scope

1.This Directive shall apply to emissions from the activities listed in Annex I and greenhouse gases listed in Annex II.

2.This Directive shall apply without prejudice to any requirements pursuant to Directive 96/61/EC.

Article 3Definitions

For the purposes of this Directive the following definitions shall apply:

(a)

‘allowance’ means an allowance to emit one tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent during a specified period, which shall be valid only for the purposes of meeting the requirements of this Directive and shall be transferable in accordance with the provisions of this Directive;

(b)

‘emissions’ means the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere from sources in an installation;

(c)

‘greenhouse gases’ means the gases listed in Annex II;

(d)

‘greenhouse gas emissions permit’ means the permit issued in accordance with Articles 5 and 6;

(e)

‘installation’ means a stationary technical unit where one or more activities listed in Annex I are carried out and any other directly associated activities which have a technical connection with the activities carried out on that site and which could have an effect on emissions and pollution;

(f)

‘operator’ means any person who operates or controls an installation or, where this is provided for in national legislation, to whom decisive economic power over the technical functioning of the installation has been delegated;

(g)

‘person’ means any natural or legal person;

(h)

‘new entrant’ means any installation carrying out one or more of the activities indicated in Annex I, which has obtained a greenhouse gas emissions permit or an update of its greenhouse gas emissions permit because of a change in the nature or functioning or an extension of the installation, subsequent to the notification to the Commission of the national allocation plan;

(i)

‘the public’ means one or more persons and, in accordance with national legislation or practice, associations, organisations or groups of persons;

(j)

‘tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent’ means one metric tonne of carbon dioxide (CO2) or an amount of any other greenhouse gas listed in Annex II with an equivalent global-warming potential.

Article 4Greenhouse gas emissions permits

Member States shall ensure that, from 1 January 2005, no installation undertakes any activity listed in Annex I resulting in emissions specified in relation to that activity unless its operator holds a permit issued by a competent authority in accordance with Articles 5 and 6, or the installation is temporarily excluded from the Community scheme pursuant to Article 27.

Article 5Applications for greenhouse gas emissions permits

An application to the competent authority for a greenhouse gas emissions permit shall include a description of:

(a)

the installation and its activities including the technology used;

(b)

the raw and auxiliary materials, the use of which is likely to lead to emissions of gases listed in Annex I;

(c)

the sources of emissions of gases listed in Annex I from the installation; and

(d)

the measures planned to monitor and report emissions in accordance with the guidelines adopted pursuant to Article 14.

The application shall also include a non-technical summary of the details referred to in the first subparagraph.

Article 6Conditions for and contents of the greenhouse gas emissions permit

1.The competent authority shall issue a greenhouse gas emissions permit granting authorisation to emit greenhouse gases from all or part of an installation if it is satisfied that the operator is capable of monitoring and reporting emissions.

A greenhouse gas emissions permit may cover one or more installations on the same site operated by the same operator.

2.Greenhouse gas emissions permits shall contain the following:

(a)

the name and address of the operator;

(b)

a description of the activities and emissions from the installation;

(c)

monitoring requirements, specifying monitoring methodology and frequency;

(d)

reporting requirements; and

(e)

an obligation to surrender allowances equal to the total emissions of the installation in each calendar year, as verified in accordance with Article 15, within four months following the end of that year.

Article 7Changes relating to installations

The operator shall inform the competent authority of any changes planned in the nature or functioning, or an extension, of the installation which may require updating of the greenhouse gas emissions permit. Where appropriate, the competent authority shall update the permit. Where there is a change in the identity of the installation's operator, the competent authority shall update the permit to include the name and address of the new operator.

Article 8Coordination with Directive 96/61/EC

Member States shall take the necessary measures to ensure that, where installations carry out activities that are included in Annex I to Directive 96/61/EC, the conditions of, and procedure for, the issue of a greenhouse gas emissions permit are coordinated with those for the permit provided for in that Directive. The requirements of Articles 5, 6 and 7 of this Directive may be integrated into the procedures provided for in Directive 96/61/EC.

Article 9National allocation plan

1.For each period referred to in Article 11(1) and (2), each Member State shall develop a national plan stating the total quantity of allowances that it intends to allocate for that period and how it proposes to allocate them. The plan shall be based on objective and transparent criteria, including those listed in Annex III, taking due account of comments from the public. The Commission shall, without prejudice to the Treaty, by 31 December 2003 at the latest develop guidance on the implementation of the criteria listed in Annex III.

