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The Insolvency (Northern Ireland) Order 1989

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Status:

This version of this Order contains provisions that are prospective.

Changes to legislation:

There are outstanding changes not yet made by the legislation.gov.uk editorial team to The Insolvency (Northern Ireland) Order 1989. Any changes that have already been made by the team appear in the content and are referenced with annotations.

N.I.

Statutory Instruments

1989 No. 2405 (N.I. 19)

The Insolvency (Northern Ireland) Order 1989

19th December 1989

Annotations:

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C4Order applied (with modifications) (6.4.2008) by Serious Crime Act 2007 (c. 27), ss. 28(2)-(4), 94(1); S.I. 2008/755, art. 15(1)(f)

C6Order applied (with modifications) (12.4.2007) by Cross-Border Insolvency Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2007 (S.R. 2007/115), reg. 4

C8Order excluded by 1998 (c.17), s. 38A(6) (as inserted (26.1.2009) by Energy Act 2008 (c. 32), ss. 74, 110(2)); S.I. 2009/45, art. 2(b)(i)

C9Order applied in part (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 103, 134, 263(1) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch.

C10Order applied in part (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 145, 167, 263(1) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch.

C11Order power to amend conferred (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 158(2)(b), 159(2)(b), 263(1) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch.

C17Order power to modify conferred (1.10.2011) by Postal Services Act 2011 (c. 5), ss. 73(1), 87(1)(2), 93(3), Sch. 10 para. 46; S.I. 2011/2329, art. 3(1)

F1PART IN.I.INTRODUCTORY

N.I.

Title and commencementN.I.

1.—(1) This Order may be cited as the Insolvency (Northern Ireland) Order 1989.

(2) This Order shall come into operation on such day or days as the Head of the Department may by order appointF2.

(3) An order under paragraph (2) may contain such transitional and supplementary provisions as appear to the Head of the Department to be necessary or expedient.

Annotations:

F2partly exercised, SRs 1990/177; 1991/294, 300, 411; 2002/126

General interpretationN.I.

2.—(1) The Interpretation Act (Northern Ireland) 1954F3 shall apply to Article 1 and the following provisions of this Order as it applies to a Measure of the Northern Ireland Assembly.

(2 )F4 In this Order—

  • [F5“the Bankruptcy Acts” means the Bankruptcy Acts (Northern Ireland) 1857 to 1980;]

  • [F6body corporate” includes a body incorporated outside Northern Ireland, but does not include—

    (a)

    a corporation sole, or

    (b)

    a partnership that, whether or not a legal person, is not regarded as a body corporate under the law by which it is governed;]

  • “business” includes a trade or profession;

  • [F7the Companies Acts” means the Companies Acts (as defined in section 2 of the Companies Act 2006) as they have effect in Northern Ireland;]

  • F8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  • “conditional sale agreement” and“hire‐purchase agreement” have the same meanings as in the Consumer Credit Act 1974F9;

  • [F5“corporate member” means an insolvent member which is a company;]

  • “the Department” means the Department of Economic Development;

  • [F10“the EC Regulation” means Council Regulation (EC) No. 1346/2000;]

  • [F11EEA State” means a state that is a Contracting Party to the Agreement on the European Economic Area signed at Oporto on 2nd May 1992 as adjusted by the Protocol signed at Brussels on 17th March 1993;]

  • [F12“employees' share scheme” means a scheme for encouraging or facilitating the holding of shares in or debentures of a company by or for the benefit of—

    (a)

    the bona fide employees or former employees of—

    (i)

    the company,

    (ii)

    any subsidiary of the company, or

    (iii)

    the company's holding company or any subsidiary of the company's holding company, or

    (b)

    the spouses, civil partners, surviving spouses, surviving civil partners, or minor children or step-children of such employees or former employees;]

  • [F5“individual member” means an insolvent member who is an individual;

  • “insolvent member” means a member of an insolvent partnership, against whom an insolvency petition is being or has been presented;

  • “insolvency order” means—

    (a)

    in the case of an insolvent partnership or a corporate member, a winding-up order; and

    (b)

    in the case of an individual member, a bankruptcy order;

  • “insolvency petition” means—

    (a)

    in the case of a petition presented against a corporate member, a petition for its winding up by the High Court; and

    (b)

    in the case of a petition presented against an individual member, a petition to the Court for a bankruptcy order to be made against the individual,

    where the petition is presented in conjunction with a petition for the winding up of the partnership by the Court as an unregistered company under the Order;]

  • “liability” means (subject to paragraph (4)) a liability to pay money or money's worth, including any liability under a statutory provision, any liability for breach of trust, any liability in contract, tort or bailment and any liability arising out of an obligation to make restitution;

  • “modifications” includes additions, alterations and omissions;

  • F13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  • “the official receiver” means, in relation to any bankruptcy[F14, winding up [F15, individual voluntary arrangement, debt relief order or application for such an order]], any officer of the Department who by virtue of Article 355 or 357 is authorised to act as the official receiver in relation to that bankruptcy[F14, winding up [F15, individual voluntary arrangement, debt relief order or application for such an order]];

  • “prescribed”

    (a)

    in Articles 48(3), 95(1), 212(h) and 222 and in Part XII, means prescribed by regulations; and

    (b)

    except as provided in sub‐paragraph (a)[F16 in Article 150A(9)] and in paragraph 3 of Schedule 4, means prescribed by rules;

  • “property” includes money, goods, things in action, land and every description of property wherever situated and also obligations and every description of interest, whether present or future or vested or contingent, arising out of, or incidental to, property;

  • “records” includes computer records and other non‐documentary records;

  • “regulations” means regulations made by the Department subject (except in Article 359(5) [F17and paragraph 16 of Schedule A1]) to negative resolution;

  • [F5“responsible insolvency practitioner” means—

    (a)

    in winding up, the liquidator; and

    (b)

    in bankruptcy, the trustee,

    and in either case includes the official receiver when so acting.]

  • “rules”, except in Article 350, means rules made under Article 359;

  • “statutory provision” has the meaning assigned to it by section 1(f) of the Interpretation Act (Northern Ireland) 1954F18;

  • “transaction” includes a gift, agreement or arrangement, and references to entering into a transaction shall be construed accordingly.

[F19(2A) The following expressions have the same meaning in this Order as in the Companies Acts—

articles”, in relation to a company (see section 18 of the Companies Act 2006);

“debenture” (see section 738 of that Act);

“holding company” (see sections 1159 and 1160 of, and Schedule 6 to, that Act);

“the Joint Stock Companies Acts” (see section 1171 of that Act);

“overseas company” (see section 1044 of that Act);

“paid up” (see section 583 of that Act);

“private company” and “public company” (see section 4 of that Act);

“share” (see section 540 of that Act);

“subsidiary” (see sections 1159 and 1160 of, and Schedule 6 to, that Act).]

(3) In determining for the purposes of any provision in this Order whether any liability in tort is a debt provable in the winding up of a company [F20or where a company is in administration] or a bankruptcy debt, the company or, as the case may be, the bankrupt is deemed to become subject to that liability by reason of an obligation incurred at the time when the cause of action accrued.

(4) For the purposes of references in any provision of this Order to a debt or liability, it is immaterial whether the debt or liability is present or future, whether it is certain or contingent or whether its amount is fixed or liquidated, or is capable of being ascertained by fixed criteria or as a matter of opinion; and references in any such provision to owing a debt are to be read accordingly.

(5) In this Order (except Article 355(1)) references to the official receiver include an officer of the Department appointed under Article 357(1) as deputy official receiver.

(6) For the purposes of any provision in this Order whereby an officer of a company who is in default shall be guilty of an offence,“officer who is in default” means an officer of the company who knowingly and wilfully authorises or permits the default, refusal or contravention mentioned in the provision.

Annotations:

F4mod. by SR 2004/307

F5SR 1991/366

F10SR 2002/223

F14Words in art. 2(2) in definition of "the official receiver" substituted (27.3.2006) by Insolvency (Northern Ireland) Order 2005 (S.I. 2005/1455 (N.I. 10)), arts. 1(3), 25, Sch. 8 para. 2 (with art. 4); S.R. 2006/21, art. 2 (with S.R. 2006/22, arts. 2 - 7)

F15Art. 2(2): words in definition of "official receiver" substituted (30.6.2011) by Debt Relief Act (Northern Ireland) 2010 (c. 16), ss. 6, 7(1), Sch. para. 4(2); S.R. 2011/13, art. 2

F16Words in art. 2(2) in para. (b) of the definition of "prescribed" inserted (27.3.2006) by Insolvency (Northern Ireland) Order 2005 (S.I. 2005/1455 (N.I. 10)), arts. 1(3), 7(2), (with art. 4); S.R. 2006/21, art. 2 (with S.R. 2006/22, arts. 2 - 7)

[F21Proceedings under EC Regulation: modified definition of propertyN.I.

2A.  In the application of this Order to proceedings by virtue of Article 3 of the EC Regulation, a reference to property is a reference to property which may be dealt with in the proceedings.]

Annotations:

F21SR 2002/334

“Act as insolvency practitioner”N.I.

3.—(1) A person acts as an insolvency practitioner in relation to a company by acting—

(a)as its liquidator, provisional liquidator, administrator or administrative receiver, or

[F22(b)where a voluntary arrangement in relation to the company is proposed or approved under Part II, as nominee or supervisor.]

(2 )F23 A person acts as an insolvency practitioner in relation to an individual by acting—

(a)as his trustee in bankruptcy or interim receiver of his property; or

(b)as trustee under a deed which is a deed of arrangement made for the benefit of his creditors; or

[F22(c)where a voluntary arrangement in relation to the individual is proposed or approved under Part VIII, as nominee or supervisor;]

(d)in the case of a deceased individual to the administration of whose estate this Article applies by virtue of an order under Article 365 (application of provisions of this Order to insolvent estates of deceased persons), as administrator of that estate.

[F24(3 )F23 A person acts as an insolvency practitioner in relation to an insolvent partnership by acting—

(a)as its liquidator, provisional liquidator or administrator, or

(b)as trustee of the partnership under Article 11 of the Insolvent Partnerships Order (Northern Ireland) 1995, or

[F25(c)where a voluntary arrangement in relation to the insolvent partnership is proposed or approved under Part II, as nominee or supervisor.]]

[F22(3A) In relation to a voluntary arrangement proposed under Part II or VIII, a person acts as nominee if he performs any of the functions conferred on nominees under the Part in question.]

(4 )F23 In this Article—

“administrative receiver” has the meaning given by Article 5(1);

[F26company” means—

(a)a company registered under the Companies Act 2006 in Northern Ireland, or

(b)a company that may be wound up under Part 6 of this Order (unregistered companies).]

(5) Nothing in this Article applies to anything done by the official receiver.

[F27(6) Nothing in this Article applies to anything done (whether in the United Kingdom or elsewhere) in relation to insolvency proceedings under the EC Regulation in a member State other than the United Kingdom.]

Annotations:

F23mod. by SR 2004/307

F24SR 1995/225

F25SR 2003/550

F27SR 2002/334

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

“Associate”N.I.

4.—(1) For the purposes of this Order any question whether a person is an associate of another person is to be determined in accordance with the following provisions of this Article (any provision that a person is an associate of another person being taken to mean that they are associates of each other).

[F28(2) A person is an associate of an individual if that person is—

(a)the individual's husband or wife or civil partner,

(b)a relative of—

(i)the individual, or

(ii)the individual's husband or wife or civil partner, or

(c)the husband or wife or civil partner of a relative of—

(i)the individual, or

(ii)the individual's husband or wife or civil partner.]

(3) A person is an associate of any person with whom he is in partnership, and of the husband or wife[F28 or civil partner] or a relative of any individual with whom he is in partnership; and a Scottish firm is an associate of any person who is a member of the firm.

F29(4) A person is an associate of any person whom he employs or by whom he is employed.

(5) A person in his capacity as trustee of a trust other than—

(a)a trust arising under Parts VIII to X (other than Chapter I of Part VIII) of this Order, Parts VIII to IX of the Insolvency Act 1986F30 or the Bankruptcy (Scotland) Act 1985F31, or

(b)a pension scheme or an employees' share scheme F32. . . ,

is an associate of another person if the beneficiaries of the trust include, or the terms of the trust confer a power that may beexercised for the benefit of, that other person or an associate of that other person.

(6) A company is an associate of another company—

(a)if the same person has control of both, or a person has control of one and persons who are his associates, or he and persons who are his associates, have control of the other, or

(b)if a group of 2 or more persons has control of eachcompany, and the groups either consist of the same personsor could be regarded as consisting of the same persons by treating (in one or more cases) a member of either group as replaced by a person of whom he is an associate.

(7) A company is an associate of another person if that person has control of it or if that person and persons who are his associates together have control of it.

(8) For the purposes of this Article a person is a relative of an individual if he is that individual's brother, sister, uncle, aunt, nephew, niece, lineal ancestor or lineal descendant, treating—

(a)any relationship of the half blood as a relationship of the whole blood and the stepchild or adopted child of any person as his child, and

(b)an illegitimate child as the legitimate child of his mother and reputed father;

and references in this Article to a husband and wife include a former husband or wife and reputed husband or wife[F28 and references to a civil partner include a former civil partner][F33 and a reputed civil partner].

(9) For the purposes of this Article any director of other officer of a company is to be treated as employed by that company.

(10) For the purposes of this Article a person is to be taken as having control of a company if—

(a)the directors of the company or of another company which has control of it (or any of them) are accustomed to act in accordance with his directions or instructions, or

(b)he is entitled to exercise, or control the exercise of, one‐third or more of the voting power at any general meeting of the company or of another company which has control of it;

and where 2 or more persons together satisfy either of the conditions mentioned in sub‐paragraph (a) or (b), they are to be taken as having control of the company.

(11 )F29 In this Article“company” includes any body corporate (whether incorporated in Northern Ireland or elsewhere); and references to directors and other officers of a company and to voting power at any general meeting of a company have effect with any necessary modifications.

Interpretation for Parts II to VIIN.I.

InterpretationN.I.

5.—(1 )F34 In Parts II to VII—

  • F35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  • F35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  • “administrative receiver” means—

    (a)

    a receiver or manager of the whole (or substantially the whole) of a company's property appointed by or on behalf of the holders of any debentures of the company secured by a charge which, as created, was a floating charge, or by such a charge and one or more other securities; or

    (b)

    a person who would be such a receiver or manager but for the appointment of some other person as the receiver of part of the company's property;

  • [F36agent” does not include a person's counsel acting as such;]

  • [F37“books and papers” and “books or papers” includes accounts, deeds, writing and documents;]

  • “business day” means any day other than a Saturday, a Sunday, Christmas Day, Good Friday or a day which is a bank holiday in Northern Ireland under the Banking and Financial Dealings Act 1971F38;

  • “chattel leasing agreement” means an agreement for the bailment of goods which is capable of subsisting for more than 3 months;

  • “debt”, in relation to the winding up of a company [F39or where a company is in administration], means (subject to Article 2(3)) any of the following—

    (a)

    any debt or liability to which the company is subject at the date on which it goes into liquidation [F40or enters administration] ;

    (b)

    any debt or liability to which the company may become subject after that date by reason of any obligation incurred before that date; and

    (c)

    any interest on a debt proved in the liquidation [F41or in the administration] which bears interest, except in so far as it is payable in respect of any period after the company went into liquidation [F42or entered administration] ;

  • “director” includes any person occupying the position of director, by whatever name called;

  • [F43document” includes summons, notice, order and other legal process, and registers;]

  • “floating charge” means a charge which, as created, was a floating charge;

  • “nominee” means a person acting as defined in Article 15(2);

  • [F44officer”, in relation to a body corporate, includes a director, manager or secretary;]

  • “the official rate”, in relation to interest, means the rate payable under Article 160(4);

  • [F45the registrar” means the registrar of companies for Northern Ireland;]

  • “a resolution for voluntary winding up” means a resolution passed under [F46either of the sub-paragraphs] of Article 70(1);

  • “retention of title agreement” means an agreement for the sale of goods to a company being an agreement—

    (a)

    which does not constitute a charge on the goods, but

    (b)

    under which, if the seller is not paid and the company is wound up, the seller will have priority over all other creditors of the company as respects the goods or any property representing the goods;

  • “secured creditor”, in relation to a company, means a creditor of the company who holds in respect of his debt a security over property of the company, and“unsecured creditor” is to be read accordingly;

  • “security” means any mortgage, charge, lien or other security;

  • “shadow director”, in relation to a company, means a person in accordance with whose directions or instructions the directors of the company are accustomed to act (but so that a person is not deemed a shadow director by reason only that the directors act on advice given by him in a professional capacity);

  • “supervisor” means a person acting as defined in Article 20(2);

  • “voluntary arrangement” means an arrangement as defined in Article 14(1).

(2) F47. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Annotations:

F34mod. by SR 2004/307

F35Art. 5(1): definitions of "administrator" and "administration order" repealed (27.3.2006) by Insolvency (Northern Ireland) Order 2005 (S.I. 2005/1455 (N.I. 10)), arts. 1(3), 3(3), 31, Sch. 2 para. 19, Sch. 9 (with art. 4); S.R. 2006/21, art. 2 (with S.R. 2006/22, arts. 2-7)

“Insolvency” and“go into liquidation”N.I.

6.—(1) In Parts II to VII,“insolvency”, in relation to a company, includes the approval of a voluntary arrangement under Part II,[F48or the appointment of an administrator or administrative receiver].

(2 )F49 For the purposes of any provision in Parts II to VII, a company goes into liquidation if it passes a resolution for voluntary winding up or an order for its winding up is made by the High Court at a time when it has not already gone into liquidation by passing such a resolution.

[F50(3) The reference to a resolution for voluntary winding up in paragraph (2) includes a reference to a resolution which is deemed to occur by virtue of—

(a)paragraph 84(5)(b) of Schedule B1, or

(b)an order made following conversion of administration or a voluntary arrangement into winding up by virtue of Article 37 of the EC Regulation.]

“Connected with a company”N.I.

F517.  For the purposes of any provision in Parts II to VII, a person is connected with a company if—

(a)he is a director or shadow director of the company or an associate of such a director or shadow director, or

(b)he is an associate of the company.

Annotations:

F51mod. by SR 2004/307

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

“Member of a company”N.I.

8 .F52  For the purposes of any provision in Parts II to VII, a person who is not a member of a company but to whom shares in the company have been transferred, or transmitted by operation of law, is to be regarded as a member of the company, and references to a member or members are to be read accordingly.

Annotations:

F52mod. by SR 2004/307

[F53Parts 7A to 10]N.I.

InterpretationN.I.

