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Council Directive 98/57/ECShow full title

Council Directive 98/57/EC of 20 July 1998 on the control of Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) Yabuuchi et al.

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[F12. Detailed methods for detection and identification of R. solanacearum in samples of asymptomatic potato, tomato or other host plants U.K.+E.U.

2.1. Sample preparation U.K.+E.U.

Note: For detection of latent R. solanacearum populations it is advised to test composite samples. The procedure can be conveniently applied for composite samples of up to 200 stem parts. Where surveys are performed they should be based on a statistically representative sample of the plant population under investigation. U.K.+E.U.

2.1.1. Collect 1 to 2 cm stem segments in a closed sterile container according to the following sampling procedures: U.K.+E.U.

Nursery tomato seedlings : With a clean disinfected knife, remove a 1 cm segment from the base of each stem, just above the soil level.

Field or glasshouse grown tomato plants : With a clean disinfected knife, remove the lowermost side shoot from each plant by cutting just above the joint with the main stem. Remove the lowermost 1cm segment from each side shoot.

Other hosts : With a clean disinfected knife or pruning shears, remove a 1 cm segment from the base of each stem, just above the soil level. In the case of S. dulcamara or other host plants growing in water, remove 1-2 cm sections from underwater stems or stolons with aquatic roots.

When sampling a particular location it is recommended to test a statistically representative sample of at least 10 plants per sampling point of each potential weed host. Pathogen detection will be most reliable during late spring, summer and autumn seasons, although natural infections can be detected all year round in the perennial Solanum dulcamara growing in watercourses. Known hosts include volunteer potato plants (groundkeepers), Solanum dulcamara, S. nigrum, Datura stramonium and other members of the family Solanaceae. Further hosts are Pelargonium spp. and Portulaca oleracea . Some European weed spp. which may potentially harbour R. solanacearum biovar 2/Race 3 populations in roots and/or rhizospheres under specific environmental conditions include Atriplex hastata, Bidens pilosa, Cerastium glomeratum, Chenopodium album, Eupatorium cannabinum, Galinsoga parviflora, Ranunculus scleratus, Rorippa spp, Rumex spp., Silene alba, S. nutans., Tussilago farfarra and Urtica dioica .

Note: Visual examination for internal symptoms (vascular staining or bacterial ooze) can be done at this stage. Set aside any stem segments with symptoms and test separately (See Section II). U.K.+E.U.

2.1.2. Disinfect stem segments briefly with ethanol 70 % and immediately blot dry on tissue paper. Then process the stem segments by one of the following procedures: either, U.K.+E.U.
(a)

Cover the segments with sufficient volume (approximately 40 ml) of extraction buffer (Appendix 4) and agitate on a rotary shaker (50 to 100 rpm) for four hours below 24 °C or for 16 to 24 hours refrigerated, or

(b)

Process immediately by crushing the segments in a strong maceration bag (e.g. Stomacher or Bioreba) with an appropriate volume of extraction buffer (Appendix 4) using a rubber mallet or appropriate grinding apparatus (e.g. Homex). If this is not possible, store the stem segments refrigerated for not longer than 72 hours or for not longer than 24 hours at room temperature.

2.1.3. Decant the supernatant after settling for 15 minutes. U.K.+E.U.
2.1.4. Further clarification of the extract or concentration of the bacterial fraction are not usually required but may be achieved by filtration and/or centrifugation as described in Section III.1.1.3 – 1.1.5. U.K.+E.U.
2.1.5. Divide the neat or concentrated sample extract into two equal parts. Maintain one half at 4 to 10 °C during testing and store the other half with 10 to 25 % (v/v) sterile glycerol at -16 to -24  °C (weeks) or at -68 to -86  °C (month) in case further testing is required. U.K.+E.U.
2.2. Testing U.K.+E.U.

See Flow chart and description of the tests and optimised protocols in the relevant appendices:

  • Selective isolation (see Section VI.A.4.)

  • IF test (see Section VI.A.5.)

  • PCR tests (see Section VI.A.6.)

  • FISH test (see Section VI.A.7.)

  • ELISA tests (see Section VI.A.8.)

  • Bioassay (see Section VI.A.9.)]

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