For the period referred to in Article 11(1), the plan shall be published and notified to the Commission and to the other Member States by 31 March 2004 at the latest. For subsequent periods, the plan shall be published and notified to the Commission and to the other Member States at least 18 months before the beginning of the relevant period.

2.National allocation plans shall be considered within the committee referred to in Article 23(1).

3.Within three months of notification of a national allocation plan by a Member State under paragraph 1, the Commission may reject that plan, or any aspect thereof, on the basis that it is incompatible with the criteria listed in Annex III or with Article 10. The Member State shall only take a decision under Article 11(1) or (2) if proposed amendments are accepted by the Commission. Reasons shall be given for any rejection decision by the Commission.

Article 10Method of allocation

For the three-year period beginning 1 January 2005 Member States shall allocate at least 95 % of the allowances free of charge. For the five-year period beginning 1 January 2008, Member States shall allocate at least 90 % of the allowances free of charge.

Article 11Allocation and issue of allowances

1.For the three-year period beginning 1 January 2005, each Member State shall decide upon the total quantity of allowances it will allocate for that period and the allocation of those allowances to the operator of each installation. This decision shall be taken at least three months before the beginning of the period and be based on its national allocation plan developed pursuant to Article 9 and in accordance with Article 10, taking due account of comments from the public.

2.For the five-year period beginning 1 January 2008, and for each subsequent five-year period, each Member State shall decide upon the total quantity of allowances it will allocate for that period and initiate the process for the allocation of those allowances to the operator of each installation. This decision shall be taken at least 12 months before the beginning of the relevant period and be based on the Member State's national allocation plan developed pursuant to Article 9 and in accordance with Article 10, taking due account of comments from the public.

3.Decisions taken pursuant to paragraph 1 or 2 shall be in accordance with the requirements of the Treaty, in particular Articles 87 and 88 thereof. When deciding upon allocation, Member States shall take into account the need to provide access to allowances for new entrants.

4.The competent authority shall issue a proportion of the total quantity of allowances each year of the period referred to in paragraph 1 or 2, by 28 February of that year.

Article 12Transfer, surrender and cancellation of allowances

1.Member States shall ensure that allowances can be transferred between:

(a)

persons within the Community;

(b)

persons within the Community and persons in third countries, where such allowances are recognised in accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 25 without restrictions other than those contained in, or adopted pursuant to, this Directive.

2.Member States shall ensure that allowances issued by a competent authority of another Member State are recognised for the purpose of meeting an operator's obligations under paragraph 3.

3.Member States shall ensure that, by 30 April each year at the latest, the operator of each installation surrenders a number of allowances equal to the total emissions from that installation during the preceding calendar year as verified in accordance with Article 15, and that these are subsequently cancelled.

4.Member States shall take the necessary steps to ensure that allowances will be cancelled at any time at the request of the person holding them.

Article 13Validity of allowances

1.Allowances shall be valid for emissions during the period referred to in Article 11(1) or (2) for which they are issued.

2.Four months after the beginning of the first five-year period referred to in Article 11(2), allowances which are no longer valid and have not been surrendered and cancelled in accordance with Article 12(3) shall be cancelled by the competent authority.

Member States may issue allowances to persons for the current period to replace any allowances held by them which are cancelled in accordance with the first subparagraph.

3.Four months after the beginning of each subsequent five-year period referred to in Article 11(2), allowances which are no longer valid and have not been surrendered and cancelled in accordance with Article 12(3) shall be cancelled by the competent authority.

Member States shall issue allowances to persons for the current period to replace any allowances held by them which are cancelled in accordance with the first subparagraph.

Article 14Guidelines for monitoring and reporting of emissions

1.The Commission shall adopt guidelines for monitoring and reporting of emissions resulting from the activities listed in Annex I of greenhouse gases specified in relation to those activities, in accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 23(2), by 30 September 2003. The guidelines shall be based on the principles for monitoring and reporting set out in Annex IV.

2.Member States shall ensure that emissions are monitored in accordance with the guidelines.

3.Member States shall ensure that each operator of an installation reports the emissions from that installation during each calendar year to the competent authority after the end of that year in accordance with the guidelines.

Article 15Verification

Member States shall ensure that the reports submitted by operators pursuant to Article 14(3) are verified in accordance with the criteria set out in Annex V, and that the competent authority is informed thereof.