9 .F54—(1) In [F55Parts 7A to 10]

  • “bankrupt” means an individual who has been adjudged bankrupt and, in relation to a bankruptcy order, it means the individual adjudged bankrupt by that order;

  • “bankruptcy debt”, in relation to a bankrupt, means (subject to Article 2(3)) any of the following—

    (a)

    any debt or liability to which he is subject at the commencement of the bankruptcy,

    (b)

    any debt or liability to which he may become subject after the commencement of the bankruptcy (including after his discharge from bankruptcy) by reason of any obligation incurred before the commencement of the bankruptcy, and

    (c)

    any interest provable as mentioned in Article 295(2);

    and“debt” shall be construed accordingly;

  • “bankruptcy order” means an order adjudging an individual bankrupt;

  • “bankruptcy petition” means a petition to the High Court for a bankruptcy order;

  • “creditor”

    (a)

    in relation to a bankrupt, means a person to whom any of the bankruptcy debts is owed, and

    (b)

    in relation to an individual to whom a bankruptcy petition relates, means a person who would be a creditor in the bankruptcy if a bankruptcy order were made on that petition;

  • “creditors generally” includes all creditors who may assent to, or take the benefit of, a deed of arrangement;

  • “creditor's petition” means a bankruptcy petition under Article 238(1)(a);

  • “the debtor”

    (za)

    [F56in relation to a debt relief order or an application for such an order, has the same meaning as in Part 7A,]

    (a)

    in relation to a proposal for the purposes of Part VIII, means the individual making or intending to make that proposal, and

    (b)

    in relation to a bankruptcy petition, means the individual to whom the petition relates;

  • “debtor's petition” means a bankruptcy petition presented by the debtor himself under Article 238(1)(b);

  • [F57debt relief order” means an order made by the official receiver under Part 7A;]

  • “deed of arrangement”, except in Article 343(1)(c), means a deed of arrangement as defined in Article 209;

  • “dwelling house” includes any building or part of a building which is occupied as a dwelling and any yard, garden, garage or outhouse belonging to the dwelling house and occupied with it;

  • “family” in relation to a bankrupt, means the persons (if any) who are living with him and are dependent on him;

  • [F58“insolvency administration” means the administration in bankruptcy of the insolvent estate of a deceased person;

  • “insolvency administration order” means an order for the administration in bankruptcy of the insolvent estate of a deceased debtor (being an individual at the date of his death);

  • “insolvency administration petition” means a petition for an insolvency administration order;]

  • “interim order” means an order under Article 226;

  • [F58“the Judgments Enforcement Order” means the Judgments Enforcement (Northern Ireland) Order 1981;

  • “the Land Registration Act” means the Land Registration Act (Northern Ireland) 1970;]

  • “nominee” means a person acting as defined in Article 227(2);

  • “the registrar” means the registrar appointed under Article 210(1);

  • [F58“the Registration of Deeds Act” means the Registration of Deeds Act (Northern Ireland) 1970; and

    “the Rules” means the Insolvency Rules (Northern Ireland) 1999;]

  • “the trustee” in relation to a bankruptcy and the bankrupt, means the trustee of the bankrupt's estate;

  • “voluntary arrangement” means an arrangement as defined in Article 227(1).

(2) References in [F59Parts 7A to 10] to a person's affairs include his business, if any.

(3) In Chapter I of Part VIII references to the registrar include an officer of the Department appointed under Article 210(2) to act as his deputy.

“Security”, etc.N.I.

10 .F60—(1) Subject to paragraphs (2) and (3) and any provision of the rules requiring a creditor to give up his security for the purposes of proving a debt, a debt is secured for the purposes of [F61Parts 7A to 10] to the extent that the person to whom the debt is owed holds any security for the debt (whether a mortgage, charge, lien or other security) over any property of the person by whom the debt is owed.

(2) Where a statement such as is mentioned in Article 243(1)(a) has been made by a secured creditor for the purposes of any bankruptcy petition and a bankruptcy order is subsequently made on that petition, the creditor is deemed for the purposes of Parts VIII to X to have given up the security specified in the statement.

(3) In paragraph (1) the reference to a security does not include a lien on books, papers or other records, except to the extent that they consist of documents which give a title to property and are held as such.

Annotations:

F60mod. by SR 2004/307

“Bankrupt's estate”N.I.

11 .F62—(1) Subject to the following provisions of this Article, a bankrupt's estate for the purposes of any of Parts VIII to X comprises—

(a)all property belonging to or vested in the bankrupt at the commencement of the bankruptcy, and

(b)any property which by virtue of any of the provisions of Part IX of this Order or Article 88(3) or 90(3) of the Judgments Enforcement (Northern Ireland) Order 1981F63 (effect of bankruptcy or winding up on enforcement of judgments and proceeds of such enforcement) is comprised in that estate or is treated as falling within sub‐paragraph (a).

(2) Subject to Article 281 (certain excluded property reclaimable by trustee), paragraph (1) does not apply to—

(a)such tools, books, vehicles and other items of equipment as are necessary to the bankrupt for use personally by him in his employment, business or vocation;

(b)such clothing, bedding, furniture, household equipment and provisions as are necessary for satisfying the basic domestic needs of the bankrupt and his family.

(3) Paragraph (1) does not apply to property held by the bankrupt on trust for any other person.

(4) References in any of Parts VIII to X to property, in relation to a bankrupt, include references to any power exercisable by him over or in respect of property except in so far as the power is exercisable over or in respect of property not for the time being comprised in the bankrupt's estate and—

(a)is so exercisable at a time after either the official receiver has had his release in respect of that estate under Article 272(2) or a meeting summoned by the trustee of that estate under Article 304 has been held, or

(b)cannot be so exercised for the benefit of the bankrupt;

and a power exercisable over or in respect of property is deemed for the purposes of any of Parts VIII to X to vest in the person entitled to exercise it at the time of the transaction or event by virtue of which it is exercisable by that person (whether or not it becomes so exercisable at that time).

(5) For the purposes of any such provision in Parts VIII to X, property comprised in a bankrupt's estate is so comprised subject to the rights of any person other than the bankrupt (whether as a secured creditor of the bankrupt or otherwise) in relation thereto, but disregarding—

(a)any rights in relation to which a statement such as is required by Article 243(1)(a) was made in the petition on which the bankrupt was adjudged bankrupt, and

(b)any rights which have been otherwise given up in accordance with the rules.

[F64(5A) This Article has effect subject to Article 256A.]

(6) This Article has effect subject to the provisions of any statutory provision not contained in this Order under which any property is to be excluded from a bankrupt's estate.

Interpretation for this Order F65. . . N.I.

“Receiver or manager”N.I.

12.  In this Order F66. . . —

(a)any reference to a receiver or manager of the property of a company, or to a receiver of it, includes a receiver or manager, or (as the case may be) a receiver of part only of that property and a receiver only of the income arising from the property or from part of it; and

(b)any reference to the appointment of a receiver or manager under powers contained in an instrument includes an appointment made under powers which, by virtue of any statutory provision are implied in and have effect as if contained in an instrument.

“Contributory”N.I.

13.—(1 )F67 In this Order F68. . . “contributory” means every person liable to contribute to the assets of a company in the event of its being wound up, and for the purposes of all proceedings for determining, and all proceedings prior to the final determination of, the persons who are to be deemed contributories, includes any person alleged to be a contributory.

(2 )F67 The reference in paragraph (1) to persons liable to contribute to the assets does not include a person so liable by virtue of a declaration by the High Court under Article 177 (imputed responsibility for company's fraudulent trading) or Article 178 (wrongful trading).

(3 )F67 A reference in a company's articles to a contributory does not (unless the context requires) include a person who is a contributory only by virtue of Article 63 (liability of past directors and shareholders).

(4) F69. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

PARTS II TO VIIN.I.COMPANY INSOLVENCY; COMPANIES WINDING UP

F70PART IIN.I.COMPANY VOLUNTARY ARRANGEMENTS

Annotations:

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C22Pts. II, III and IV applied (with modifications) by 1986 c. 53, Sch. 15A, Pt. III (as inserted (1.12.1997) by 1997 c. 32, s. 39(2), Sch. 6); S.I. 1997/2668, art. 2, Sch. Pt. I(i)

C24Pt. II (arts. 14-20B) applied (with modifications) (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 113(6)-(9), 134, 263(1) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch.

The proposalN.I.

Those who may propose an arrangementN.I.

14.—(1 )F71 The directors of a company[F72(other than one which is in administration or being wound up)] may make a proposal under this Part to the company and to its creditors for a composition in satisfaction of its debts or a scheme of arrangement of its affairs (referred to, in either case, as a“voluntary arrangement”).

(2) A proposal under this Part is one which provides for some person (“the nominee”) to act in relation to the voluntary arrangement either as trustee or otherwise for the purpose of supervising its implementation; and the nominee must be a person who is qualified to act as an insolvency practitioner[F73 or authorised to act as nominee, in relation to the voluntary arrangement].

(3 )F71 Such a proposal may also be made—

[F74(a)where the company is in administration, by the administrator,]

(b)where the company is being wound up, by the liquidator.

[F75(4) In this Part “company” means—

[F76(a)a company registered under the Companies Act 2006 in Northern Ireland;]

(b)a company incorporated in an EEA State other than the United Kingdom; or

(c)a company not incorporated in an EEA State but having its centre of main interests in a member State other than Denmark.

(5) In paragraph (4) in relation to a company, “centre of main interests” has the same meaning as in the EC Regulation and, in the absence of proof to the contrary, is presumed to be the place of its registered office (within the meaning of that Regulation).

(6) If a company incorporated outside Northern Ireland has a principal place of business in England and Wales or Scotland (or both in England and Wales and in Scotland), no proposal under this Part shall be made in relation to it unless it also has a principal place of business in Northern Ireland.]

[F77MoratoriumN.I.

14A.(1 )F78 Where the directors of an eligible company intend to make a proposal for a voluntary arrangement, they may take steps to obtain a moratorium for the company.

(2) The provisions of Schedule A1 have effect with respect to—

(a)companies eligible for a moratorium under this Article,

(b)the procedure for obtaining such a moratorium,

(c)the effects of such a moratorium, and

(d)the procedure applicable (in place of Articles 15 to 19 and 20) in relation to the approval and implementation of a voluntary arrangement where such a moratorium is or has been in force.]

Annotations:

F78mod. by SR 2004/307

Procedure where nominee is not the liquidator or administratorN.I.

15.—(1 )F79 This Article applies where the nominee under Article 14 is not the liquidator or administrator of the company[F80 and the directors do not propose to take steps to obtain a moratorium under Article 14A for the company].

(2) The nominee shall, within 28 days (or such longer period as the High Court may allow) after he is given notice of the proposal for a voluntary arrangement, submit a report to the Court stating—

(a)[F81whether, in his opinion, the proposed voluntary arrangement has a reasonable prospect of being approved and implemented,]

[F81(aa)]F79whether, in his opinion, meetings of the company and of its creditors should be summoned to consider the proposal, and

(b )F79if in his opinion such meetings should be summoned, the date on which, and time and place at which, he proposes the meetings should be held.

(3 )F79 For the purposes of enabling the nominee to prepare his report, the person intending to make the proposal shall submit to the nominee—

(a)a document setting out the terms of the proposed voluntary arrangement, and

(b)a statement of the company's affairs containing—

(i)such particulars of its creditors and of its debts and other liabilities and of its assets as may be prescribed, and

(ii)such other information as may be prescribed.

[F82(4) The High Court may—

(a )F79on an application made by the person intending to make the proposal, in a case where the nominee has failed to submit the report required by this Article or has died, or

(b )F79on an application made by that person or the nominee, in a case where it is impracticable or inappropriate for the nominee to continue to act as such,

direct that the nominee be replaced as such by another person qualified to act as an insolvency practitioner, or authorised to act as nominee, in relation to the voluntary arrangement.]

Annotations:

F79mod. by SR 2004/307

Summoning of meetingsN.I.

16.—(1 )F83 Where the nominee under Article 14 is not the liquidator or administrator, and it has been reported to the High Court that such meetings as are mentioned in Article 15(2) should be summoned, the person making the report shall (unless the Court otherwise directs) summon those meetings for the time, date and place proposed in the report.

(2 )F83 Where the nominee is the liquidator or administrator, he shall summon meetings of the company and of its creditors to consider the proposal for such a time, date and place as he thinks fit.

(3) The persons to be summoned to a creditors' meeting under this Article are every creditor of the company of whose claim and address the person summoning the meeting is aware.

Annotations:

F83mod. by SR 2004/307

Consideration and implementation of proposalN.I.

Decisions of meetingsN.I.

17.—(1 )F84 The meetings summoned under Article 16 shall decide whether to approve the proposed voluntary arrangement (with or without modifications).

(2) The modifications may include one conferring the functions proposed to be conferred on the nominee on another person qualified to act as an insolvency practitioner[F85 or authorised to act as nominee, in relation to the voluntary arrangement]; but shall not include any modification by virtue of which the proposal ceases to be a proposal such as is mentioned in Article 14.

(3) A meeting so summoned shall not approve any proposal or modification which affects the right of a secured creditor of the company to enforce his security, except with the concurrence of the creditor concerned.

(4) A meeting so summoned shall not, except with the concurrence of the preferential creditor concerned, approve any proposal or modification under which—

(a)any preferential debt of the company is to be paid otherwise than in priority to such of its debts as are not preferential debts, or

(b)a preferential creditor of the company is to be paid an amount in respect of a preferential debt that bears to that debt a smaller proportion than is borne to another preferential debt by the amount that is to be paid in respect of that other debt.

(5 )F84 Subject to paragraphs (3) and (4), each of the meetings shall be conducted in accordance with the rules.

F84(6 )F84 After the conclusion of either meeting in accordance with the rules, the chairman of the meeting shall report the result of the meeting to the High Court, and, immediately after reporting to the Court, shall give notice of the result of the meeting to such persons as may be prescribed.

(7) In this Article“preferential debts” has the meaning given by Article 346; and“preferential creditor” is to be construed accordingly.

Annotations:

F84mod. by SR 2004/307

[F86Approval of arrangementN.I.

17A.(1) This Article applies to a decision, under Article 17, with respect to the approval of a proposed voluntary arrangement.

(2 )F87 The decision has effect if, in accordance with the rules—

(a)it has been taken by both meetings summoned under Article 16, or

(b)(subject to any order made under paragraph (4)) it has been taken by the creditors' meeting summoned under that Article.

(3 )F87 If the decision taken by the creditors' meeting differs from that taken by the company meeting, a member of the company may apply to the High Court.

(4 )F87 An application under paragraph (3) shall not be made after the end of the period of 28 days beginning with—

(a)the day on which the decision was taken by the creditors' meeting, or

(b)where the decision of the company meeting was taken on a later day, that day.

(5 )F87 Where a member of a regulated company, within the meaning given by paragraph 54 of Schedule A1, applies to the High Court under paragraph (3), the [F88Financial Conduct Authority and, where the regulated company is a PRA-authorised person (within the meaning of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000), the Prudential Regulation Authority] is entitled to be heard on the application.

(6 )F87 On an application under paragraph (3), the High Court may—

(a)order the decision of the company meeting to have effect instead of the decision of the creditors' meeting, or

(b)make such other order as it thinks fit.]

Effect of approvalN.I.

18.[F89(1) This Article applies where a decision approving a voluntary arrangement has effect under Article 17A.]

(2) TheF90. . . voluntary arrangement—

(a)takes effect as if made by the company at the creditors' meeting, and

[F89(b)binds every person who in accordance with the rules—

(i)was entitled to vote at that meeting (whether or not he was present or represented at it), or

(ii)would have been so entitled if he had had notice of it,]

[F89as if he were a party to the voluntary arrangement.]

[F89(2A) If—

(a)when the arrangement ceases to have effect any amount payable under the arrangement to a person bound by virtue of paragraph (2)(b)(ii) has not been paid, and

(b)the arrangement did not come to an end prematurely,

the company shall at that time become liable to pay to that person the amount payable under the arrangement.]

(3) Subject to paragraph (4), if the company is being wound up or[F91is in administration], the High Court may do one or both of the following, namely—

(a)by order stay all proceedings in the winding up or[F92provide for the appointment of the administrator to cease to have effect];

(b)give such directions with respect to the conduct of the winding up or the administration as it thinks appropriate for facilitating the implementation of theF90. . . voluntary arrangement.

(4) The High Court shall not make an order under paragraph (3)(a)—

(a )F93at any time before the expiration of 28 days from the day on which each of the reports required by Article 17(6) has been made to the Court, or

(b)at any time when an application under Article 19 or an appeal in respect of such an application is pending, or at any time in the period within which such an appeal may be brought.

Annotations:

F93mod. by SR 2004/307

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

Challenge of decisionsN.I.

19.—(1) Subject to this Article, an application to the High Court may be made, by any of the persons specified in paragraph (2), on one or both of the following grounds, namely—

(a)that a voluntary arrangement[F94 which has effect under Article 17A] unfairly prejudices the interests of a creditor, member or contributory of the company;

(b )F95that there has been some material irregularity at or in relation to either of the meetings.

(2) The persons who may apply under this Article are—

(a )F95a person entitled, in accordance with the rules, to vote at either of the meetings;

[F96(aa)a person who would have been entitled, in accordance with the rules, to vote at the creditors' meeting if he had had notice of it;]

F95(b )F95the nominee or any person who has replaced him under Article 15(4) or 17(2); and

(c )F95if the company is being wound up or[F97is in administration], the liquidator or administrator.

(3) An application under this Article shall not be made

[F96(a)]F95after the expiration of 28 days from the day on which each of the reports required by Article 17(6) has been made to the High Court[F96 or]

[F96(b)in the case of a person who was not given notice of the creditors' meeting, after the end of the period of 28 days beginning with the day on which he became aware that the meeting had taken place,]

[F96but (subject to that) an application made by a person within paragraph (2)(aa) on the ground that the voluntary arrangement prejudices his interests may be made after the arrangement has ceased to have effect, unless it came to an end prematurely.]

.

(4 )F95 Where on such an application the High Court is satisfied as to either of the grounds mentioned in paragraph (1), it may do one or both of the following, namely—

(a)revoke or suspend[F94 any decision approving the voluntary arrangement which has effect under Article 17A] or, in a case falling within paragraph (1)(b), any[F94 decision taken by the meeting in question which has effect under that Article];

(b)give a direction to any person for the summoning of further meetings to consider any revised proposal the person who made the original proposal may make or, in a case falling within paragraph (1)(b), a further company or (as the case may be) creditors' meeting to reconsider the original proposal.

(5 )F95 Where at any time after giving a direction under paragraph (4)(b) for the summoning of meetings to consider a revised proposal the High Court is satisfied that the person who made the original proposal does not intend to submit a revised proposal, the Court shall revoke the direction and revoke or suspend any[F94 decision approving the voluntary arrangement which has effect under Article 17A].

(6) In a case where the High Court, on an application under this Article with respect to any meeting—

(a)gives a direction under paragraph (4)(b), or

(b)revokes or suspends an approval under paragraph (4)(a) or (5),

the Court may give such supplemental directions as it thinks fit and, in particular, directions with respect to things done[F94 under the voluntary arrangement since it took effect].

(7) Except in pursuance of the preceding provisions of this Article,[F94 a decision taken] at a meeting summoned under Article 16 is not invalidated by any irregularity at or in relation to the meeting.

Annotations:

F95mod. by SR 2004/307

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

[F98False representations, etc.N.I.

19A.(1 )F99 If, for the purpose of obtaining the approval of the members or creditors of a company to a proposal for a voluntary arrangement, a person who is an officer of the company—

(a)makes any false representation, or

(b)fraudulently does, or omits to do, anything,

he shall be guilty of an offence.

(2) Paragraph (1) applies even if the proposal is not approved.

(3) For purposes of this Article "officer" includes a shadow director.]

Annotations:

F99mod. by SR 2004/307

Implementation of proposalN.I.

20.—(1) This Article applies where a voluntary arrangement[F100 has effect under Article 17A].

(2) The person who is for the time being carrying out in relation to the voluntary arrangement the functions conferred—

[F100(a )F101on the nominee by virtue of the approval given at one or both of the meetings summoned under Article 16]

(b)by virtue of Article 15(4) or 17(2) on a person other than the nominee,

shall be known as the supervisor of the voluntary arrangement.

(3) If any of the company's creditors or any other person is dissatisfied by any act, omission or decision of the supervisor, he may apply to the High Court; and on the application the Court may—

(a)confirm, reverse or modify any act or decision of the supervisor,

(b)give him directions, or

(c)make such other order as it thinks fit.

