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The Limited Liability Partnerships (Accounts and Audit) (Application of Companies Act 2006) Regulations 2008

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Meaning of “undertaking” and related expressions

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52.  Sections 1161 and 1162 and Schedule 7 apply to LLPs, modified so that they read as follows—

Meaning of “undertaking” and related expressions

1161.(1) In this Act “undertaking” means—

(a)a body corporate or partnership, or

(b)an unincorporated association carrying on a trade or business, with or without a view to profit.

(2) In this Act references to shares—

(a)in relation to an undertaking with capital but no share capital, are to rights to share in the capital of the undertaking; and

(b)in relation to an undertaking without capital, are to interests—

(i)conferring any right to share in the profits or liability to contribute to the losses of the undertaking, or

(ii)giving rise to an obligation to contribute to the debts or expenses of the undertaking in the event of a winding up.

(3) Other expressions appropriate to companies shall be construed, in relation to an undertaking which is not a company, as references to the corresponding persons, officers, documents or organs, as the case may be, appropriate to undertakings of that description.

This is subject to provision in any specific context providing for the translation of such expressions.

(4) References in this Act to “fellow subsidiary undertakings” are to undertakings which are subsidiary undertakings of the same parent undertaking but are not parent undertakings or subsidiary undertakings of each other.

(5) In this Act “group undertaking”, in relation to an undertaking, means an undertaking which is—

(a)a parent undertaking or subsidiary undertaking of that undertaking, or

(b)a subsidiary undertaking of any parent undertaking of that undertaking.

Parent and subsidiary undertakings

1162.(1) This section (together with Schedule 7) defines “parent undertaking” and “subsidiary undertaking” for the purposes of this Act.

(2) An undertaking is a parent undertaking in relation to another undertaking, a subsidiary undertaking, if—

(a)it holds a majority of the voting rights in the undertaking, or

(b)it is a member of the undertaking and has the right to appoint or remove a majority of its board of directors, or

(c)it has the right to exercise a dominant influence over the undertaking—

(i)by virtue of provisions contained in the undertaking’s articles or in an LLP Agreement, or

(ii)by virtue of a control contract, or

(d)it is a member of the undertaking and controls alone, pursuant to an agreement with other shareholders or members, a majority of the voting rights in the undertaking.

(3) For the purposes of subsection (2) an undertaking shall be treated as a member of another undertaking—

(a)if any of its subsidiary undertakings is a member of that undertaking, or

(b)if any shares in that other undertaking are held by a person acting on behalf of the undertaking or any of its subsidiary undertakings.

(4) An undertaking is also a parent undertaking in relation to another undertaking, a subsidiary undertaking, if—

(a)it has the power to exercise, or actually exercises, dominant influence or control over it, or

(b)it and the subsidiary undertaking are managed on a unified basis.

(5) A parent undertaking shall be treated as the parent undertaking of undertakings in relation to which any of its subsidiary undertakings are, or are to be treated as, parent undertakings; and references to its subsidiary undertakings shall be construed accordingly.

(6) Schedule 7 contains provisions explaining expressions used in this section and otherwise supplementing this section.

(7) In this section and that Schedule references to shares, in relation to an undertaking, are to allotted shares.

SCHEDULE 7PARENT AND SUBSIDIARY UNDERTAKINGS: SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS

Introduction

1.  The provisions of this Schedule explain expressions used in section 1162 (parent and subsidiary undertakings) and otherwise supplement that section.

Voting rights in an undertaking

2.(1) In section 1162(2)(a) and (d) the references to the voting rights in an undertaking are to the rights conferred on shareholders in respect of their shares or, in the case of an undertaking not having a share capital, on members, to vote at general meetings of the undertaking on all, or substantially all, matters.

(2) In relation to an undertaking which does not have general meetings at which matters are decided by the exercise of voting rights the references to holding a majority of the voting rights in the undertaking are to be construed as references to having the right under the constitution of the undertaking to direct the overall policy of the undertaking or to alter the terms of its constitution.

Right to appoint or remove a majority of members or directors

3.(1) In section 1162(2)(b) the reference to the right to appoint or remove a majority of the board of directors is to the right to appoint or remove directors holding a majority of the voting rights at meetings of the board on all, or substantially all, matters.

(2) An undertaking shall be treated as having the right to appoint to a directorship if—

(a)a person’s appointment to it follows necessarily from his appointment as director of the undertaking, or

(b)the directorship is held by the undertaking itself.

(3) A right to appoint or remove which is exercisable only with the consent or concurrence of another person shall be left out of account unless no other person has a right to appoint or, as the case may be, remove in relation to that directorship.

(4) In relation to an undertaking the business of which is managed by the members, references to the board of directors or directors are to be construed as references to members.

Right to exercise dominant influence

4.(1) For the purposes of section 1162(2)(c) an undertaking shall not be regarded as having the right to exercise a dominant influence over another undertaking unless it has a right to give directions with respect to the operating and financial policies of that other undertaking which its directors are obliged to comply with whether or not they are for the benefit of that other undertaking.

(2) A “control contract” means a contract in writing conferring such a right which—

(a)is of a kind authorised by the articles of the undertaking or by the LLP agreement of the LLP in relation to which the right is exercisable, and

(b)is permitted by the law under which that undertaking is established.

(3) In relation to an undertaking the business of which is managed by the members, references to directors are to be construed as references to members.

(4) This paragraph shall not be read as affecting the construction of section 1162(4)(a).

Rights exercisable only in certain circumstances or temporarily incapable of exercise

5.(1) Rights which are exercisable only in certain circumstances shall be taken into account only—

(a)when the circumstances have arisen, and for so long as they continue to obtain, or

(b)when the circumstances are within the control of the person having the rights.

(2) Rights which are normally exercisable but are temporarily incapable of exercise shall continue to be taken into account.

Rights held by one person on behalf of another

6.  Rights held by a person in a fiduciary capacity shall be treated as not held by him.

7.(1) Rights held by a person as nominee for another shall be treated as held by the other.

(2) Rights shall be regarded as held as nominee for another if they are exercisable only on his instructions or with his consent or concurrence.

Rights attached to shares held by way of security

8.  Rights attached to shares held by way of security shall be treated as held by the person providing the security—

(a)where apart from the right to exercise them for the purpose of preserving the value of the security, or of realising it, the rights are exercisable only in accordance with his instructions, and

(b)where the shares are held in connection with the granting of loans as part of normal business activities and apart from the right to exercise them for the purpose of preserving the value of the security, or of realising it, the rights are exercisable only in his interests.

Rights attributed to parent undertaking

9.(1) Rights shall be treated as held by a parent undertaking if they are held by any of its subsidiary undertakings.

(2) Nothing in paragraph 7 or 8 shall be construed as requiring rights held by a parent undertaking to be treated as held by any of its subsidiary undertakings.

(3) For the purposes of paragraph 8 rights shall be treated as being exercisable in accordance with the instructions or in the interests of an undertaking if they are exercisable in accordance with the instructions of or, as the case may be, in the interests of any group undertaking.

Disregard of certain rights

10.  The voting rights in an undertaking shall be reduced by any rights held by the undertaking itself.

Supplementary

11.  References in any provision of paragraphs 6 to 10 to rights held by a person include rights falling to be treated as held by him by virtue of any other provision of those paragraphs but not rights which by virtue of any such provision are to be treated as not held by him.

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