Member States shall ensure that an operator whose report has not been verified as satisfactory in accordance with the criteria set out in Annex V by 31 March each year for emissions during the preceding year cannot make further transfers of allowances until a report from that operator has been verified as satisfactory.

Article 16Penalties

1.Member States shall lay down the rules on penalties applicable to infringements of the national provisions adopted pursuant to this Directive and shall take all measures necessary to ensure that such rules are implemented. The penalties provided for must be effective, proportionate and dissuasive. Member States shall notify these provisions to the Commission by 31 December 2003 at the latest, and shall notify it without delay of any subsequent amendment affecting them.

2.Member States shall ensure publication of the names of operators who are in breach of requirements to surrender sufficient allowances under Article 12(3).

3.Member States shall ensure that any operator who does not surrender sufficient allowances by 30 April of each year to cover its emissions during the preceding year shall be held liable for the payment of an excess emissions penalty. The excess emissions penalty shall be EUR 100 for each tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent emitted by that installation for which the operator has not surrendered allowances. Payment of the excess emissions penalty shall not release the operator from the obligation to surrender an amount of allowances equal to those excess emissions when surrendering allowances in relation to the following calendar year.

4.During the three-year period beginning 1 January 2005, Member States shall apply a lower excess emissions penalty of EUR 40 for each tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent emitted by that installation for which the operator has not surrendered allowances. Payment of the excess emissions penalty shall not release the operator from the obligation to surrender an amount of allowances equal to those excess emissions when surrendering allowances in relation to the following calendar year.

Article 17Access to information

Decisions relating to the allocation of allowances and the reports of emissions required under the greenhouse gas emissions permit and held by the competent authority shall be made available to the public by that authority subject to the restrictions laid down in Article 3(3) and Article 4 of Directive 2003/4/EC.

Article 18Competent authority

Member States shall make the appropriate administrative arrangements, including the designation of the appropriate competent authority or authorities, for the implementation of the rules of this Directive. Where more than one competent authority is designated, the work of these authorities undertaken pursuant to this Directive must be coordinated.

Article 19Registries

1.Member States shall provide for the establishment and maintenance of a registry in order to ensure the accurate accounting of the issue, holding, transfer and cancellation of allowances. Member States may maintain their registries in a consolidated system, together with one or more other Member States.

2.Any person may hold allowances. The registry shall be accessible to the public and shall contain separate accounts to record the allowances held by each person to whom and from whom allowances are issued or transferred.

3.In order to implement this Directive, the Commission shall adopt a Regulation in accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 23(2) for a standardised and secured system of registries in the form of standardised electronic databases containing common data elements to track the issue, holding, transfer and cancellation of allowances, to provide for public access and confidentiality as appropriate and to ensure that there are no transfers incompatible with obligations resulting from the Kyoto Protocol.

Article 20Central Administrator

1.The Commission shall designate a Central Administrator to maintain an independent transaction log recording the issue, transfer and cancellation of allowances.

2.The Central Administrator shall conduct an automated check on each transaction in registries through the independent transaction log to ensure there are no irregularities in the issue, transfer and cancellation of allowances.

3.If irregularities are identified through the automated check, the Central Administrator shall inform the Member State or Member States concerned who shall not register the transactions in question or any further transactions relating to the allowances concerned until the irregularities have been resolved.

Article 21Reporting by Member States

1.Each year the Member States shall submit to the Commission a report on the application of this Directive. This report shall pay particular attention to the arrangements for the allocation of allowances, the operation of registries, the application of the monitoring and reporting guidelines, verification and issues relating to compliance with the Directive and on the fiscal treatment of allowances, if any. The first report shall be sent to the Commission by 30 June 2005. The report shall be drawn up on the basis of a questionnaire or outline drafted by the Commission in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 6 of Directive 91/692/EEC. The questionnaire or outline shall be sent to Member States at least six months before the deadline for the submission of the first report.

2.On the basis of the reports referred to in paragraph 1, the Commission shall publish a report on the application of this Directive within three months of receiving the reports from the Member States.

3.The Commission shall organise an exchange of information between the competent authorities of the Member States concerning developments relating to issues of allocation, the operation of registries, monitoring, reporting, verification and compliance.

Article 22Amendments to Annex III

The Commission may amend Annex III, with the exception of criteria (1), (5) and (7), for the period from 2008 to 2012 in the light of the reports provided for in Article 21 and of the experience of the application of this Directive, in accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 23(2).