(4) The supervisor—

(a)may apply to the High Court for directions in relation to any particular matter arising under the voluntary arrangement, and

(b)is included among the persons who may apply to the High Court for the winding up of the company or for an administration order to be made in relation to it.

(5) The High Court may, whenever—

(a)it is expedient to appoint a person to carry out the functions of the supervisor, and

(b)it is inexpedient, difficult or impracticable for an appointment to be made without the assistance of the Court,

make an order appointing a person who is qualified to act as an insolvency practitioner[F100 or authorised to act as supervisor, in relation to the voluntary arrangement], either in substitution for the existing supervisor or to fill a vacancy.

(6) The power conferred by paragraph (5) is exercisable so as to increase the number of persons exercising the functions of supervisor or, where there is more than one person exercising those functions, so as to replace one or more of those persons.

Annotations:

F101mod. by SR 2004/307

[F102Prosecution of delinquent officers of companyN.I.

20A.(1) This Article applies where a moratorium under Article 14A has been obtained for a company or the approval of a voluntary arrangement in relation to a company has taken effect under Article 17A or paragraph 46 of Schedule A1.

(2) If it appears to the nominee or supervisor that any past or present officer of the company has been guilty of any offence in connection with the moratorium or, as the case may be, voluntary arrangement for which he is criminally liable, the nominee or supervisor shall forthwith—

(a)report the matter to the Department, and

(b)provide the Department with such information and give the Department such access to and facilities for inspecting and taking copies of documents (being information or documents in the possession or under the control of the nominee or supervisor and relating to the matter in question) as the Department requires.

(3) Where a report is made to the Department under paragraph (2), the Department may, for the purpose of investigating the matter reported to it and such other matters relating to the affairs of the company as appear to it to require investigation, exercise any of the powers which are exercisable by inspectors appointed under [F103section 431 or 432 of the Companies Act 1985] to investigate a company's affairs.

(4) For the purpose of such an investigation any obligation imposed on a person by any provision of [F104the Companies Acts] to produce documents or give information to, or otherwise to assist, inspectors so appointed is to be regarded as an obligation similarly to assist the Department in its investigation.

(5) An answer given by a person to a question put to him in exercise of the powers conferred by paragraph (3) may be used in evidence against him.

(6) However, in criminal proceedings in which that person is charged with an offence to which this paragraph applies—

(a)no evidence relating to the answer may be adduced, and

(b)no question relating to it may be asked,

by or on behalf of the prosecution, unless evidence relating to it is adduced, or a question relating to it is asked, in the proceedings by or on behalf of that person.

(7) Paragraph (6) applies to any offence other than an offence under Article 7 or 10 of the Perjury (Northern Ireland) Order 1979 (NI 19) (false statements made on oath otherwise than in judicial proceedings or made otherwise than on oath).

(8) Where the Director of Public Prosecutions for Northern Ireland institutes criminal proceedings following any report under paragraph (2), the nominee or supervisor, and every officer and agent of the company past and present (other than the defendant), shall give the Director all assistance in connection with the prosecution which he is reasonably able to give.

For this purpose "agent" includes any banker or solicitor of the company and any person employed by the company as auditor, whether that person is or is not an officer of the company.

(9) The High Court may, on the application of the Director of Public Prosecutions for Northern Ireland, direct any person referred to in paragraph (8) to comply with that paragraph if he has failed to do so.]

Arrangements coming to an end prematurelyN.I.

20B.  For the purposes of this Part, a voluntary arrangement the approval of which has taken effect under Article 17A or paragraph 46 of Schedule A1 comes to an end prematurely if, when it ceases to have effect, it has not been fully implemented in respect of all persons bound by the arrangement by virtue of Article 18(2)(b)(i) or, as the case may be, paragraph 47(2)(b)(i) of Schedule A1.

[F105 PART III N.I.ADMINISTRATION

AdministrationN.I.

21.  Schedule B1 (which makes provision about the administration of companies) shall have effect.]

PART IIIN.I.ADMINISTRATION ORDERS

Making, etc., of administration orderN.I.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AdministratorsN.I.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Ascertainment and investigation of company's affairsN.I.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Administrator's proposalsN.I.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

MiscellaneousN.I.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

PART IVN.I.RECEIVERSHIPRECEIVERS AND MANAGERS

Annotations:

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C31Pts. II, III and IV applied (with modifications) by 1986 c. 53, Sch. 15A, Pt. III (as inserted (1.12.1997) by 1997 c. 32, s. 39(2), Sch. 6); S.I. 1997/2668, art. 2, Sch. Pt. I(i)

General ProvisionsN.I.

Meaning of “company”N.I.

39A.  In this Part “company” means a company registered under the Companies Act 2006 in Northern Ireland.

Disqualification of body corporate from acting as receiverN.I.

40.  A body corporate is not qualified for appointment as receiver of the property of a company, and any body corporate which acts as such a receiver shall be guilty of an offence.

[F131Disqualification of bankruptN.I.

41.(1) A person shall be guilty of an offence if he acts as receiver or manager of the property of a company on behalf of debenture holders while—

(a)he is an undischarged bankrupt, or

(b)a bankruptcy restrictions order is in force in respect of him.

(2) This Article does not apply to a receiver or manager acting under an appointment made by the High Court.]

Power of High Court to appoint official receiverN.I.

42.  Where application is made to the High Court to appoint a receiver on behalf of the debenture holders or other creditors of a company which is being wound up by the Court, the official receiver may be so appointed.

Receivers and managers appointed out of courtN.I.

Time from which appointment is effectiveN.I.

43.—(1) The appointment of a person as a receiver or manager of a company's property under powers contained in an instrument—

(a)is of no effect unless it is accepted by that person before the end of the business day next following that on which the instrument of appointment is received by him or on his behalf, and

(b)subject to this, is deemed to be made at the time at which the instrument of appointment is so received.

(2) This Article applies to the appointment of 2 or more persons as joint receivers or managers of a company's property under powers contained in an instrument, subject to such modifications as may be prescribed.

Liability for invalid appointmentN.I.

44.  Where the appointment of a person as the receiver or manager of a company's property under powers contained in an instrument is discovered to be invalid (whether by virtue of the invalidity of the instrument or otherwise), the High Court may order the person by whom or on whose behalf the appointment was made to indemnify the person appointed against any liability which arises solely by reason of the invalidity of the appointment.

Application to High Court for directionsN.I.

45.—(1) A receiver or manager of the property of a company appointed under powers contained in an instrument or the persons by whom or on whose behalf a receiver or manager has been so appointed, may apply to the High Court for directions in relation to any particular matter arising in connection with the performance of the functions of the receiver or manager.

(2) On such an application, the High Court may give such directions, or may make such order declaring the rights of persons before the Court or otherwise, as it thinks just.

Power of High Court to fix remunerationN.I.

46.—(1) The High Court may, on an application made by the liquidator of a company, by order fix the amount to be paid by way of remuneration to a person who, under powers contained in an instrument, has been appointed receiver or manager of the company's property.

(2) The High Court's power under paragraph (1), where no previous order has been made with respect thereto under that paragraph—

(a)extends to fixing the remuneration for any period before the making of the order or the application for it,

(b)is exercisable notwithstanding that the receiver or manager has died or ceased to act before the making of the order or the application, and

(c)subject to paragraph (3), where the receiver or manager has been paid or has retained for his remuneration for any period before the making of the order any amount in excess of that so fixed for that period, extends to requiring him or his personal representatives to account for the excess or such part of it as may be specified in the order.

(3) The power conferred by sub‐paragraph (2)(c) shall not be exercised as respects any period before the making of the application for the order under this Article, unless in the opinion of the High Court there are special circumstances making it proper for the power to be exercised.

(4) The High Court may on an application made either by the liquidator or by the receiver or manager, vary or amend an order made under paragraph (1).

Liability for contracts, etc.N.I.

47.—(1) A receiver or manager appointed under powers contained in an instrument (other than an administrative receiver) is, to the same extent as if he had been appointed by order of the High Court—

(a)personally liable on any contract entered into by him in the performance of his functions (except in so far as the contract otherwise provides) and on any contract of employment adopted by him in the performance of those functions, and

(b)entitled in respect of that liability to indemnity out of the assets.

(2) For the purposes of paragraph (1)(a), the receiver or manager is not to be taken to have adopted a contract of employment by reason of anything done or omitted to be done within 14 days from his appointment.

(3) Paragraph (1) does not limit any right to indemnity which the receiver or manager would have apart from it, nor limit his liability on contracts entered into without authority, nor confer any right to indemnity in respect of that liability.

(4) Where at any time a receiver or manager so appointed vacates office—

(a)his remuneration and any expenses properly incurred by him, and

(b)any indemnity to which he is entitled out of the assets of the company,

shall be charged on and paid out of any property of the company which is in his custody or under his control at that time in priority to any charge or other security held by the person by or on whose behalf he was appointed.

Receivership accounts to be delivered to registrarN.I.

48.—(1) Except in the case of an administrative receiver, every receiver or manager of a company's property who has been appointed under powers contained in an instrument shall deliver to the registrar for registration the requisite accounts of his receipts and payments.

(2) The accounts shall be delivered within one month (or such longer period as the registrar may allow) after the expiration of 12 months from the date of his appointment and of every subsequent period of 6 months, and also within one month after he ceases to act as receiver or manager.

(3) The requisite accounts shall be an abstract in the prescribed form showing—

(a)receipts and payments during the relevant period of 12 or 6 months, or

(b)where the receiver or manager ceases to act, receipts and payments during the period from the end of the period of 12 or 6 months to which the last preceding abstract related (or, if no preceding abstract has been delivered under this Article, from the date of his appointment) up to the date of his so ceasing, and the aggregate amount of receipts and payments during all preceding periods since his appointment.

(4) A receiver or manager who contravenes this Article shall be guilty of an offence and, for continued contravention, shall be guilty of a continuing offence.

Provisions applicable to every receivershipN.I.

Notification that receiver or manager appointedN.I.

49.—(1) When a receiver or manager of the property of a company has been appointed, every invoice, order for goods or business letter issued by or on behalf of the company or the receiver or manager or the liquidator of the company, being a document on or in which the company's name appears, shall contain a statement that a receiver or manager has been appointed.

(2) If this Article is contravened, the company and any of the following persons, who knowingly and wilfully authorises or permits the default, namely, any officer of the company, any liquidator of the company and any receiver or manager, shall be guilty of an offence.

Payment of debts out of assets subject to floating chargeN.I.

50 .F132—(1) This Article applies, in the case of a company, where a receiver is appointed on behalf of the holders of any debentures of the company secured by a charge which, as created, was a floating charge.

(2) If the company is not at the time in course of being wound up, its preferential debts (within the meaning of Article 346) shall be paid out of the assets coming to the hands of the receiver in priority to any claims for principal or interest in respect of the debentures.

(3) Payments made under this Article shall be recouped, as far as may be, out of the assets of the company available for payment of general creditors.

Annotations:

Enforcement of duty to make returnsN.I.

51.—(1) If a receiver or manager of a company's property—

(a)having made default in filing, delivering or making any return, account or other document, or in giving any notice, which a receiver or manager is by law required to file, deliver, make or give, fails to make good the default within 14 days from the service on him of a notice requiring him to do so, or

(b)having been appointed under powers contained in an instrument, has, after being required at any time by the liquidator of the company to do so, failed to render proper accounts of his receipts and payments and to vouch them and pay over to the liquidator the amount properly payable to him,

the High Court may, on an application made for the purpose, make an order directing the receiver or manager (as the case may be) to make good the default within such time as may be specified in the order.

(2) In the case of the default mentioned in paragraph (1)(a), application to the High Court may be made by any member or creditor of the company or by the registrar; and in the case of the default mentioned in paragraph (1)(b), the application shall be made by the liquidator.

(3) An order of the High Court under paragraph (1), may provide that all costs of and incidental to an application under that paragraph shall be borne by the receiver or manager, as the case may be.

(4) Nothing in this Article prejudices the operation of any statutory provision imposing penalties on receivers in respect of any such default as is mentioned in paragraph (1).

Administrative receivers: generalN.I.

General powersN.I.

52 .F133—(1) The powers conferred on the administrative receiver of a company by the debentures by virtue of which he was appointed are deemed to include (except in so far as they are inconsistent with any of the provisions of those debentures) the powers specified in Schedule 1.

(2) In the application of Schedule 1 to the administrative receiver of a company—

(a)the words“he” and“him” refer to the administrative receiver, and

(b)references to the property of the company are to the property of which he is or, but for the appointment of some other person as the receiver of part of the company's property, would be the receiver or manager.

(3) A person dealing with the administrative receiver in good faith and for value is not concerned to inquire whether the receiver is acting within his powers.

Annotations:

Power to dispose of charged property, etc.N.I.

53 .F134—(1) Where, on an application by the administrative receiver, the High Court is satisfied that the disposal (with or without other assets) of any relevant property which is subject to a security would be likely to promote a more advantageous realisation of the company's assets than would otherwise be effected, the Court may by order authorise the administrative receiver to dispose of the property as if it were not subject to the security.

(2) Paragraph (1) does not apply in the case of any security held by the person by or on whose behalf the administrative receiver was appointed, or of any security to which a security so held has priority.

(3) It shall be a condition of an order under this Article that—

(a)the net proceeds of the disposal, and

(b)where those proceeds are less than such amount as may be determined by the High Court to be the net amount which would be realised on a sale of the property in the open market by a willing vendor, such sums as may be required to make good the deficiency,

shall be applied towards discharging the sums secured by the security.

(4) Where a condition imposed in pursuance of paragraph (3) relates to 2 or more securities, that condition shall require the net proceeds of the disposal and, where sub‐paragraph (b) of that paragraph applies, the sums mentioned in that sub‐paragraph to be applied towards discharging the sums secured by those securities in the order of their priorities.

(5) An office copy of an order under this Article shall, within 14 days of the making of the order, be sent by the administrative receiver to the registrar.

(6) If the administrative receiver without reasonable excuse contravenes paragraph (5), he shall be guilty of an offence and, for continued contravention, he shall be guilty of a continuing offence.

(7) In this Article“relevant property”, in relation to the administrative receiver, means the property of which he is or, but for the appointment of some other person as the receiver of part of the company's property, would be the receiver or manager.

Annotations:

Agency and liability for contractsN.I.

54 .F135—(1) The administrative receiver of a company—

(a)is deemed to be the company's agent, unless and until the company goes into liquidation;

(b)is personally liable on any contract entered into by him in the carrying out of his functions (except in so far as the contract otherwise provides) and[F136, to the extent of any qualifying liability,] on any contract of employment adopted by him in the carrying out of those functions; and

(c)is entitled in respect of that liability to an indemnity out of the assets of the company.

(2) For the purposes of paragraph (1)(b) the administrative receiver is not to be taken to have adopted a contract of employment by reason of anything done or omitted to be done within 14 days from his appointment.

[F137(2A) For the purposes of paragraph (1)(b), a liability under a contract of employment is a qualifying liability if—

(a)it is a liability to pay a sum by way of wages or salary or contribution to an occupational pension scheme,

(b)it is incurred while the administrative receiver is in office, and

(c)it is in respect of services rendered wholly or partly after the adoption of the contract.

(2B) Where a sum payable in respect of a liability which is a qualifying liability for the purposes of paragraph (1)(b) is payable in respect of services rendered partly before and partly after the adoption of the contract, liability under paragraph (1)(b) shall only extend to so much of the sum as is payable in respect of services rendered after the adoption of the contract.

(2C) For the purposes of paragraphs (2A) and (2B)—

(a)wages or salary payable in respect of a period of holiday or absence from work through sickness or other good cause are deemed to be wages or (as the case may be) salary in respect of services rendered in that period, and

(b)a sum payable in lieu of holiday is deemed to be wages or (as the case may be) salary in respect of services rendered in the period by reference to which the holiday entitlement arose.

(2D) In paragraph (2C)(a), the reference to wages or salary payable in respect of a period of holiday includes any sums which, if they had been paid, would have been treated for the purposes of the statutory provisions relating to social security as earnings in respect of that period.]

(3) This Article does not limit any right to indemnity which the administrative receiver would have apart from it, nor limit his liability on contracts entered into or adopted without authority, nor confer any right to indemnity in respect of that liability.

Vacation of officeN.I.

55 .F138—(1) An administrative receiver of a company may at any time be removed from office by order of the High Court (but not otherwise) and may resign his office by giving notice of his resignation in the prescribed manner to such persons as may be prescribed.

(2) An administrative receiver shall vacate office if he ceases to be qualified to act as an insolvency practitioner in relation to the company.

(3) Where at any time an administrative receiver vacates office—

(a)his remuneration and any expenses properly incurred by him, and

(b)any indemnity to which he is entitled out of the assets of the company,

shall be charged on and paid out of any property of the company which is in his custody or under his control at that time in priority to any security held by the person by or on whose behalf he was appointed.

(4) Where an administrative receiver vacates office otherwise than by death, he shall, within 14 days from his vacation of office, send a notice to that effect to the registrar.

(5) If an administrative receiver without reasonable excuse contravenes paragraph (4), he shall be guilty of an offenceF139 and, for continued contravention, he shall be guilty of a continuing offence.

Annotations:

F139prosp. rep. by 1990 NI 10

Administrative receivers: ascertainment and investigation of company's affairsN.I.

Information to be given by administrative receiverN.I.

56 .F140—(1) Where an administrative receiver is appointed, he shall—

(a)forthwith send to the company and publish in the prescribed manner a notice of his appointment, and

(b)within 28 days from his appointment, unless the High Court otherwise directs, send such a notice to all the creditors of the company (so far as he is aware of their addresses).

(2) This Article and Article 57 do not apply in relation to the appointment of an administrative receiver to act—

(a)with an existing administrative receiver, or

(b)in place of an administrative receiver dying or ceasing to act,

except that, where they apply to an administrative receiver who dies or ceases to act before they have been fully complied with, the references in this Article and Article 57 to the administrative receiver include (subject to paragraph (3)) his successor and any continuing administrative receiver.

(3) If the company is being wound up, this Article and Article 57 apply notwithstanding that the administrative receiver and the liquidator are the same person, but with any necessary modifications arising from that fact.

(4) If the administrative receiver without reasonable excuse contravenes this Article, he shall be guilty of an offence and, for continued contravention, he shall be guilty of a continuing offence.

Annotations:

Statement of affairs to be submittedN.I.

57 .F141—(1) Where an administrative receiver is appointed, he shall forthwith require some or all of the persons mentioned in paragraph (3) to make out and submit to him a statement in the prescribed form as to the affairs of the company.

(2) A statement submitted under this Article shall be verified by affidavit by the persons required to submit it and shall show—

(a)particulars of the company's assets, debts and liabilities;

(b)the names and addresses of its creditors;

(c)the securities held by them respectively;

(d)the dates when the securities were respectively given; and

(e)such further or other information as may be prescribed.

(3) The persons referred to in paragraph (1) are—

(a)those who are or have been officers of the company;

(b)those who have taken part in the company's formation at any time within one year before the date of the appointment of the administrative receiver;

(c)those who are in the company's employment, or have been in its employment within that year, and are in the administrative receiver's opinion capable of giving the information required;

(d)those who are or have been within that year officers of or in the employment of a company which is, or within that year was, an officer of the company;

and in this paragraph“employment” includes employment under a contract for services.

(4) Where any persons are required under this Article to submit a statement of affairs to the administrative receiver, they shall do so (subject to paragraph (5)) before the expiration of 21 days from the day on which the prescribed notice of the requirement is given to them by the administrative receiver.