Article 23Committee

1.The Commission shall be assisted by the committee instituted by Article 8 of Decision 93/389/EEC.

2.Where reference is made to this paragraph, Articles 5 and 7 of Decision 1999/468/EC shall apply, having regard to the provisions of Article 8 thereof.

The period laid down in Article 5(6) of Decision 1999/468/EC shall be set at three months.

3.The Committee shall adopt its rules of procedure.

Article 24Procedures for unilateral inclusion of additional activities and gases

1.From 2008, Member States may apply emission allowance trading in accordance with this Directive to activities, installations and greenhouse gases which are not listed in Annex I, provided that inclusion of such activities, installations and greenhouse gases is approved by the Commission in accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 23(2), taking into account all relevant criteria, in particular effects on the internal market, potential distortions of competition, the environmental integrity of the scheme and reliability of the planned monitoring and reporting system.

From 2005 Member States may under the same conditions apply emissions allowance trading to installations carrying out activities listed in Annex I below the capacity limits referred to in that Annex.

2.Allocations made to installations carrying out such activities shall be specified in the national allocation plan referred to in Article 9.

3.The Commission may, on its own initiative, or shall, on request by a Member State, adopt monitoring and reporting guidelines for emissions from activities, installations and greenhouse gases which are not listed in Annex I in accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 23(2), if monitoring and reporting of these emissions can be carried out with sufficient accuracy.

4.In the event that such measures are introduced, reviews carried out pursuant to Article 30 shall also consider whether Annex I should be amended to include emissions from these activities in a harmonised way throughout the Community.

Article 25Links with other greenhouse gas emissions trading schemes

1.Agreements should be concluded with third countries listed in Annex B to the Kyoto Protocol which have ratified the Protocol to provide for the mutual recognition of allowances between the Community scheme and other greenhouse gas emissions trading schemes in accordance with the rules set out in Article 300 of the Treaty.

2.Where an agreement referred to in paragraph 1 has been concluded, the Commission shall draw up any necessary provisions relating to the mutual recognition of allowances under that agreement in accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 23(2).

Article 26Amendment of Directive 96/61/EC

In Article 9(3) of Directive 96/61/EC the following subparagraphs shall be added:

Where emissions of a greenhouse gas from an installation are specified in Annex I to Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 2003 establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community and amending Council Directive 96/61/EC(1) in relation to an activity carried out in that installation, the permit shall not include an emission limit value for direct emissions of that gas unless it is necessary to ensure that no significant local pollution is caused.

For activities listed in Annex I to Directive 2003/87/EC, Member States may choose not to impose requirements relating to energy efficiency in respect of combustion units or other units emitting carbon dioxide on the site.

Where necessary, the competent authorities shall amend the permit as appropriate.

The three preceding subparagraphs shall not apply to installations temporarily excluded from the scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community in accordance with Article 27 of Directive 2003/87/EC.

Article 27Temporary exclusion of certain installations

1.Member States may apply to the Commission for installations to be temporarily excluded until 31 December 2007 at the latest from the Community scheme. Any such application shall list each such installation and shall be published.

2.If, having considered any comments made by the public on that application, the Commission decides, in accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 23(2), that the installations will:

(a)

as a result of national policies, limit their emissions as much as would be the case if they were subject to the provisions of this Directive;

(b)

be subject to monitoring, reporting and verification requirements which are equivalent to those provided for pursuant to Articles 14 and 15; and

(c)

be subject to penalties at least equivalent to those referred to in Article 16(1) and (4) in the case of non-fulfilment of national requirements;

it shall provide for the temporary exclusion of those installations from the Community scheme.

It must be ensured that there will be no distortion of the internal market.

Article 28Pooling

1.Member States may allow operators of installations carrying out one of the activities listed in Annex I to form a pool of installations from the same activity for the period referred to in Article 11(1) and/or the first five-year period referred to in Article 11(2) in accordance with paragraphs 2 to 6 of this Article.

2.Operators carrying out an activity listed in Annex I who wish to form a pool shall apply to the competent authority, specifying the installations and the period for which they want the pool and supplying evidence that a trustee will be able to fulfil the obligations referred to in paragraphs 3 and 4.