(5) The administrative receiver, if he thinks fit, may—

(a)at any time release a person from an obligation imposed on him under paragraph (1) or (2), or

(b)either when giving notice under paragraph (4) or subsequently, extend the period so mentioned;

and where the administrative receiver has refused to exercise a power conferred by this paragraph, the High Court, if it thinks fit, may exercise it.

(6) If a person without reasonable excuse contravenes any obligation imposed under this Article, he shall be guilty of an offence and, for continued contravention, he shall be guilty of a continuing offence.

Annotations:

Report by administrative receiverN.I.

58 .F142—(1) Where an administrative receiver is appointed, he shall, within 3 months (or such longer period as the High Court may allow) from his appointment, send to the registrar, to any trustees for secured creditors of the company and (so far as he is aware of their addresses) to all such creditors a report as to the following matters, namely—

(a)the events leading up to his appointment, so far as he is aware of them;

(b)the disposal or proposed disposal by him of any property of the company and the carrying on or proposed carrying on by him of any business of the company;

(c)the amounts of principal and interest payable to the debenture holders by whom or on whose behalf he was appointed and the amounts payable to preferential creditors; and

(d)the amount (if any) likely to be available for the payment of other creditors.

(2) The administrative receiver shall also, within 3 months (or such longer period as the High Court may allow) from his appointment, either—

(a)send a copy of the report (so far as he is aware of their addresses) to all unsecured creditors of the company; or

(b)publish in the prescribed manner a notice stating an address to which unsecured creditors of the company should write for copies of the report to be sent to them free of charge,

and (in either case), unless the Court otherwise directs, lay a copy of the report before a meeting of the company's unsecured creditors summoned for the purpose on not less than 14 days' notice.

(3) The High Court shall not give a direction under paragraph (2) unless—

(a)the report states the intention of the administrative receiver to apply for the direction, and

(b)a copy of the report is sent to the persons mentioned in sub‐paragraph (a) of that paragraph, or a notice is published as mentioned in sub‐paragraph (b) of that paragraph, not less than 14 days before the hearing of the application.

(4) Where the company has gone or goes into liquidation, the administrative receiver—

(a)shall, within 7 days from his compliance with paragraph (1) or, if later, the nomination or appointment of the liquidator, send a copy of the report to the liquidator, and

(b)where he does so within the time limited for compliance with paragraph (2), is not required to comply with that paragraph.

(5) A report under this Article shall include a summary of the statement of affairs made out and submitted to the administrative receiver under Article 57 and of his comments (if any) upon it.

(6) Nothing in this Article is to be taken as requiring any such report to include any information the disclosure of which would seriously prejudice the carrying out by the administrative receiver of his functions.

(7) Article 56(2) applies for the purposes of this Article also.

(8) If the administrative receiver without reasonable excuse contravenes this Article, he shall be guilty of an offence and, for continued contravention, he shall be guilty of a continuing offence.

Annotations:

Committee of creditorsN.I.

59 .F143—(1) Where a meeting of creditors is summoned under Article 58, the meeting may, if it thinks fit, establish a committee (“the creditors' committee”) to exercise the functions conferred on it by or under this Order.

(2) If such a committee is established, the committee may, on giving not less than 7 days' notice, require the administrative receiver to attend before it at any reasonable time and furnish it with such information relating to the carrying out by him of his functions as it may reasonably require.

Annotations:

[F144Prohibition of appointment of administrative receiverN.I.

Annotations:

F144Arts. 59A - 59J and preceding cross - heading inserted (27.3.2006) by Insolvency (Northern Ireland) Order 2005 (S.I. 2005/1455 (N.I. 10)), arts. 1(3), 5(1) (with art. 4); S.R. 2006/21, art. 2 (with S.R. 2006/22, arts. 2 - 7)

Floating charge holder not to appoint administrative receiverN.I.

59A.(1) The holder of a qualifying floating charge in respect of a company's property may not appoint an administrative receiver of the company.

(2) In paragraph (1) “holder of a qualifying floating charge in respect of a company's property” has the same meaning as in paragraph 15 of Schedule B1.

(3) This Article applies—

(a)to a floating charge created on or after a date appointed by the Department by order, and

(b)in spite of any provision of an agreement or instrument which purports to empower a person to appoint an administrative receiver (by whatever name).

(4) An order under paragraph (3)(a) may—

(a)make provision which applies generally or only for a specified purpose;

(b)make different provision for different purposes;

(c)make transitional provision.

(5) This Article is subject to the exceptions specified in Articles 59B to 59I.

First exception: capital marketN.I.

59B.(1) Article 59A does not prevent the appointment of an administrative receiver in pursuance of an agreement which is or forms part of a capital market arrangement if—

(a)a party incurs or, when the agreement was entered into was expected to incur, a debt of at least £50 million under the arrangement, and

(b)the arrangement involves the issue of a capital market investment.

(2) In paragraph (1)—

capital market arrangement” means an arrangement of a kind described in paragraph 1 of Schedule 1A, and

capital market investment” means an investment of a kind described in paragraph 2 or 3 of that Schedule.

Second exception: public-private partnershipN.I.

59C.(1) Article 59A does not prevent the appointment of an administrative receiver of a project company of a project which—

(a)is a public-private partnership project, and

(b)includes step-in rights.

(2) In this Article “public-private partnership project” means a project—

(a)the resources for which are provided partly by one or more public bodies and partly by one or more private persons, or

(b)which is designed wholly or mainly for the purpose of assisting a public body to discharge a function.

(3) In this Article—

step-in rights” has the meaning given by paragraph 6 of Schedule 1A, and

project company” has the meaning given by paragraph 7 of that Schedule.

Third exception: utilitiesN.I.

59D.(1) Article 59A does not prevent the appointment of an administrative receiver of a project company of a project which—

(a)is a utility project, and

(b)includes step-in rights.

(2) In this Article—

(a)utility project” means a project designed wholly or mainly for the purpose of a regulated business,

(b)regulated business” means a business of a kind listed in paragraph 10 of Schedule 1A,

(c)step-in rights” has the meaning given by paragraph 6 of that Schedule, and

(d)project company” has the meaning given by paragraph 7 of that Schedule.

Fourth exception: urban regeneration projectsN.I.

59E.(1) Article 59A does not prevent the appointment of an administrative receiver of a project company of a project which—

(a)is designed wholly or mainly to develop land which at the commencement of the project is wholly or partly in a designated disadvantaged area in Northern Ireland, and

(b)includes step-in rights.

(2) In paragraph (1) “develop” means to carry out—

(a)building operations,

(b)any operation for the removal of substances or waste from land and the levelling of the surface of the land, or

(c)engineering operations in connection with the activities mentioned in sub-paragraph (a) or (b).

(3) In this Article—

building” includes any structure or erection, and any part of a building as so defined, but does not include plant and machinery comprised in a building,

building operations” includes—

(a)

demolition of buildings,

(b)

filling in of trenches,

(c)

rebuilding,

(d)

structural alterations of, or additions to, buildings and

(e)

other operations normally undertaken by a person carrying on business as a builder,

designated disadvantaged area” means an area designated as a disadvantaged area under section 92 of the Finance Act 2001 (c. 9),

engineering operations” includes the formation and laying out of means of access to highways,

project company” has the meaning given by paragraph 7 of Schedule 1A,

step-in rights” has the meaning given by paragraph 6 of that Schedule,

substance” means any natural or artificial substance whether in solid or liquid form or in the form of a gas or vapour, and

waste” includes any waste materials, spoil, refuse or other matter deposited on land.

Fifth exception: project financeN.I.

59F.(1) Article 59A does not prevent the appointment of an administrative receiver of a project company of a project which—

(a)is a financed project, and

(b)includes step-in rights.

(2) In this Article—

(a)a project is “financed” if under an agreement relating to the project a project company incurs, or when the agreement is entered into is expected to incur, a debt of at least £50 million for the purposes of carrying out the project,

(b)project company” has the meaning given by paragraph 7 of Schedule 1A, and

(c)step-in rights” has the meaning given by paragraph 6 of that Schedule.

Sixth exception: financial marketN.I.

59G.  Article 59A does not prevent the appointment of an administrative receiver of a company by virtue of—

(a)a market charge within the meaning of Article 95 of the Companies (No. 2) (Northern Ireland) Order 1990 (NI 10),

(b)a system-charge within the meaning of the Financial Markets and Insolvency Regulations (Northern Ireland) 1996 (SR 1996 No. 252).

Seventh exception: registered housing associationN.I.

59H.  Article 59A does not prevent the appointment of an administrative receiver of a housing association which is registered as such under Chapter II of Part II of the Housing (Northern Ireland) Order 1992 (NI 15).

Eighth exception: licence companiesN.I.

59I.  Article 59A does not prevent the appointment of an administrative receiver of a licence company within the meaning of section 26 of the Transport Act 2000 (c. 38).

Articles 59A to 59I: supplementaryN.I.

59J.(1) Schedule 1A (which supplements Articles 59A to 59I) shall have effect.

(2) The Department may by order—

(a)insert into this Order provision creating an additional exception to Article 59A(1);

(b)provide for a provision of this Order which creates an exception to Article 59A(1) to cease to have effect;

(c)amend Article 59A in consequence of provision made under sub-paragraph (a) or (b);

(d)amend any of Articles 59B to 59I;

(e)amend Schedule 1A.

(3) An order under paragraph (2) may make—

(a)provision which applies generally or only for a specified purpose;

(b)different provision for different purposes;

(c)consequential or supplementary provision;

(d)transitional provision.

(4) An order under paragraph (2)—

(a)in the case of an order under paragraph (2)(e), shall be subject to negative resolution,

(b)in the case of an order under paragraph (2)(d) varying the sum specified in Article 59B(1)(a) or 59F(2)(a) (whether or not the order also makes consequential or transitional provision), shall be subject to negative resolution, and

(c)in the case of any other order under paragraph (2)(a) to (d), shall be subject to affirmative resolution.]

F145PART VN.I.WINDING UP OF COMPANIES REGISTERED UNDER [F146the Companies Act 2006]

CHAPTER IN.I.PRELIMINARY

[F147Introductory]N.I.

[F148Scheme of this PartN.I.

60.(1) This Part applies to the winding up of a company registered under the Companies Act 2006 in Northern Ireland.

(2) The winding up may be either—

(a)voluntary (see Chapters 2 to 5), or

(b)by the High Court (see Chapter 6).

(3) This Chapter and Chapters 7 to 10 relate to winding up generally, except where otherwise stated.]

ContributoriesN.I.

Liability as contributories of present and past membersN.I.

61 .F149—(1) When a company is wound up, every present and past member is liable to contribute to its assets to any amount sufficient for payment of its debts and liabilities, and the expenses of the winding up, and for the adjustment of the rights of the contributories among themselves.

(2) This is subject as follows—

(a)a past member is not liable to contribute if he has ceased to be a member for one year or more before the commencement of the winding up;

(b)a past member is not liable to contribute in respect of any debt or liability of the company contracted after he ceased to be a member;

(c)a past member is not liable to contribute, unless it appears to the High Court that the existing members are unable to satisfy the contributions required to be made by them F150. . . ;

(d)in the case of a company limited by shares, no contribution is required from any member exceeding the amount (if any) unpaid on the shares in respect of which he is liable as a present or past member;

(e)nothing in [F151the Companies Acts] or this Order invalidates any provision contained in a policy of insurance or other contract whereby the liability of individual members on the policy or contract is restricted, or whereby the funds of the company are alone made liable in respect of the policy or contract;

(f)a sum due to any member of the company (in his character of a member) by way of dividends, profits or otherwise is not deemed to be a debt of the company, payable to that member in a case of competition between himself and any other creditor not a member of the company, but any such sum may be taken into account for the purpose of the final adjustment of the rights of the contributories among themselves.

(3) In the case of a company limited by guarantee, no contribution is required from any member exceeding the amount undertaken to be contributed by him to the company's assets in the event of its being wound up; but if it is a company with a share capital, every member of it is liable (in addition to the amount so undertaken to be contributed to the assets), to contribute to the extent of any sums unpaid on shares held by him.

Directors with unlimited liabilityN.I.

62.  F152. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Liability of past directors and shareholdersN.I.

63 .F153—(1) This Article applies where a company is being wound up and—

(a)it has under [F154Chapter 5 of Part 18 of the Companies Act 2006 (acquisition by limited company of its own shares: redemption or purchase by private company out of capital)] made a payment out of capital in respect of the redemption or purchase of any of its own shares (the payment being referred to in this Article as “the relevant payment”), and

(b)the aggregate amount of the company's assets and the amounts paid by way of contribution to its assets (apart from this Article) is not sufficient for payment of its debts and liabilities, and the expenses of the winding up.

(2) If the winding up commenced within one year from the date on which the relevant payment was made, then—

(a)the person from whom the shares were redeemed or purchased, and

(b)the directors who signed the [F155statement] made in accordance with [F156section 714(1) to (3) of the Companies Act 2006] for the purposes of the redemption or purchase (except a director who shows that he had reasonable grounds for forming the opinion set out in the [F155statement]),

are, so as to enable that insufficiency to be met, liable to contribute to the following extent to the company's assets.

(3) A person from whom any of the shares were redeemed or purchased is liable to contribute an amount not exceeding so much of the relevant payment as was made by the company in respect of his shares; and the directors are jointly and severally liable with that person to contribute that amount.

(4) A person who has contributed any amount to the assets in pursuance of this Article may apply to the High Court for an order directing any other person jointly and severally liable in respect of that amount to pay him such amount as the Court thinks just and equitable.

(5) [F157Article 61 does not apply] in relation to liability accruing by virtue of this Article.

(6) F158. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Limited company formerly unlimitedN.I.

64 .F159—(1) This Article applies in the case of a company being wound up which was at some former time registered as unlimited but has[F160 re-registered as a limited company.]

(2) Notwithstanding Article 61(2)(a), a past member of the company who was a member of it at the time of re‐registration, if the winding up commences within 3 years from the day on which the company was re‐registered, is liable to contribute to the assets of the company in respect of debts and liabilities contracted before that time.

(3) Subject to Article 61(2)(a) and to paragraph (2), but notwithstanding Article 61(2)(c), if no persons who were members of the company at that time are existing members of it, a person who at that time was a present or past member is liable to contribute as mentioned in paragraph (2) notwithstanding that the existing members have satisfied the contributions required to be made by them F161. . . .

(4) Notwithstanding Article 61(2)(d) and (3), there is no limit on the amount which a person who, at that time, was a past or present member of the company is liable to contribute as mentioned in paragraph (2).

Unlimited company formerly limitedN.I.

65 .F162—(1) This Article applies in the case of a company being wound up which was at some former time registered as limited but has been re‐registered as unlimitedF163. . . .

(2) A person who, at the time when the application for the company to be re‐registered was lodged, was a past member of the company and did not after that again become a member of it is not liable to contribute to the assets of the company more than he would have been liable to contribute had the company not been re‐registered.

Nature of contributory's liabilityN.I.

66.  The liability of a contributory creates a debt accruing due from him at the time when his liability commenced, but payable at the times when calls are made for enforcing the liability.

Contributories in case of death of a memberN.I.

67.—(1) If a contributory dies either before or after he has been placed on the list of contributories, his personal representatives are liable in a due course of administration to contribute to the assets of the company in discharge of his liability and are contributories accordingly.

(2) If the personal representatives make default in paying any money ordered to be paid by them, proceedings may be taken for administering the estate of the deceased contributory and for compelling payment out of it of the money due.

Effect of contributory's bankruptcyN.I.

68.—(1) This Article applies if a contributory becomes bankrupt, either before or after he has been placed on the list of contributories.

(2) His trustee in bankruptcy represents him for all purposes of the winding up, and is a contributory accordingly.

(3) The trustee may be called on to admit to proof against the bankrupt's estate, or otherwise allow to be paid out of the bankrupt's assets in due course of law, any money due from the bankrupt in respect of his liability to contribute to the company's assets.

(4) There may be proved against the bankrupt's estate the estimated value of his liability to future calls as well as calls already made.

[F164Companies registered but not formed under the Companies Act 2006]N.I.

69 .F165—(1) This Article applies in the event of a company being wound up which[F166 is registered but not formed under the Companies Act 2006.]

(2) Every person is a contributory, in respect of the company's debts and liabilities contracted before registration, who is liable—

(a)to pay, or contribute to the payment of, any debt or liability so contracted, or

(b)to pay, or contribute to the payment of, any sum for the adjustment of the rights of the members among themselves in respect of any such debt or liability, or

(c)to pay, or contribute to the amount of, the expenses of winding up the company, so far as relates to such debts or liabilities.

(3) Every contributory is liable to contribute to the assets of the company, in the course of the winding up, all sums due from him in respect of any such liability as is mentioned in paragraph (2).

(4) In the event of the death, bankruptcy or insolvency of any contributory, provisions of this Order, with respect to the personal representatives of deceased contributories and to the trustees of bankrupt or insolvent contributories respectively, apply.

CHAPTER IIN.I.VOLUNTARY WINDING UP (INTRODUCTORY AND GENERAL)

Resolutions for, and commencement of, voluntary winding upN.I.

Circumstances in which company may be wound up voluntarilyN.I.

70.—(1 )F167 A company may be wound up voluntarily—

(a)when the period (if any) fixed for the duration of the company by its articles expires, or the event (if any) occurs, on the occurrence of which its articles provide that the company is to be dissolved, and the company in general meeting has passed a resolution requiring it to be wound up voluntarily;

(b)if the company resolves by special resolution that it be wound up voluntarily;

(c)F168. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

[F169(1A) Before a company passes a resolution for voluntary winding up it must give written notice of the resolution to the holder of any qualifying floating charge to which Article 59A applies.

(1B) Where notice is given under paragraph (1A) a resolution for voluntary winding up may be passed only—

(a)after the end of the period of 5 business days beginning with the day on which the notice was given, or

(b)if the person to whom the notice was given has consented in writing to the passing of the resolution.]

[F170[F171(2)] Chapter 3 of Part 3 of the Companies Act 2006 (resolutions affecting a company's constitution) applies to a resolution under sub-paragraph (a) of paragraph (1) as well as a special resolution under sub-paragraph (b).]

Notice of resolution to wind up voluntarilyN.I.

71.—(1 )F172 When a company has passed a resolution for voluntary winding up, it shall, within 14 days from the passing of the resolution, give notice of the resolution by advertisement in the Belfast Gazette.

(2) If default is made in complying with this Article, the company and every officer of it who is in default shall be guilty of an offence and, for continued contravention, shall be guilty of a continuing offence.

(3) For the purposes of paragraph (2) the liquidator is deemed an officer of the company.

Annotations:

F172mod. by SR 2004/307

Commencement of voluntary winding upN.I.

72 .F173  A voluntary winding up is deemed to commence at the time of the passing of the resolution for voluntary winding up.

Annotations:

F173mod. by SR 2004/307

Consequences of resolution to wind upN.I.

Effect on business and status of companyN.I.

73.—(1) In the case of a voluntary winding up, the company shall from the commencement of the winding up cease to carry on its business, except so far as may be required for its beneficial winding up.

(2 )F174 However, the corporate state and corporate powers of the company, notwithstanding anything to the contrary in its articles, continue until the company is dissolved.

Annotations:

F174mod. by SR 2004/307

Avoidance of share transfers, etc., after winding‐up resolutionN.I.

F17574.  Any transfer of shares, not being a transfer made to or with the sanction of the liquidator, and any alteration in the status of the company's members, made after the commencement of a voluntary winding up is void.

Declaration of solvencyN.I.

Statutory declaration of solvencyN.I.

75 .F176—(1) Where it is proposed to wind up a company voluntarily, the directors (or, in the case of a company having more than 2 directors, the majority of them) may at a directors' meeting make a statutory declaration to the effect that they have made a full inquiry into the company's affairs and that, having done so, they have formed the opinion that the company will be able to pay its debts in full, together with interest at the official rate (as defined in Article 5(1)), within such period, not exceeding 12 months from the commencement of the winding up, as may be specified in the declaration.

(2) Such a declaration by the directors has no effect for the purposes of this Order unless—

(a )F176it is made within the 5 weeks immediately preceding the date of the passing of the resolution for winding up, or on that date but before the passing of the resolution, and

(b)it embodies a statement of the company's assets and liabilities as at the latest practicable date before the making of the declaration.

(3 )F176 The declaration shall be delivered to the registrar before the expiration of 15 days from the date on which the resolution for winding up is passed.

(4) A director making a declaration under this Article without having reasonable grounds for the opinion that the company will be able to pay its debts in full, together with interest at the official rate, within the period specified shall be guilty of an offence.

(5 )F176 If the company is wound up in pursuance of a resolution passed within 5 weeks from the making of the declaration, and its debts (together with interest at the official rate) are not paid or provided for in full within the period specified, it is to be presumed (unless the contrary is shown) that the director did not have reasonable grounds for his opinion.

(6) If a declaration required by paragraph (3) to be delivered to the registrar is not so delivered within the time specified by that paragraph, the company and every officer of it who is in default shall be guilty of an offence and, for continued contravention, shall be guilty of a continuing offence.

Annotations:

F176mod. by SR 2004/307

Distinction between “members'” and “creditors'” voluntary winding upN.I.

76 .F177  A winding up in the case of which a directors' statutory declaration in accordance with Article 75 has been made is a “members' voluntary winding up”; and a winding up in the case of which such a declaration has not been made is a “creditors' voluntary winding up”.

Annotations:

F177mod. by SR 2004/307

CHAPTER IIIN.I.MEMBERS' VOLUNTARY WINDING UP

Appointment of liquidatorN.I.

77.—(1 )F178 In a members' voluntary winding up, the company in general meeting shall appoint one or more liquidators for the purpose of winding up the company's affairs and distributing its assets.

(2 )F178 On the appointment of a liquidator all the powers of the directors cease, except so far as the company in general meeting or the liquidator sanctions their continuance.F178

Annotations:

F178mod. by SR 2004/307

Power to fill vacancy in office of liquidatorN.I.

78.—(1 )F179 If a vacancy occurs by death, resignation or otherwise in the office of liquidator appointed by the company, the company in general meeting may, subject to any arrangement with its creditors, fill the vacancy.

(2 )F179 For that purpose a general meeting may be convened by any contributory or, if there were more liquidators than one, by the continuing liquidators.

(3 )F179 The meeting shall be held in the manner provided by this Order or by the company's articles, or in such manner as may, on application by any contributory or by the continuing liquidators, be determined by the High Court.F179

Annotations:

F179mod. by SR 2004/307

General company meeting at each year's endN.I.

79.—(1 )F180 Subject to Articles 82 and 88, in the event of the winding up continuing for more than one year, the liquidator shall summon a general meeting of the company at the end of the first year from the commencement of the winding up, and of each succeeding year, or at the first convenient date within 3 months from the end of the year or such longer period as the Department may allow.

(2) The liquidator shall lay before the meeting an account of his acts and dealings, and of the conduct of the winding up, during the preceding year.

(3) If the liquidator contravenes this Article, he shall be guilty of an offence.F180

Annotations:

F180mod. by SR 2004/307

Final meeting prior to dissolutionN.I.

80.—(1 )F181 As soon as the company's affairs are fully wound up, the liquidator shall make up an account of the winding up, showing how it has been conducted and the company's property has been disposed of, and thereupon shall call a general meeting of the company for the purpose of laying before it the account, and giving an explanation of it.

(2) The meeting shall be called by advertisement in the Belfast Gazette, specifying its time, place and object and published at least one month before the meeting.

(3) Within one week from the meeting, the liquidator shall send to the registrar a copy of the account, and shall make a return to him of the holding of the meeting and of its date.

(4) If the copy is not sent or the return is not made in accordance with paragraph (3), the liquidator shall be guilty of an offence and, for continued contravention, shall be guilty of a continuing offence.

(5) If a quorum is not present at the meeting, the liquidator shall, in lieu of the return mentioned in paragraph (3), make a return that the meeting was duly summoned and that no quorum was present;and upon such a return being made, the provisions of paragraph (3) as to the making of the return are deemed complied with.

F181(6 )F181 If the liquidator fails to call a general meeting of the company as required by paragraph (1), he shall be guilty of an offence.

Annotations:

F181mod. by SR 2004/307

Effect of company's insolvencyN.I.

81.—(1 )F182 This Article applies where the liquidator is of the opinion that the company will be unable to pay its debts in full (together with interest at the official rate) within the period stated in the directors' declaration under Article 75.

(2) The liquidator shall—

(a)summon a meeting of creditors not later than 28 days from the day on which he formed that opinion;

(b)not less than 7 days before the day on which the creditors' meeting is to be held—

(i)send notices of that meeting to the creditors by post; and

(ii)cause notice of that meeting to be advertised once in the Belfast Gazette and once at least in 2 newspapers circulating in each district in which the company's principal place of business in the United Kingdom was situated during the relevant period; and

(c)during the period before the day on which the creditors' meeting is to be held, furnish creditors free of charge with such information concerning the affairs of the company as they may reasonably require;

and the notice of the creditors' meeting shall state the duty imposed by sub‐paragraph (c).

(3) The liquidator shall also—

(a)make out a statement in the prescribed form as to the affairs of the company;

(b)lay that statement before the creditors' meeting; and

(c)attend and preside at that meeting.

(4) The statement as to the affairs of the company shall be verified by affidavit by the liquidator and shall show—

(a)particulars of the company's assets, debts and liabilities;

(b)the names and addresses of the company's creditors;

(c)the securities held by them respectively;

(d)the dates when the securities were respectively given; and

(e)such further or other information as may be prescribed.

(5) Where the company had no place of business in the United Kingdom during the relevant period, the reference in paragraph (2)(b)(ii) to the company's principal place of business in the United Kingdom is replaced by a reference to its registered office.

(6 )F182 In this Article “the relevant period” means the period of 6 months immediately preceding the day on which were sent the notices summoning the company meeting at which it was resolved that the company be wound up voluntarily.

(7) If the liquidator without reasonable excuse contravenes this Article, he shall be guilty of an offence.

Annotations:

F182mod. by SR 2004/307

Conversion to creditors' voluntary winding upN.I.

82.  As from the day on which the creditors' meeting is held under Article 81, this Order has effect as if—

(a )F183the directors' declaration under Article 75 had not been made; and

(b )F183the creditors' meeting and the company meeting at which it was resolved that the company be wound up voluntarily were the meetings mentioned in Article 84;

and accordingly the winding up becomes a creditors' voluntary winding up.

Annotations:

F183mod. by SR 2004/307

CHAPTER IVN.I.CREDITORS' VOLUNTARY WINDING UP

Application of this ChapterN.I.

83.—(1) Subject to paragraph (2), this Chapter applies in relation to a creditors' voluntary winding up.

(2) Articles 84 and 85 do not apply where, under Article 82, a members' voluntary winding up has become a creditors' voluntary winding up.

Meeting of creditorsN.I.

84.—(1) The company shall—

(a )F184cause a meeting of its creditors to be summoned not later than 14 days from the day on which there is to be held the company meeting at which the resolution for voluntary winding up is to be proposed;

(b)not less than 7 days before the day on which the creditors' meeting is to be held—

(i)cause the notices of that meeting to be sent by post; and

(ii)cause notice of that meeting to be advertised once in the Belfast Gazette and once at least in 2 newspapers circulating in each district in which the company's principal place of business in the United Kingdom was situated during the relevant period.

(2) The notice of the creditors' meeting shall state either—

(a)the name and address of a person qualified to act as an insolvency practitioner in relation to the company who, during the period before the day on which that meeting is to be held, will furnish creditors free of charge with such information concerning the company's affairs as they may reasonably require; or

(b)a place in each district mentioned in paragraph (1)(b)(ii) where, on the 2 business days falling next before the day on which that meeting is to be held, a list of the names and addresses of the company's creditors will be available for inspection free of charge.

(3) Where the company had no place of business in the United Kingdom during the relevant period, the reference in paragraph (1)(b)(ii) to the company's principal place of business in the United Kingdom is replaced by a reference to its registered office.

(4 )F184 In this Article “the relevant period” means the period of 6 months immediately preceding the day on which were sent thenotices summoning the company meeting at which it was resolved that the company be wound up voluntarily.

(5) If the company without reasonable excuse contravenes paragraph (1) or (2), it shall be guilty of an offence.

Annotations:

F184mod. by SR 2004/307

Directors to lay statement of affairs before creditorsN.I.

85.—(1 )F185 The directors of the company shall—

(a)make out a statement in the prescribed form as to the affairs of the company;

(b)cause that statement to be laid before the creditors' meeting under Article 84; and

(c)appoint one of their number to preside at that meeting;

and it is the duty of the director so appointed to attend the meeting and preside over it.

(2 )F185 The statement as to the affairs of the company shall be verified by affidavit by some or all of the directors and shall show—

(a)particulars of the company's assets, debts and liabilities;

(b)the names and addresses of the company's creditors;

(c)the securities held by them respectively;

(d)the dates when the securities were respectively given; and

(e)such further or other information as may be prescribed.

(3 )F185 If—

(a)the directors without reasonable excuse contravene paragraph (1) or (2); or

(b)any director without reasonable excuse contravenes paragraph (1), so far as requiring him to attend and preside at the creditors' meeting,

the directors or (as the case may be) the director shall be guilty of an offence.

Annotations:

F185mod. by SR 2004/307

Appointment of liquidatorN.I.

86.—(1 )F186 The creditors and the company at their respective meetings mentioned in Article 84 may nominate a person to be liquidator for the purpose of winding up the company's affairs and distributing its assets.

(2) The liquidator shall be the person nominated by the creditors or, where no person has been so nominated, the person (if any) nominated by the company.

(3 )F186 In the case of different persons being nominated, any director, member or creditor of the company may, within 7 days from the date on which the nomination was made by the creditors, apply to the High Court for an order either—

(a)directing that the person nominated as liquidator by the company shall be liquidator instead of or jointly with the person nominated by the creditors, or

(b)appointing some other person to be liquidator instead of the person nominated by the creditors.F187

Annotations:

F186mod. by SR 2004/307

F187prosp. addition by 2005 NI 10

Appointment of liquidation committeeN.I.

87.—(1) The creditors at the meeting to be held under Article 84 or at any subsequent meeting may, if they think fit, appoint a committee ( “the liquidation committee”) of not more than 5 persons to exercise the functions conferred on it by or under this Order.

(2 )F188 If such a committee is appointed, the company may, either at the meeting at which the resolution for voluntary winding up is passed or at any time subsequently in general meeting, appoint such number of persons as they think fit to act as members of the committee, not exceeding 5.

(3) However, the creditors may, if they think fit, resolve that all or any of the persons so appointed by the company ought not to be members of the liquidation committee; and if the creditors so resolve—

(a)the persons mentioned in the resolution are not then, unless the High Court otherwise directs, qualified to act as members of the committee; and

(b)on any application to the Court under this provision the Court may, if it thinks fit, appoint other persons to act as such members in place of the persons mentioned in the resolution.

Annotations:

F188mod. by SR 2004/307

Creditors' meeting where winding up converted under Article 82N.I.

88.  Where, in the case of a winding up which was, under Article 82, converted to a creditors' voluntary winding up, a creditors' meeting is held in accordance with Article 81, any appointment made or committee established by that meeting is deemed to have been made or established by a meeting held in accordance with Article 84.

Cesser of directors' powersN.I.

89.  On the appointment of a liquidator, all the powers of the directors cease, except so far as the liquidation committee (or, if there is no such committee, the creditors) sanction their continuance.

Vacancy in office of liquidatorN.I.

90.  If a vacancy occurs, by death, resignation or otherwise, in the office of a liquidator (other than a liquidator appointed by, or by the direction of, the High Court), the creditors may fill the vacancy.

Meetings of company and creditors at each year's endN.I.

91.—(1 )F189 If the winding up continues for more than one year, the liquidator shall summon a general meeting of the company and a meeting of the creditors at the end of the first year from the commencement of the winding up, and of each succeeding year, or at the first convenient date within 3 months from the end of the year or such longer period as the Department may allow.

(2) The liquidator shall lay before each of the meetings an account of his acts and dealings and of the conduct of the winding up during the preceding year.

(3) If the liquidator contravenes this Article, he shall be guilty of an offence.

(4) Where under Article 82 a members' voluntary winding up has become a creditors' voluntary winding up, and the creditors' meeting under Article 81 is held 3 months or less before the end of the first year from the commencement of the winding up, the liquidator is not required by this Article to summon a meeting of creditors at the end of that year.F189

Annotations:

F189mod. by SR 2004/307

Final meeting prior to dissolutionN.I.

92.—(1 )F190 As soon as the company's affairs are fully wound up, the liquidator shall make up an account of the winding up, showing how it has been conducted and the company's property has been disposed of, and thereupon shall call a general meeting of the company and a meeting of the creditors for the purpose of laying the account before the meetings and giving an explanation of it.

(2) Each such meeting shall be called by advertisement in the Belfast Gazette specifying the time, place and object of the meeting, and published at least one month before it.

(3) Within one week from the date of the meetings (or, if they are not held on the same date, from the date of the later one) the liquidator shall send to the registrar a copy of the account, and shall make a return to him of the holding of the meetings and of their dates.

(4) If the copy is not sent or the return is not made in accordance with paragraph (3), the liquidator shall be guilty of an offence and, for continued contravention, shall be guilty of a continuing offence.

(5) However, if a quorum is not present at either such meeting, the liquidator shall, in lieu of the return required by paragraph (3), make a return that the meeting was duly summoned and that no quorum was present; and upon such return being made the provisons of that paragraph as to the making of the return are, in respect of that meeting, deemed complied with.

F190(6 )F190 If the liquidator fails to call a general meeting of the company or a meeting of the creditors as required by this Article, he shall be guilty of an offence.

Annotations:

F190mod. by SR 2004/307

CHAPTER VN.I.PROVISIONS APPLYING TO BOTH KINDS OF VOLUNTARY WINDING UP

Distribution of company's propertyN.I.

93.  Subject to the provisions of this Order as to preferential payments, the company's property in a voluntary winding up shall on the winding up be applied in satisfaction of the company's liabilities pari passu and, subject to that application, shall (unless the company's articles otherwise provide) be distributed among the members according to their rights and interests in the company.

Appointment or removal of liquidator by the High CourtN.I.

94.—(1) If from any cause whatever there is no liquidator acting, the High Court may appoint a liquidator.

(2) The High Court may, on cause shown, remove a liquidator and appoint another.

Notice by liquidator of his appointmentN.I.

95.—(1) The liquidator shall, within 14 days from his appointment, publish in the Belfast Gazette and deliver to the registrar for registration a notice of his appointment in the form prescribed.

(2) If the liquidator contravenes this Article, he shall be guilty of an offence and, for continued contravention, he shall be guilty of a continuing offence.

Acceptance of shares, etc., as consideration for sale of company's propertyN.I.

96 .F191—(1) This Article applies, in the case of a company proposed to be, or being, wound up voluntarily, where the whole or part of the company's business or property is proposed to be transferred or sold

[F192(a)]to another company ( “the transferee company”), whether or not the latter is[F193a company registered under the Companies Act 2006][F192, or]

[F192(b)to a limited liability partnership (the transferee limited liability partnership).]

(2) With the requisite sanction, the liquidator of the company being, or proposed to be, wound up ( “the transferor company”) may receive, in compensation or part compensation for the transfer or[F192 sale—]

[F192(a)in the case of the transferee company, shares, policies or other like interests in the transferee company for distribution among the members of the transferor company, or

(b)in the case of the transferee limited liability partnership, membership in the transferee limited liability partnership for distribution among the members of the transferor company.]

(3) The sanction requisite under paragraph (2) is—

(a)in the case of a members' voluntary winding up, that of a special resolution of the company, conferring either a general authority on the liquidator or an authority in respect of any particular arrangement, and

(b)in the case of a creditors' voluntary winding up, that of either the High Court or the liquidation committee.

(4) Alternatively to paragraph (2), the liquidator may (with that sanction) enter into any other arrangement whereby the members of the transferor[F192 company may—]

[F192(a)in the case of the transferee company, in lieu of receiving cash, shares, policies or other like interests (or in addition thereto) participate in the profits of, or receive any other benefit from, the transferee company, or

(b)in the case of the transferee limited liability partnership, in lieu of receiving cash or membership (or in addition thereto), participate in some other way in the profits of, or receive any other benefit from, the transferee limited liability partnership.]

(5) A sale or arrangement in pursuance of this Article is binding on members of the transferor company.

(6) A special resolution is not invalid for the purposes of this Article by reason that it is passed before or concurrently with a resolution for voluntary winding up or for appointing liquidators; but, if an order is made within a year for winding up the company by the High Court, the special resolution is not valid unless sanctioned by the Court.

Dissent from arrangement under Article 96N.I.

97.—(1 )F194 This Article applies in the case of a voluntary winding up where, for the purposes of Article 96(2) or (4), there has been passed a special resolution of the transferor company providing the sanction requisite for the liquidator under that Article.

(2 )F194 If a member of the transferor company who did not vote in favour of the special resolution expresses his dissent from it in writing, addressed to the liquidator and left at the company's registered office within 7 days from the passing of the resolution, he may require the liquidator either to abstain from carrying the resoltuion into effect or to purchase his interest at a price to be determined by agreement or by arbitration under this Article.

(3 )F194 If the liquidator elects to purchase the member's interest, the purchase money must be paid before the company is dissolved and be raised by the liquidator in such manner as may be determined by special resolution.

(4 )F194 For the purposes of an arbitration under this Article, the provisions of the Companies Clauses Consolidation Act 1845F195 with respect to the settlement of disputes by arbitration are incorporated with this Order, and—

(a)in the construction of those provisions this Order is deemed the special Act and “the company” means the transferor company, and

(b)any appointment by the incorporated provisions directed to be made under the hand of the secretary or any 2 of the directors may be made in writing by the liquidator (or, if there is more than one liquidator, then any 2 or more of them).

Annotations:

F194mod. by SR 2004/307

Reference of questions to the High CourtN.I.

98.—(1) The liquidator or any contributory or creditor may apply to the High Court to determine any question arising in the winding up of a company, or to exercise, as respects the enforcing of calls or any other matter, all or any of the powers which the Court might exercise if the company were being wound up by the Court.

(2) The High Court, if satisfied that the determination of the question or the required exercise of power will be just and beneficial, may accede wholly or partially to the application on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit, or many make such other order on the application as it thinks just.

(3) [F196A copy] of an order made by virtue of this Article staying the proceedings in the winding up shall forthwith be forwarded by the company, or otherwise as may be prescribed, to the registrar for registration.

No liquidator appointed or nominated by companyN.I.

99.—(1) This Article applies where, in the case of a voluntary winding up, no liquidator has been appointed or nominated by the company.

(2) The powers of the directors shall not be exercised, except with the sanction of the High Court or (in the case of a creditors' voluntary winding up) so far as may be necessary to secure compliance with Article 84 (creditors' meeting) and Article 85 (statement of affairs), during the period before the appointment or nomination of a liquidator of the company.