3.Operators wishing to form a pool shall nominate a trustee:

(a)

to be issued with the total quantity of allowances calculated by installation of the operators, by way of derogation from Article 11;

(b)

to be responsible for surrendering allowances equal to the total emissions from installations in the pool, by way of derogation from Articles 6(2)(e) and 12(3); and

(c)

to be restricted from making further transfers in the event that an operator's report has not been verified as satisfactory in accordance with the second paragraph of Article 15.

4.The trustee shall be subject to the penalties applicable for breaches of requirements to surrender sufficient allowances to cover the total emissions from installations in the pool, by way of derogation from Article 16(2), (3) and (4).

5.A Member State that wishes to allow one or more pools to be formed shall submit the application referred to in paragraph 2 to the Commission. Without prejudice to the Treaty, the Commission may within three months of receipt reject an application that does not fulfil the requirements of this Directive. Reasons shall be given for any such decision. In the case of rejection the Member State may only allow the pool to be formed if proposed amendments are accepted by the Commission.

6.In the event that the trustee fails to comply with penalties referred to in paragraph 4, each operator of an installation in the pool shall be responsible under Articles 12(3) and 16 in respect of emissions from its own installation.

Article 29 Force majeure

1.During the period referred to in Article 11(1), Member States may apply to the Commission for certain installations to be issued with additional allowances in cases of force majeure. The Commission shall determine whether force majeure is demonstrated, in which case it shall authorise the issue of additional and non-transferable allowances by that Member State to the operators of those installations.

2.The Commission shall, without prejudice to the Treaty, develop guidance to describe the circumstances under which force majeure is demonstrated, by 31 December 2003 at the latest.

Article 30Review and further development

1.On the basis of progress achieved in the monitoring of emissions of greenhouse gases, the Commission may make a proposal to the European Parliament and the Council by 31 December 2004 to amend Annex I to include other activities and emissions of other greenhouse gases listed in Annex II.

2.On the basis of experience of the application of this Directive and of progress achieved in the monitoring of emissions of greenhouse gases and in the light of developments in the international context, the Commission shall draw up a report on the application of this Directive, considering:

(a)

how and whether Annex I should be amended to include other relevant sectors, inter alia the chemicals, aluminium and transport sectors, activities and emissions of other greenhouse gases listed in Annex II, with a view to further improving the economic efficiency of the scheme;

(b)

the relationship of Community emission allowance trading with the international emissions trading that will start in 2008;

(c)

further harmonisation of the method of allocation (including auctioning for the time after 2012) and of the criteria for national allocation plans referred to in Annex III;

(d)

the use of credits from project mechanisms;

(e)

the relationship of emissions trading with other policies and measures implemented at Member State and Community level, including taxation, that pursue the same objectives;

(f)

whether it is appropriate for there to be a single Community registry;

(g)

the level of excess emissions penalties, taking into account, inter alia, inflation;

(h)

the functioning of the allowance market, covering in particular any possible market disturbances;

(i)

how to adapt the Community scheme to an enlarged European Union;

(j)

pooling;

(k)

the practicality of developing Community-wide benchmarks as a basis for allocation, taking into account the best available techniques and cost-benefit analysis.

The Commission shall submit this report to the European Parliament and the Council by 30 June 2006, accompanied by proposals as appropriate.

3.Linking the project-based mechanisms, including Joint Implementation (JI) and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), with the Community scheme is desirable and important to achieve the goals of both reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and increasing the cost-effective functioning of the Community scheme. Therefore, the emission credits from the project-based mechanisms will be recognised for their use in this scheme subject to provisions adopted by the European Parliament and the Council on a proposal from the Commission, which should apply in parallel with the Community scheme in 2005. The use of the mechanisms shall be supplemental to domestic action, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Kyoto Protocol and Marrakesh Accords.

Article 31Implementation

1.Member States shall bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with this Directive by 31 December 2003 at the latest. They shall forthwith inform the Commission thereof. The Commission shall notify the other Member States of these laws, regulations and administrative provisions.

When Member States adopt these measures, they shall contain a reference to this Directive or be accompanied by such a reference on the occasion of their official publication. The methods of making such reference shall be laid down by Member States.

2.Member States shall communicate to the Commission the text of the provisions of national law which they adopt in the field covered by this Directive. The Commission shall inform the other Member States thereof.

Article 32Entry into force

This Directive shall enter into force on the day of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.

Article 33Addressees

This Directive is addressed to the Member States.

Done at Luxembourg, 13 October 2003.

For the European Parliament

The President

P. Cox

For the Council

The President

G. Alemanno

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