(3) Paragraph (2) does not apply in relation to the powers of the directors—

(a)to dispose of perishable goods and other goods the value of which is likely to diminish if they are not immediately disposed of, and

(b)to do all such other things as may be necessary for the protection of the company's assets.

(4) If the directors of the company without reasonable excuse contravene this Article, they shall be guilty of an offence.

Expenses of voluntary winding upN.I.

100.  All expenses properly incurred in the winding up, including the remuneration of the liquidator, are payable out of the company's assets in priority to all other claims.

Saving for certain rightsN.I.

101.  The voluntary winding up of a company does not bar the right of any creditor or contributory to have it wound up by the High Court; but in the case of an application by a contributory the Court must be satisfied that the rights of the contributories will be prejudiced by a voluntary winding up.

CHAPTER VIN.I.WINDING UP BY THE HIGH COURT

Grounds and effect of winding‐up petitionN.I.

Circumstances in which company may be wound up by the High CourtN.I.

102 .F197  A company may be wound up by the High Court if—

(a)the company has by special resolution resolved that the company be wound up by the Court,

(b)being a public company which was registered as such on its original incorporation, the company has not been issued with [F198a trading certificate under section 761 of the Companies Act 2006 (requirement as to minimum share capital)] and more than a year has expired since it was so registered,

(c)it is an old public company, within the meaning of [F199Schedule 3 to the Companies Act 2006 (Consequential Amendments, Transitional Provisions and Savings) Order 2009],

(d)the company does not commence its business within one year from its incorporation or suspends its business for a year,

(e)F200. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(f)the company is unable to pay its debts,

[F201(fa)at the time at which a moratorium for the company under Article 14A comes to an end, no voluntary arrangement approved under Part II has effect in relation to the company]

(g)the Court is of the opinion that it is just and equitable that the company should be wound up.

Definition of inability to pay debts; the statutory demandN.I.

103.—(1) A company is deemed unable to pay its debts—

(a )F202if a creditor (by assignment or otherwise) to whom the company is indebted in a sum exceeding £750 then due has served on the company, by leaving it at the company's registered office, a demand (known as “the statutory demand”) in the prescribed form requiring the company to pay the sum due and the company has for 3 weeks thereafter neglected to pay the sum or to secure or compound for it to the reasonable satisfaction of the creditor, or

(b)if, in Northern Ireland, a certificate of unenforceability has been granted in respect of a judgment against the company under Article 19 of the Judgments Enforcement (Northern Ireland) Order 1981F203, or

(c)if, in England and Wales, execution or other process issued on a judgment, decree or order of any court in favour of a creditor of the company is returned unsatisfied in whole or in part, or

(d)if, in Scotland, the induciae of a charge for payment on an extract decree, or an extract registered bond, or an extract registered protest, have expired without payment being made, or

(e)if it is otherwise proved to the satisfaction of the High Court that the company is unable to pay its debts as they fall due.

(2) A company is also deemed unable to pay its debts if it is proved to the satisfaction of the High Court that the value of the company's assets is less than the amount of its liabilities, taking into account its contingent and prospective liabilities.

(3) The money sum for the time being specified in paragraph (1)(a) is subject to increase or reduction by order under Article 362(1)(a).

Annotations:

F202mod. by SR 2005/68

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C35Art. 103 applied (17.2.2009 for certain purposes, otherwise 21.2.2009) by Banking Act 2009 (c. 1), ss. 166(3), 167, 263(1) (with s. 247); S.I. 2009/296, arts. 2, 3, Sch.

Application for winding upN.I.

104.—(1) Subject to the provisions of this Article, an application to the High Court for the winding up of a company shall be by petition presented either by the company, or the directors, or by any creditor or creditors (including any contingent or prospective creditor or creditors), contributory or contributories[F204, or by a liquidator (within the meaning of Article 2(b) of the EC Regulation) appointed in proceedings by virtue of Article 3(1) of the EC Regulation or a temporary administrator (within the meaning of Article 38 of the EC Regulation)],[F205 or by the chief clerk in exercise of the power conferred by section 35(4A) of the Criminal Justice Act (Northern Ireland) 1945 (enforcement of fines imposed on companies) or a clerk of petty sessions in exercise of the power conferred by Article 92A of the Magistrates' Courts (Northern Ireland) Order 1981 (enforcement of fines imposed on companies)] or by all of any of those parties, together or separately.

(2 )F206 Except as mentioned in paragraph (3), a contributory is not entitled to present a winding‐up petition unless either—

(a)the number of members is reduced below 2, or

(b)the shares in respect of which he is a contributory, or some of them, either were originally allotted to him, or have been held by him, and registered in his name, for at least 6 months during the 18 months before the commencement of the winding up, or have devolved on him through the death of a former holder.

(3 )F206 A person who is liable under Article 63 to contribute to a company's assets in the event of its being wound up may petition on either of the grounds set out in Article 102(f) and (g), and paragraph (2) does not then apply; but unless the person is a contributory otherwise than under Article 63, he may not in his character as contributory petition on any other ground.

(4) F207. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

[F208(4AA) A winding up petition may be presented by the Registrar of Credit Unions for Northern Ireland in a case falling within Article 104C(1) or (2).]

[F209(4A )F206 A winding-up petition on the ground set out in Article 102(fa) may only be presented by one or more creditors]

(5) A winding‐up petition may be presented by the Department—

(a )F206if the ground of the petition is that in Article 102(b) or (c), or

[F210(b)in a case falling within Article 104A[F211 or 104B].]

[F212(5A) A winding-up petition may be presented by the Regulator of Community Interest Companies in a case falling within section 50 of the Companies (Audit, Investigations and Community Enterprise) Act 2004.]

(6) Where a company is being wound up voluntarily, a winding‐up petition may be presented by the official receiver as well as by any other person authorised in that behalf under the other provisions of this Article; but the High Court shall not make a winding‐up order on the petition unless it is satisfied that the voluntary winding up cannot be continued with due regard to the interests of the creditors or contributories.

[F213Petition for winding up on grounds of public interestN.I.

104A.(1) Where it appears to the Department from—

(a)any report made or information obtained under[F214 Part 14 of the Companies Act 1985] (company investigations, &c.),

Sub-para.(b) rep. by 1993 c.36

[F215(c )F216any report made by inspectors under—

(i)section 167, 168, 169 or 284 of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000, or

(ii)where the company is an open-ended investment company (within the meaning of that Act), regulations made as a result of section 262(2)(k) of that Act;

(cc )F216any information or documents obtained under section 165, 171, 172, 173 or 175 of that Act;]

(d)any information obtained under section 2 of the Criminal Justice Act 1987 or section 52 of the Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 1987 (fraud investigations), or

(e)any information obtained under section 83 of the Companies Act 1989 (powers exercisable for purpose of assisting overseas regulatory authorities),

that it is expedient in the public interest that a company should be wound up, it may present a petition for it to be wound up if the court thinks it just and equitable for it to be so.

(2) This Article does not apply if the company is already being wound up by the court.]

[F217Petition for winding up of SEN.I.

104B.(1) Where—

(a)an SE whose registered office is in Northern Ireland is not in compliance with Article 7 of Council Regulation (EC) No 2157/2001 on the Statute for a European Company (the “EC Regulation”) (location of head office and registered office), and

(b)it appears to the Department that the SE should be wound up,

the Department may present a petition for it to be wound up if the court thinks it is just and equitable for it to be so.

(2) This Article does not apply if the SE is already being wound up by the court.

(3) In this Article “SE” has the same meaning as in the EC Regulation.]

Annotations:

F217SR 2004/417

[F218Petition for winding up of SCEN.I.

104C(1) Where, in the case of an SCE whose registered office is in Northern Ireland—

(a)there has been such a breach as is mentioned in Article 73(1) of Council Regulation (EC) No 1435/2003 on the Statute for a European Cooperative (SCE) (the “European Cooperative Society Regulation”) (winding up by the court or other competent authority), and

(b)it appears to the Registrar of Credit Unions for Northern Ireland that the SCE should be wound up,

the Registrar may present a petition for the SCE to be wound up if the court thinks it is just and equitable for it to be so.

(2) Where, in the case of an SCE whose registered office is in Northern Ireland—

(a)the SCE is not in compliance with Article 6 of the European Cooperative Society Regulation (location of head office and registered office), and

(b)it appears to the Registrar of Credit Unions for Northern Ireland that the SCE should be wound up,

the Registrar may present a petition for the SCE to be wound up if the court thinks it is just and equitable for it to be so.

(3) This Article does not apply if the SCE is already being wound up by the court.

(4) In this Article “SCE” has the same meaning as in the European Cooperative Society Regulation.]

Powers of High Court on hearing of petitionN.I.

105.—(1) On hearing a winding‐up petition the High Court may dismiss it, or adjourn the hearing conditionally or unconditionally, or make an interim order, or any other order that it thinks fit; but the Court shall not refuse to make a winding‐up order on the ground only that the company's assets have been mortgaged to an amount equal to or in excess of those assets, or that the company has no assets.

(2) If the petition is presented by members of the company as contributories on the ground that it is just and equitable that the company should be wound up, the High Court, if it is of the opinion—

(a)that the petitioners are entitled to relief either by winding up the company or by some other means, and

(b)that in the absence of any other remedy it would be just and equitable that the company should be wound up,

shall make a winding‐up order; but this does not apply if the Court is also of the opinion both that some other remedy is available to the petitioners and that they are acting unreasonably in seeking to have the company wound up instead of pursuing that other remedy.

Power to stay or restrain proceedings against companyN.I.

106.—(1) At any time after the presentation of a winding‐up petition, and before a winding‐up order has been made, the company, or any creditor or contributory, may—

(a)where any action or proceeding against the company is pending in the High Court or Court of Appeal, apply to the Court in which the action or proceeding is pending for a stay of proceedings therein, and

(b)where any other action or proceeding is pending against the company, apply to the High Court to restrain further proceedings in the action or proceeding;

and the Court to which application is so made may (as the case may be) stay or restrain the proceedings accordingly on such terms as it thinks fit.

(2 )F219 In the case of[F220 a company registered but not formed under the Companies Act 2006], where the application to stay or restrain is by a creditor, this Article extends to actions and proceedings against any contributory of the company.

Avoidance of property dispositions, etc.N.I.

107 .F221[F222(1)] In a winding up by the High Court, any disposition of the company's property, and any transfer of shares, or alteration in the status of the company's members, made after the commencement of the winding up is, unless the Court otherwise orders, void.

[F223(2) This Article has no effect in respect of anything done by an administrator of a company while a winding-up petition is suspended under paragraph 41 of Schedule B1.]

Avoidance of sequestration or distressN.I.

108.  Where a company is being wound up by the High Court, any sequestration or distress put in force against the estate or effects of the company after the commencement of the winding up is void.

Commencement of winding upN.I.

Commencement of winding up by the High CourtN.I.

109.—(1 )F224 If, before the presentation of a petition for the winding up of a company by the High Court, a resolution has been passed by the company for voluntary winding up, the winding up of the company is deemed to have commenced at the time of the passing of the resolution; and unless the Court, on proof of fraud or mistake, directs otherwise, all proceedings taken in the voluntary winding up are deemed to have been validly taken.

[F225(1A) Where the Court makes a winding-up order by virtue of paragraph 14(1)(e) of Schedule B1, the winding up is deemed to commence on the making of the order.]

(2) In any other case, the winding up of a company by the High Court is deemed to commence at the time of the presentation of the petition for winding up.

Consequences of winding‐up orderN.I.

110.—(1) On the making of a winding‐up order, [F226a copy] of the order must forthwith be forwarded by the company (or otherwise as may be prescribed) to the registrar for registration.

(2) When a winding‐up order has been made or a provisionalliquidator has been appointed, no action or proceeding shall be proceeded with or commenced against the company or its property, except by leave of the High Court and subject to such terms as the Court may impose.

(3 )F227 When an order has been made for winding up a company [F228registered but not formed under the Companies Act 2006], no action or proceeding shall be commenced or proceeded with against the company or its property or any contributory of the company, in respect of any debt of the company, except by leave of the High Court, and subject to such terms as the Court may impose.

(4) An order for winding up a company operates in favour of all the creditors and of all contributories of the company as if made on the joint petition of a creditor and of a contributory.

Investigation proceduresN.I.

Company's statement of affairsN.I.

111.—(1) Where the High Court has made a winding‐up order or appointed a provisional liquidator, the official receiver may require some or all of the persons mentioned in paragraph (3) to make out and submit to him a statement in the prescribed form as to the affairs of the company.

(2) The statement shall be verified by affidavit by the persons required to submit it and shall show—

(a)particulars of the company's assets, debts and liabilities;

(b)the names and addresses of the company's creditors;

(c)the securities held by them respectively;

(d)the dates when the securities were respectively given; and

(e)such further or other information as may be prescribed or as the official receiver may require.

(3) The persons referred to in paragraph (1) are—

(a)those who are or have been officers of the company;

(b)those who have taken part in the formation of the company at any time within one year before the relevant date;

(c)those who are in the company's employment, or have been in its employment within that year, and are in the official receiver's opinion capable of giving the information required;

(d)those who are or have been within that year officers of, or in the employment of, a company which is, or within that year was, an officer of the company.

(4) Where any persons are required under this Article to submit a statement of affairs to the official receiver, they shall do so (subject to paragraph (5)) before the expiration of 21 days from the day on which the prescribed notice of the requirement is given to them by the official receiver.

(5) The official receiver, if he thinks fit, may—

(a)at any time release a person from an obligation imposed on him under paragraph (1) or (2); or

(b)either when giving the notice mentioned in paragraph (4) or subsequently, extend the period so mentioned;

and where the official receiver has refused to exercise a power conferred by this paragraph, the High Court, if it thinks fit, may exercise it.

(6) In this Article—

“employment” includes employment under a contract for services; and

“the relevant date” means—

(a)in a case where a provisional liquidator is appointed, the date of his appointment; and

(b)in a case where no such appointment is made, the date of the winding‐up order.

(7) If a person without reasonable excuse contravenes any obligation imposed under this Article, he shall be guilty of an offence and, for continued contravention, he shall be guilty of a continuing offence.

Investigation by official receiverN.I.

112.—(1) Where a winding‐up order is made by the High Court, it is the duty of the official receiver to investigate—

(a)if the company has failed, the causes of the failure; and

(b)generally, the promotion, formation, business, dealings and affairs of the company,

and to make such report (if any) to the Court as he thinks fit.

(2) The report is, in any proceedings, prima facie evidence of the facts stated in it.

Public examination of officersN.I.

113.—(1) Where a company is being wound up by the High Court, the official receiver may at any time before the dissolution of the company apply to the Court for the public examination of any person who—

(a)is or has been an officer of the company; or

(b)has acted as liquidator or administrator of the company or as receiver or manager; or

(c)not being a person falling within sub‐paragraph (a) or (b), is or has been concerned, or has taken part, in the promotion, formation or management of the company.

(2) Unless the High Court otherwise orders, the official receiver shall make an application under paragraph (1) if he is requested in accordance with the rules to do so by—

(a)one‐half, in value, of the company's creditors; or

(b)three‐quarters, in value, of the company's contributories.

(3) On an application under paragraph (1), the High Court shall direct that a public examination of the person to whom the application relates shall be held on a day appointed by the Court; and that person shall attend on that day and be publicly examined as to the promotion, formation or management of the company or as to the conduct of its business and affairs, or his conduct or dealings in relation to the company.

(4) The following may take part in the public examination of a person under this Article and may question that person concerning the matters mentioned in paragraph (3), namely—

(a)the official receiver;

(b)the liquidator of the company;

(c)any person who has been appointed as special manager of the company's property or business;

(d)any creditor of the company who has tendered a proof;

(e)any contributory of the company.

Enforcement of Article 113N.I.

114.—(1) If a person without reasonable excuse fails at any time to attend his public examination under Article 113, he is guilty of a contempt of court and liable to be punished accordingly.

(2) In a case where a person without reasonable excuse fails at any time to attend his examination under Article 113 or there are reasonable grounds for believing that a person has absconded, or is about to abscond, with a view to avoiding or delaying his examination under that Article, the High Court may cause a warrant to be issued to a constable—

(a)for the arrest of that person; and

(b)for the seizure of any books, papers, records, money or goods in that person's possession.

(3) In such a case the High Court may authorise the person arrested under the warrant to be kept in custody, and anything seized under such a warrant to be held, in accordance with the rules, until such time as the Court may order.

Appointment of liquidatorN.I.

Appointment and powers of provisional liquidatorN.I.

115.—(1) Subject to the provisons of this Article, the High Court may, at any time after the presentation of a winding‐up petition, appoint a liquidator provisionally.

(2) The appointment of a provisional liquidator may be made at any time before the making of a winding‐up order; and either the official receiver or any other fit person may be appointed.

(3) The provisional liquidator shall carry out such functions as the High Court may confer on him.

(4) When a liquidator is provisionally appointed by the High Court, his powers may be limited by the order appointing him.

Functions of official receiver in relation to office of liquidatorN.I.

116.—(1) The following provisions of this Article have effect, subject to Article 119, on a winding‐up order being made by the High Court.

(2) The official receiver, by virtue of his office, becomes the liquidator of the company and continues in office until another person becomes liquidator under the provisions of this Part.

(3) The official receiver is, by virtue of his office, the liquidator during any vacancy.

(4) At any time when he is the liquidator of the company, the official receiver may summon separate meetings of the company's creditors and contributories for the purpose of choosing a person to be liquidator of the company in place of the official receiver.

(5) It is the duty of the official receiver—

(a)as soon as practicable within the period of 12 weeks from the day on which the winding‐up order was made, to decide whether to exercise his power under paragraph (4) to summon meetings, and

(b)if in pursuance of sub‐paragraph (a) he decides not to exercise that power, to give notice of his decision, before the end of that period, to the High Court and to the company's creditors and contributories, and

(c)(whether or not he has decided to exercise that power) to exercise his power to summon meetings under paragraph (4) if he is at any time requested, in accordance with the rules, to do so by one‐quarter, in value, of the company's creditors;

and accordingly, where the duty imposed by sub‐paragraph (c) arises before the official receiver has performed a duty imposed by sub‐paragraph (a) or (b), he is not required to perform the latter duty.

(6) A notice given under paragraph (5)(b) to the company's creditors shall contain an explanation of the creditors' power under paragraph (5)(c) to require the official receiver to summon meetings of the company's creditors and contributories.

Appointment by DepartmentN.I.

117.—(1) In a winding up by the High Court the official receiver may, at any time when he is liquidator of the company, apply to the Department for the appointment of a person as liquidator in his place.

(2) If meetings are held in pursuance of a decision under Article 116(5)(a), but no person is chosen to be liquidator as a result of those meetings, it is the duty of the official receiver to decide whether to refer the need for an appointment to the Department.

(3) On an application under paragraph (1), or a reference made in pursuance of a decision under paragraph (2), the Department shall either make an appointment or decline to make one.

(4) Where a liquidator has been appointed by the Department under paragraph (3), the liquidator shall give notice of his appointment to the company's creditors or, if the High Court so allows, shall advertise his appointment in accordance with the directions of theCourt.

(5) In that notice or advertisement the liquidator shall—

(a)state whether he proposes to summon a general meeting of the company's creditors under Article 120 for the purpose of determining (together with any meeting of contributories) whether a liquidation committee should be established under that Article, and

(b)if he does not propose to summon such a meeting, set out the power of the company's creditors under that Article to require him to summon one.

Choice of liquidator at meetings of creditors and contributoriesN.I.

118.—(1) This Article applies where a company is being wound up by the High Court and separate meetings of the company's creditors and contributories are summoned for the purpose of choosing a person to be liquidator of the company.

(2) The creditors and the contributories at their respective meetings may nominate a person to be liquidator.

(3) The liquidator shall be the person nominated by the creditors or, where no person has been so nominated, the person (if any) nominated by the contributories.

(4) In the case of different persons being nominated, any contributory or creditor may, within 7 days from the date on which the nomination was made by the creditors, apply to the High Court for an order either—

(a)appointing the person nominated as liquidator by the contributories to be a liquidator instead of, or jointly with, the person nominated by the creditors; or

(b)appointing some other person to be liquidator instead of the person nominated by the creditors.

Appointment by the High Court following administration or voluntary arrangementN.I.

119.[F229(1) Where a winding-up order is made immediately upon the appointment of an administrator ceasing to have effect, the High Court may appoint as liquidator of the company the person whose appointment as administrator has ceased to have effect.]

(2) Where a winding‐up order is made at a time when there is a supervisor of a voluntary arrangement approved in relation to the company under Part II, the High Court may appoint as liquidator of the company the person who is the supervisor at the time when the winding‐up order is made.

(3) Where the High Court makes an appointment under this Article, the official receiver does not become the liquidator as otherwise provided by Article 116(2), and he has no duty under Article 116(5)(a) or (b) in respect of the summoning of creditors' or contributories' meetings.

Liquidation committeesN.I.

Liquidation committeeN.I.

120.—(1) Where a winding‐up order has been made and separate meetings of creditors and contributories have been summoned for the purpose of choosing a person to be liquidator, those meetings may establish a committee ( “the liquidation committee”) to exercise the functions conferred on it by or under this Order.

(2) The liquidator (not being the official receiver) may at any time, if he thinks fit, summon separate general meetings of the company's creditors and contributories for the purpose of determining whether such a committee should be established and, if it is so determined, of establishing it.

The liquidator (not being the official receiver) shall summon such a meeting if he is requested, in accordance with the rules, to do so by one‐tenth, in value, of the company's creditors.

(3) Where meetings are summoned under this Article, or for the purpose of choosing a person to be liquidator, and either the meeting of creditors or the meeting of contributories decides that a liquidation committee should be established, but the other meeting does not so decide or decides that a committee should not be established, the committee shall be established in accordance with the rules, unless the High Court otherwise orders.

(4) The liquidation committee is not to be able or required to carry out its functions at any time when the official receiver is liquidator; but at any such time its functions are vested in the Department except to the extent that the rules otherwise provide.

(5) Where there is for the time being no liquidation committee, and the liquidator is a person other than the official receiver, the functions of such a committee are vested in the Department except to the extent that the rules otherwise provide.

The liquidator's functionsN.I.

General functions in winding up by the High CourtN.I.

121.—(1) The functions of the liquidator of a company which is being wound up by the High Court are to secure that the assets of the company are got in, realised and distributed to the company's creditors and, if there is a surplus, to the persons entitled to it.

(2) It is the duty of the liquidator of a company which is being wound up by the High Court, if he is not the official receiver—

(a)to furnish the official receiver with such information,

(b)to produce to the official receiver, and permit inspection by the official receiver of, such books, papers and other records, and

(c)to give the official receiver such other assistance,

as the official receiver may reasonably require for the purposes of carrying out his functions in relation to the winding up.

Custody of company's propertyN.I.

122.  When a winding‐up order has been made, or where a provisional liquidator has been appointed, the liquidator or the provisional liquidator (as the case may be) shall take into his custody or under his control all the property to which the company is or appears to be entitled.

Vesting of company property in liquidatorN.I.

123.—(1) When a company is being wound up by the High Court, the Court may on the application of the liquidator by order direct that all or any part of the property belonging to the company or heldby trustees on its behalf shall vest in the liquidator by his official name; and thereupon the property to which the order relates vests accordingly.

(2) The liquidator may, after giving such indemnity (if any) as the High Court may direct, bring or defend in his official name any action or other legal proceeding which relates to that property or which it is necessary to bring or defend for the purpose of effectually winding up the company and recovering its property.

Duty to summon final meetingN.I.

124.—(1) Subject to paragraph (2), if it appears to the liquidator of a company which is being wound up by the High Court that the winding up of the company is for practical purposes complete and the liquidator is not the official receiver, the liquidator shall summon a final general meeting of the company's creditors which—

(a)shall receive the liquidator's report of the winding up, and

(b)shall determine whether the liquidator should have his release under Article 148.

(2) The liquidator may, if he thinks fit, give the notice summoning the final general meeting at the same time as giving notice of any finaldistribution of the company's property but, if summoned for an earlier date, that meeting shall be adjourned (and, if necessary, further adjourned) until a date on which the liquidator is able to report to the meeting that the winding up of the company is for practical purposes complete.

(3) In the carrying out of his functions in the winding up it is the duty of the liquidator to retain sufficient sums from the company's property to cover the expenses of summoning and holding the meeting required by this Article.

General powers of High CourtN.I.

Power to stay winding upN.I.

125.—(1) The High Court may at any time after an order for winding up, on the application either of the liquidator or the official receiver or any creditor or contributory, and on proof to the satisfaction of the Court that all proceedings in the winding up ought to be stayed, make an order staying the proceedings, either altogether or for a limited time, on such terms and conditions as the Court thinks fit.

(2) The High Court may, before making an order, require the official receiver to furnish to it a report with respect to any facts or matters which are in his opinion relevant to the application.

(3) [F230A copy] of every order made under this Article shall forthwith be forwarded by the company, or otherwise as may be prescribed, to the registrar for registration.

Settlement of list of contributories and application of assetsN.I.

126.—(1 )F231 As soon as may be after making a winding‐up order, the High Court shall settle a list of contributories, with power to rectify the register of members in all cases where rectification is required F232. . . , and shall cause the company's assets to be collected, and applied in discharge of its liabilities.

(2) If it appears to the High Court that it will not be necessary to make calls on or adjust the rights of contributories, the Court may dispense with the settlement of a list of contributories.

(3) In settling the list, the High Court shall distinguish between persons who are contributories in their own right and persons who are contributories as being representatives of or liable for the debts of others.

Debts due from contributory to companyN.I.

127.—(1 )F233 The High Court may, at any time after making a winding‐up order, make an order on any contributory for the time being on the list of contributories to pay, in the manner directed by the order, any money due from him (or from the estate of the person whom he represents) to the company, exclusive of any money payable by him or the estate by virtue of any call F234. . . .

(2 )F233 The High Court in making such an order may—

(a)in the case of an unlimited company, allow to the contributory by way of set‐off any money due to him or the estate which he represents from the company on any independent dealing or contract with the company, but not any money due to him as a member of the company in respect of any dividend or profit, and

(b)in the case of a limited company, make to any director whose liability is unlimited or to his estate the like allowance.

(3 )F233 In the case of any company, whether limited or unlimited, when all the creditors are paid in full (together with interest at the official rate), any money due on any account whatever to a contributory from the company may be allowed to him by way of set‐off against any subsequent call.

Power to make callsN.I.

128.—(1) The High Court may, at any time after making a winding‐up order, and either before or after it has ascertained the sufficiency of the company's assets, make calls on all or any of the contributories for the time being settled on the list of the contributories to the extent of their liability, for payment of any money which the Court considers necessary to satisfy the company's debts and liabilities, and the expenses of winding up, and for the adjustment of the rights of the contributories among themselves, and make an order for payment of any calls so made.

(2) In making a call the High Court may take into consideration the probability that some of the contributories may partly or wholly fail to pay it.

Payment into bank of money due to companyN.I.

129.—(1) The High Court may order any contributory, purchaser or other person from whom money is due to the company to pay the amount due into such bank as the Court may appoint for the purpose to the account of the liquidator instead of to the liquidator, and such an order may be enforced in the same manner as if it had directed payment to the liquidator.

(2) All money and securities paid or delivered into any such bank as is mentioned in paragraph (1) in the event of a winding up by the High Court are subject in all respects to the orders of the Court.

Order on contributory to be conclusive evidenceN.I.

130.—(1) An order made by the High Court on a contributory is conclusive evidence that the money (if any) thereby appearing to be due or ordered to be paid is due, but subject to any right of appeal.

(2) All other pertinent matters stated in the order are to be taken as truly stated as against all persons and in all proceedings.

Power to exclude creditors not proving in timeN.I.

131.  The High Court may fix a time or times within which creditors are to prove their debts or claims or to be excluded from the benefit of any distribution made before those debts are proved.

Adjustment of rights of contributoriesN.I.

132.  The High Court shall adjust the rights of the contributories among themselves and distribute any surplus among the persons entitled to it.

Inspection of books by creditors, etc.N.I.

133.—(1) The High Court may, at any time after making a winding‐up order, make such order for inspection of the company's books and papers by creditors and contributories as the Court thinks just; and any books and papers in the company's possession may be inspected by creditors and contributories accordingly, but not further or otherwise.

(2) Nothing in this Article excludes or restricts any statutory rights of—

(a)a Northern Ireland department; or

(b)a department of the Government of the United Kingdom; or

(c)a person acting under the authority of either such department.

Payment of expenses of winding upN.I.

134.  The High Court may, in the event of the assets being insufficient to satisfy the liabilities, make an order as to the payment out of the assets of the expenses incurred in the winding up in such order of priority as the Court thinks just.

Power to arrest absconding contributoryN.I.

135.  The High Court, at any time either before or after making a winding‐up order, on proof of probable cause for believing that a contributory is about to quit the United Kingdom or otherwise to abscond or to remove or conceal any of his property for the purpose of evading payment of calls, may cause the contributory to be arrested and his books and papers and movable personal property to be seized and him and them to be kept safely until such time as the Court may order.

Powers of High Court to be cumulativeN.I.

136.  Powers conferred [F235on the High Court by this Order] are in addition to, and not in restriction of, any existing powers of instituting proceedings against any contributory or debtor of the company, or the estate of any contributory or debtor, for the recovery of any call or other sum.

Delegation of powers to liquidatorN.I.

137.—(1) Provision may be made by rules for enabling or requiring all or any of the powers and duties conferred and imposed on the High Court F236. . . in respect of the following matters—

(a)the holding and conducting of meetings to ascertain the wishes of creditors and contributories,

(b )F237the settling of lists of contributories and the rectifying of the register of members where required, and the collection and application of the assets,

(c)the payment, delivery, conveyance, surrender or transfer of money, property, books or papers to the liquidator,

(d)the making of calls,

(e)the fixing of a time within which debts and claims must be proved,

to be exercised or performed by the liquidator as an officer of the Court, and subject to the Court's control.

(2 )F237 But the liquidator shall not, without the special leave of the High Court, rectify the register of members, and shall not make any call without either that special leave or the sanction of the liquidation committee.

CHAPTER VIIN.I.LIQUIDATORS

PreliminaryN.I.

Style and title of liquidatorsN.I.

138.  The liquidator of a company shall be described—

(a)where a person other than the official receiver is liquidator, by the style of “the liquidator” of the particular company, or

(b)where the official receiver is liquidator, by the style of “the official receiver and liquidator” of the particular company;

and in neither case shall he be described by an individual name.

Corrupt inducement affecting appointmentN.I.

139.  A person who gives, or agrees or offers to give, to any member or creditor of a company any valuable consideration with a view to securing his own appointment or nomination, or to securing or preventing the appointment or nomination of some person other than himself, as the company's liquidator shall be guilty of an offence.

Liquidator's powers and dutiesN.I.

Voluntary winding upN.I.

140.—(1) This Article has effect where a company is being wound up voluntarily, but subject to Article 141 in the case of a creditors' voluntary winding up.

(2) The liquidator may—

(a )F238in the case of a members' voluntary winding up, with the sanction of an [F239special resolution] of the company, and

(b)in the case of a creditor's voluntary winding up, with the sanction of the High Court or the liquidation committee (or, if there is no such committee, a meeting of the company's creditors),

exercise any of the powers specified in Part I of Schedule 2 (payment of debts, compromise of claims, etc.).

(3) The liquidator may, without sanction, exercise either of the powers specified in Part II of Schedule 2 (institution and defence of proceedings; carrying on the business of the company) and any of the general powers specified in Part III of Schedule 2.

(4) The liquidator may—

(a)exercise the High Court's power of settling a list of contributories (which list is prima facie evidence of the liability of the persons named in it to be contributories),

(b)exercise the Court's power of making calls,

(c )F238summon general meetings of the company for the purpose of obtaining its sanction by [F240special resolution] or for any other purpose he may think fit.

F238(5) The liquidator shall pay the company's debts and adjust the rights of the contributories among themselves.

(6) Where the liquidator in exercise of the powers conferred on him by this Order disposes of any property of the company to a person who is connected with the company (within the meaning given by Article 7), he shall, if there is for the time being a liquidation committee, give notice to the committee of that exercise of his powers.

Annotations:

F238mod. by SR 2004/307

Creditors' voluntary winding upN.I.

141.—(1) This Article applies where, in the case of a creditors' voluntary winding up, a liquidator has been nominated by the company.

(2) The powers conferred on the liquidator by Article 140 shall not be exercised, except with the sanction of the High Court, during the period before the holding of the creditors' meeting under Article 84.

(3) Paragraph (2) does not apply in relation to the power of the liquidator—

(a)to take into his custody or under his control all the property to which the company is or appears to be entitled;

(b)to dispose of perishable goods and other goods the value of which is likely to diminish if they are not immediately disposed of; and

(c)to do all such other things as may be necessary for the protection of the company's assets.

(4) The liquidator shall attend the creditors' meeting held under Article 84 and shall report to the meeting on any exercise by him of his powers (whether or not under this Article or under Article 98 or 140).

(5) If default is made—

(a)by the company in complying with paragraph (1) or (2) of Article 84, or

(b )F241by the directors in complying with paragraph (1) or (2) of Article 85,

the liquidator shall, within 7 days from the relevant day, apply to the High Court for directions as to the manner in which that default is to be remedied.

(6) “The relevant day” means the day on which the liquidator was nominated by the company or the day on which he first became aware of the default, whichever is the later.

(7) If the liquidator without reasonable excuse contravenes this Article, he shall be guilty of an offence.

Annotations:

F241mod. by SR 2004/307

Winding up by the High CourtN.I.

142.—(1) Where a company is being wound up by the High Court, the liquidator may—

(a)with the sanction of the Court or the liquidation committee, exercise any of the powers specified in Parts I and II of Schedule 2 (payment of debts; compromise of claims, etc.; institution and defence of proceedings; carrying on of the business of the company), and

(b)with or without that sanction, exercise any of the general powers specified in Part III of Schedule 2.

(2) Where the liquidator (not being the official receiver), in exercise of the powers conferred on him by this Order—

(a)disposes of any property of the company to a person who is connected with the company (within the meaning given by Article 7), or

(b)employs a solicitor to assist him in the carrying out of his functions,

he shall, if there is for the time being a liquidation committee, give notice to the committee of that exercise of his powers.

(3) The exercise by the liquidator in a winding up by the High Court of the powers conferred by this Article is subject to the control of the Court, and any creditor or contributory may apply to the Court with respect to any exercise or proposed exercise of any of those powers.

Supplementary powersN.I.

143.—(1) This Article applies in the case of a company which is being wound up by the High Court.

(2) The liquidator may summon general meetings of the creditors or contributories for the purpose of ascertaining their wishes; and it is his duty to summon meetings at such times as the creditors or contributories by resolution (either at the meeting appointing the liquidator or otherwise) may direct, or whenever requested in writing to do so by one‐tenth in value of the creditors or contributories (as the case may be).

(3) The liquidator may apply to the High Court (in the prescribed manner) for directions in relation to any particular matter arising in the winding up.

(4) Subject to the provisions of this Order, the liquidator shall use his own discretion in the management of the assets and their distribution among the creditors.

(5) If any person is aggrieved by any act or decision of the liquidator, that person may apply to the High Court; and the Court may confirm, reverse or modify the act or decision complained of, and make such order as it thinks just.

[F242(5A) Where at any time after a winding‐up petition has been presented to the High Court against any person (including an insolvent partnership or other body which may be wound up under Part VI of the Order as an unregistered company), whether by virtue of the provisions of the Insolvent Partnerships Order (Northern Ireland) 1995 or not, the attention of the Court is drawn to the fact that the person in question is a member of an insolvent partnership, the Court may make an order as to the future conduct of the insolvency proceedings and any such order may apply any provisions of that Order with any necessary modifications.

(5B) Any order or directions under paragraph (5A) may be made or given on the application of the official receiver, any responsible insolvency practitioner, the trustee of the partnership or any other interested person and may include provisions as to the administration of the joint estate of the partnership, and in particular how it and the separate estate of any member are to be administered.

(5C) Where the High Court makes an order[F243 under section 367(3)(a) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000] for the winding up of an insolvent partnership, the Court may make an order as to the future conduct of the winding‐up proceedings, and any such order may apply any provisions of the Insolvent Partnerships Order (Northern Ireland) 1995 with any necessary modifications.]

Annotations:

F242SR 1995/225

F243SI 2002/1555

Enforcement of liquidator's duty to make returns, etc.N.I.

144.—(1) If a liquidator who has made any default—

(a)in filing, delivering or making any return, account or other document, or

(b)in giving any notice which he is by law required to file, deliver, make or give,

fails to make good the default within 14 days from the service on him of a notice requiring him to do so, the High Court has the following powers.

(2) On an application made by any creditor or contributory of the company, or by the registrar, the High Court may make an order directing the liquidator to make good the default within such time as may be specified in the order.

(3) The High Court's order may provide that all costs of and incidental to the application shall be borne by the liquidator.

(4) Nothing in this Article prejudices the operation of any statutory provision imposing penalties on a liquidator in respect of any such default as is mentioned in paragraph (1).

Removal: vacation of officeN.I.

Removal, etc. (voluntary winding up)N.I.

145.—(1) This Article applies with respect to the removal from office and vacation of office of the liquidator of a company which is being wound up voluntarily.

(2) Subject to paragraph (3), the liquidator may be removed from office only by an order of the High Court or—

(a )F244in the case of a members' voluntary winding up, by a general meeting of the company summoned specially for that purpose, or

(b)in the case of a creditors' voluntary winding up, by a general meeting of the company's creditors summoned specially for that purpose in accordance with the rules.

(3) Where the liquidator was appointed by the High Court under Article 94, a meeting such as is mentioned in paragraph (2) shall be summoned for the purpose of replacing him only if he thinks fit or the Court so directs or the meeting is requested, in accordance with the rules—

(a)in the case of a members' voluntary winding up, by members representing not less than one‐half of the total voting rights of all the members having at the date of the request a right to vote at the meeting, or

(b)in the case of a creditors' voluntary winding up, by not less than one‐half, in value, of the company's creditors.

(4) A liquidator shall vacate office if he ceases to be a person who is qualified to act as an insolvency practitioner in relation to the company.

(5) A liquidator may, in the prescribed circumstances, resign his office by giving notice of his resignation to the registrar.

(6) Where—

(a )F244in the case of a members' voluntary winding up, a final meeting of the company has been held under Article 80, or

(b )F244in the case of a creditors' voluntary winding up, final meetings of the company and of the creditors have been held under Article 92,

the liquidator whose report was considered at the meeting or meetingsshall vacate office as soon as he has complied with paragraph (3) ofthat Article and has given notice to the registrar that the meeting or meetings have been held and of the decisions (if any) of the meeting or meetings.F244

Annotations:

F244mod. by SR 2004/307

Removal, etc. (winding up by the High Court)N.I.

146.—(1) This Article applies with respect to the removal from office and vacation of office of the liquidator of a company which is being wound up by the High Court, or of a provisional liquidator.

(2) Subject to paragraphs (3) and (4), the liquidator may be removed from office only by an order of the High Court or by a general meeting of the company's creditors summoned specially for that purpose in accordance with the rules; and a provisional liquidator may be removed from office only by an order of the Court.

(3) Where—

(a)the official receiver is liquidator otherwise than in succession under Article 116(3) to a person who held office as a result of a nomination by a meeting of the company's creditors or contributories, or

(b)the liquidator was appointed by the High Court otherwise than under Article 118(4)(a) or 119(1), or was appointed by the Department,

a general meeting of the company's creditors shall be summoned for the purpose of replacing him only if he thinks fit, or the Court so directs, or the meeting is requested, in accordance with the rules, by not less than one‐quarter, in value, of the creditors.

(4) If appointed by the Department, the liquidator may be removed from office by a direction of the Department.

(5) A liquidator or provisional liquidator, not being the official receiver, shall vacate office if he ceases to be a person who is qualified to act as an insolvency practitioner in relation to the company.

(6) A liquidator may, in the prescribed circumstances, resign his office by giving notice of his resignation to the High Court.

(7) Where a final meeting has been held under Article 124 (liquidator's report on completion of winding up), the liquidator whose report was considered at the meeting shall vacate office as soon as he has given notice to the High Court and the registrar that the meeting has been held and of the decisions (if any) of the meeting.

Release of liquidatorN.I.

Release (voluntary winding up)N.I.

147.—(1) This Article applies with respect to the release of the liquidator of a company which is being wound up voluntarily.

(2) A person who has ceased to be a liquidator shall have his release with effect from the following time, that is to say—

(a )F245in the case of a person who has been removed from office by a general meeting of the company or by a general meeting of the company's creditors that has not resolved against his release or who has died, the time at which notice is given to the registrar in accordance with the rules that that person has ceased to hold office;

(b)in the case of a person who has been removed from office by a general meeting of the company's creditors that has resolved against his release, or by the High Court, or who has vacated office under Article 145(4), such time as the Department may, on the application of that person, determine;

(c)in the case of a person who has resigned, such time as may be prescribed;

(d)in the case of a person who has vacated office under Article 145(6)(a), the time at which he vacated office;

(e)in the case of a person who has vacated office under sub‐paragraph (b) of Article 145(6)—

(i)if the final meeting of the creditors referred to in that sub‐paragraph has resolved against that person's release, such time as the Department may, on an application by that person, determine, and

(ii)if that meeting has not resolved against that person's release, the time at which he vacated office.

(3) Where a liquidator has his release under paragraph (2), he is, with effect from the time specified in that paragraph, discharged from all liability both in respect of acts or omissions of his in the winding up and otherwise in relation to his conduct as liquidator.

(4) Nothing in this Article prevents the exercise, in relation to a person who has had his release under paragraph (2), of the High Court's powers under Article 176 (summary remedy against delinquent directors, liquidators, etc.).

Annotations:

F245mod. by SR 2004/307

Release (winding up by the High Court)N.I.

148.—(1) This Article applies with respect to the release of the liquidator of a company which is being wound up by the High Court, or of a provisional liquidator.

(2) Where the official receiver has ceased to be liquidator and a person becomes liquidator in his stead, the official receiver has his release with effect from the following time, that is to say—

(a)in a case where that person was nominated by a general meeting of creditors or contributories, or was appointed by the Department, the time at which the official receiver gives notice to the High Court that he has been replaced;

(b)in a case where that person is appointed by the Court, such time as the Court may determine.

(3) If the official receiver while he is a liquidator gives notice to the Department that the winding up is for practical purposes complete, he has his release with effect from such time as the Department may determine.

(4) A person other than the official receiver who has ceased to be a liquidator has his release with effect from the following time, that is to say—

(a)in the case of a person who has been removed from office by a general meeting of creditors that has not resolved against his release or who has died, the time at which notice is given to the High Court in accordance with the rules that that person has ceased to hold office;

(b)in the case of a person who has been removed from office by a general meeting of creditors that has resolved against his release, or by the High Court or the Department, or who has vacated office under Article 146(5), such time as the Department may, on an application by that person, determine;

(c)in the case of a person who has resigned, such time as may be prescribed;

(d)in the case of a person who has vacated office under Article 146(7)—

(i)if the final meeting referred to in that paragraph has resolved against that person's release, such time as the Department may, on an application by that person, determine, and

(ii)if that meeting has not so resolved, the time at which that person vacated office.

(5) A person who has ceased to hold office as a provisional liquidator has his release with effect from such time as the High Court may, on an application by him, determine.

(6) Where the official receiver or a liquidator or provisional liquidator has his release under this Article, he is, with effect from the time specified in the preceding provisions of this Article, discharged from all liability both in respect of acts or omissions of his in the winding up and otherwise in relation to his conduct as liquidator or provisional liquidator.

(7) Nothing in this Article prevents the exercise, in relation to a person who has had his release under this Article, of the High Court's powers under Article 176 (summary remedy against delinquent directors, liquidators, etc.).

CHAPTER VIIIN.I.PROVISIONS OF GENERAL APPLICATION IN WINDING UP

Preferential debtsN.I.

Preferential debts (general provision)N.I.

149.—(1) In a winding up the company's preferential debts (within the meaning of Article 346) shall be paid in priority to all other debts.

(2) Preferential debts—

(a)rank equally among themselves after the expenses of the winding up and shall be paid in full, unless the assets are insufficient to meet them, in which case they abate in equal proportions; and

(b)so far as the assets of the company available for payment of general creditors are insufficient to meet them, have priority over the claims of holders of debentures secured by, or holders of, any floating charge created by the company, and shall be paid accordingly out of any property comprised in or subject to that charge.

Preferential charge on goods distrainedN.I.

150.—(1) This Article applies where a company is being wound up by the High Court, and is without prejudice to Article 108 (avoidance of sequestration or distress).

(2) Where any person has distrained upon the goods or effects of the company within the 3 months immediately preceding the date of the winding‐up order, those goods or effects, or the proceeds of their sale, shall be charged for the benefit of the company with the preferential debts of the company to the extent that the company's property is for the time being insufficient for meeting them.

(3) Where by virtue of a charge under paragraph (2) any person surrenders any goods or effects to a company or makes a payment to a company, that person ranks, in respect of the amount of the proceeds of sale of those goods or effects by the liquidator or (as the case may be) the amount of the payment, as a preferential creditor of the company, except as against so much of the company's property as is available for the payment of preferential creditors by virtue of the surrender or payment.

[F246Property subject to floating charge]N.I.

Annotations:
[F247Payment of expenses of winding upN.I.

150ZA(1) The expenses of winding up, so far as the assets of the company available for payment of general creditors are insufficient to meet them, have priority over any claims to property comprised in or subject to any floating charge created by the company and shall be paid out of any such property accordingly.

(2) In paragraph (1)—

(a)the reference to assets of the company available for payment of general creditors does not include any amount made available under Article 150A(2)(a);

(b)the reference to claims to property comprised in or subject to a floating charge is to the claims of—

(i)the holders of debentures secured by, or holders of, the floating charge, and

(ii)any preferential creditors entitled to be paid out of that property in priority to them.

(3) Provision may be made by rules restricting the application of paragraph (1), in such circumstances as may be prescribed, to expenses authorised or approved—

(a)by the holders of debentures secured by, or holders of, the floating charge and by any preferential creditors entitled to be paid in priority to them, or

(b)by the Court.

(4) References in this Article to the expenses of the winding up are to all expenses properly incurred in the winding up, including the remuneration of the liquidator.]

[F248Share of assets for unsecured creditorsN.I.

150A.(1) This Article applies where a floating charge relates to property of a company—

(a)which has gone into liquidation,

(b)which is in administration,

(c)of which there is a provisional liquidator, or

(d)of which there is a receiver.

(2) The liquidator, administrator or receiver—

(a)shall make a prescribed part of the company's net property available for the satisfaction of unsecured debts, and

(b)shall not distribute that part to the proprietor of a floating charge except in so far as it exceeds the amount required for the satisfaction of unsecured debts.

(3) Paragraph (2) shall not apply to a company if—

(a)the company's net property is less than the prescribed minimum, and

(b)the liquidator, administrator or receiver thinks that the cost of making a distribution to unsecured creditors would be disproportionate to the benefits.

(4) Paragraph (2) shall also not apply to a company if or in so far as it is disapplied by—

(a)a voluntary arrangement in respect of the company, or

(b)a compromise or arrangement agreed under [F249Part 26 of the Companies Act 2006 (arrangements and reconstructions)].

(5) Paragraph (2) shall also not apply to a company if—

(a)the liquidator, administrator or receiver applies to the High Court for an order under this paragraph on the ground that the cost of making a distribution to unsecured creditors would be disproportionate to the benefits, and

(b)the Court orders that paragraph (2) shall not apply.

(6) In paragraphs (2) and (3) a company's net property is the amount of its property which would, but for this Article, be available for satisfaction of claims of holders of debentures secured by, or holders of, any floating charge created by the company.

(7) An order under paragraph (2) prescribing part of a company's net property may, in particular, provide for its calculation—

(a)as a percentage of the company's net property, or

(b)as an aggregate of different percentages of different parts of the company's net property.

(8) An order under this Article shall be subject to negative resolution.

(9) In this Article—

floating charge” means a charge which is a floating charge on its creation and which is created after the first order under paragraph (2)(a) comes into operation, and

prescribed” means prescribed by order by the Department.

(10) An order under this Article may include transitional or incidental provision.]

Special managersN.I.

Power to appoint special managerN.I.

151.—(1) Where a company has gone into liquidation or a provisional liquidator has been appointed, the High Court may, on an application under this Article, appoint any person to be the special manager of the business or property of the company.

(2) The application may be made by the liquidator or provisional liquidator in any case where it appears to him that the nature of the business or property of the company, or the interests of the company's creditors or contributories or members generally, require the appointment of another person to manage the company's business or property.

(3) The special manager has such powers as may be entrusted to him by the High Court.

(4) The High Court's power to entrust powers to the special manager includes power to direct that any provision of this Order that has effect in relation to the provisional liquidator or liquidator of a company shall have the like effect in relation to the special manager for the purposes of the carrying out by him of any of the functions of the provisional liquidator or liquidator.

(5) The special manager shall—

(a)give such security as may be prescribed;

(b)prepare and keep such accounts as may be prescribed; and

(c)produce those accounts in accordance with the rules to the Department or to such other persons as may be prescribed.

DisclaimerN.I.

Power to disclaim onerous propertyN.I.

152.—(1) Subject to the provisions of this Article and Article 153, where a company is being wound up, the liquidator may, by the giving of the prescribed notice, disclaim any onerous property and may do so notwithstanding that he has taken possession of it, endeavoured to sell it, or otherwise exercised rights of ownership in relation to it.

(2) The following is onerous property for the purposes of this Article—

(a)any unprofitable contract, and

(b)any other property of the company which is unsaleable or not readily saleable or is such that it may give rise to a liability to pay money or perform any other onerous act.

(3) A disclaimer under this Article—

(a)operates so as to determine, as from the date of the disclaimer, the rights, interests and liabilities of the company in or in respect of the property disclaimed; but

(b)does not, except so far as is necessary for the purpose of releasing the company from any liability, affect the rights or liabilities of any other person.

(4) A notice of disclaimer shall not be given under this Article in respect of any property if—

(a)a person interested in the property has applied in writing to the liquidator or one of this predecessors as liquidator requiring the liquidator or that predecessor to decide whether he will disclaim or not, and

(b)the period of 28 days from the day on which that application was made, or such longer period as the High Court may allow, has expired without a notice of disclaimer having been given under this Article in respect of that property.

(5) Any person sustaining loss or damage in consequence of the operation of a disclaimer under this Article is deemed a creditor ofthe company to the extent of the loss or damage and accordingly may prove for the loss or damage in the winding up.

Disclaimer of leaseholdsN.I.

153.—(1) The disclaimer under Article 152 of any property of a leasehold nature does not take effect unless a copy of the disclaimer has been served (so far as the liquidator is aware of their addresses) on every person claiming under the company as underlessee or mortgagee and either—

(a)no application under Article 155 is made with respect to that property before the expiration of 14 days from the day on which the last notice served under this paragraph was served; or

(b)where such an application has been made, the High Court directs that the disclaimer shall take effect.

(2) Where the High Court gives a direction under paragraph (1)(b) it may also, instead of or in addition to any order it makes under Article 155, make such orders with respect to fixtures, tenant's improvements and other matters arising out of the lease as it thinks fit.

(3) For the purposes of this Article, property held under a fee farm grant creating the relation of landlord and tenant is property of a leasehold nature and a reference to an underlessee includes a person who holds a lease from the fee farm grantee.

Land subject to rentchargeN.I.

154.—(1) The following applies where, in consequence of the disclaimer under Article 152 of any land subject to a rentcharge, that land vests by operation of law in the Crown or any other person (referred to in paragraph (2) as “the proprietor”).

(2) The proprietor and the successors in title of the proprietor are not subject to any personal liability in respect of any sums becoming due under the rentcharge except sums becoming due after the proprietor, or some person claiming under or through the proprietor, has taken possession or control of the land or has entered into occupation of it.

Powers of High Court (general)N.I.

155.—(1) Where the liquidator has disclaimed property under Article 152 an application under this Article may be made to the High Court by—

(a)any person who claims an interest in the disclaimed property, or

(b)any person who is under any liability in respect of the disclaimed property, not being a liability discharged by the disclaimer.

(2) Subject to paragraph (3) and Article 156, the High Court may on the application make an order, on such terms as it thinks fit, for the vesting of the disclaimed property in, or for its delivery to—

(a)a person entitled to it or a trustee for such a person, or

(b)a person subject to such a liability as is mentioned in paragraph (1)(b) or a trustee for such a person.

(3) The High Court shall not make an order under paragraph (2)(b) except where it appears to the Court that it would be just to do so for the purpose of compensating the person subject to the liability in respect of the disclaimer.

(4) The effect of any order under this Article shall be taken into account in assessing for the purpose of Article 152(5) the extent of any loss or damage sustained by any person in consequence of the disclaimer.

(5) An order under this Article vesting property in any person need not be completed by conveyance, assignment or transfer.

Powers of High Court (leaseholds)N.I.

156.—(1) The High Court shall not make an order under Article 155 vesting property of a leasehold nature in any person claiming under the company as underlessee or mortgagee except on terms making that person—

(a)subject to the same liabilities and obligations as the company was subject to under the lease at the commencement of the winding up, or

(b)if the Court thinks fit, subject to the same liabilities and obligations as that person would be subject to if the lease had been assigned to him at the commencement of the winding up.

(2) For the purposes of an order under Article 155 relating to only part of any property comprised in a lease, the requirements of paragraph (1) apply as if the lease comprised only the property to which the order relates.

(3) Where paragraph (1) applies and no person claiming under the company as underlessee or mortgagee is willing to accept an order under Article 155 on the terms required by virtue of that paragraph, the High Court may, by order under that Article, vest the company's estate or interest in the property in any person who is liable (whether personally or in a representative capacity, and whether alone or jointly with the company) to perform the lessee's covenants in the lease.

(4) An order of the High Court under paragraph (3) may vest that estate and interest in such a person freed and discharged from all estates, incumbrances and interests created by the company.

(5) Where paragraph (1) applies and a person claiming under the company as underlessee or mortgagee declines to accept an order under Article 155, that person is excluded from all interest in the property.

(6) Paragraph (3) of Article 153 shall apply for the purposes of this Article as it applies for the purposes of that Article.

Miscellaneous mattersN.I.

Rescission of contracts by the High CourtN.I.

157.—(1) The High Court may, on the application of a person who is, as against the liquidator, entitled to the benefit or subject to the burden of a contract made with the company, make an order rescinding the contract on such terms as to payment by or to either party of damages for the non‐performance of the contract, or otherwise as the Court thinks just.

(2) Any damages payable under the order to such a person may be proved by him as a debt in the winding up.

Power to make over assets to employeesN.I.

158 .F250—(1) On the winding up of a company (whether by the High Court or voluntarily), the liquidator may, subject to the provisions of this Article, make any payment whch the company has, before the commencement of the winding up, decided to make under [F251section 247 of the Companies Act 2006] (power to provide for employees or former employees on cessation or transfer of business).

[F252(2) The liquidator may, after the winding up has commenced, make any such provision as is mentioned in section 247(1) if—

(a)the company's liabilities have been fully satisfied and provision has been made for the expenses of the winding up,

(b)the exercise of the power has been sanctioned by a resolution of the company, and

(c)any requirements of the company's [F253articles] as to the exercise of the power conferred by section 247(1) are complied with.]

(3) Any payment which may be made by a company under this Article (that is, a payment after the commencement of its winding up) may be made out of the company's assets which are available to the members on the winding up.

(4) On a winding up by the High Court, the exercise by the liquidator of his powers under this Article is subject to the Court's control, and any creditor or contributory may apply to the Court with respect to any exercise or proposed exercise of the power.

(5) Paragraphs (1) and (2) have effect notwithstanding anything in any rule of law or in Article 93 of this Order (property of company after satisfaction of liabilities to be distributed among members).

Notification that company is in liquidationN.I.

159.[F254(1) When a company is being wound up, whether by the High Court or voluntarily—

(a)every invoice, order for goods [F255or services], business letter or order form (whether in hard copy, electronic or any other form) issued by or on behalf of the company, or a liquidator of the company or a receiver or manager of the company's property, F256. . . and

(b)all the company's websites,

must contain a statement that the company is being wound up.]

(2) If default is made in complying with this Article, the company and any of the following persons who knowingly and wilfully authorises or permits the default, namely, any officer of the company, any liquidator of the company and any receiver or manager, shall be guilty of an offence.

Interest on debtsN.I.

160.—(1) In a winding up interest is payable in accordance with this Article on any debt proved in the winding up, including so much of any such debt as represents interest on the remainder.

(2) Any surplus remaining after the payment of the debts proved in a winding up shall, before being applied for any other purpose, be applied in paying interest on those debts in respect of the periods during which they have been outstanding since the company went into liquidation.

(3) All interest under this Article ranks equally, whether or not the debts on which it is payable rank equally.

(4) The rate of interest payble under this Article in respect of any debt ( “the official rate”) is whichever is the greater of—

(a)the rate applicable to a money judgment of the High Court on the day on which the company went into liquidation, and

(b)the rate applicable to that debt apart from the winding up.

Company's books to be evidenceN.I.

161.  Where a company is being wound up, all books and papers of the company and of the liquidators are, as between the contributories of the company, prima facie evidence of the truth of all matters purporting to be recorded in them.

Information as to pending liquidationsN.I.

162.—(1) If the winding up of a company is not concluded within one year from its commencement, the liquidator shall, at such intervals as may be prescribed, until the winding up is concluded, send to the registrar a statement in the prescribed form and containing the prescribed particulars with respect to the proceedings in, and position of, the liquidation.

(2) If a liquidator contravenes this Article, he shall be guilty of an offence and for continued contravention, he shall be guilty of a continuing offence.

Resolutions passed at adjourned meetingsN.I.

163 .F257  Where a resolution is passed at an adjourned meeting of a company's creditors or contributories, the resolution is treated for all purposes as having been passed on the date on which it was in fact passed, and not as having been passed on any earlier date.

Annotations:

F257mod. by SR 2004/307

Meeting to ascertain wishes of creditors or contributoriesN.I.

164.—(1) The High Court may—

(a)as to all matters relating to the winding up of a company, have regard to the wishes of the creditors or contributories (as proved to it by any sufficient evidence), and

(b)if it thinks fit, for the purpose of ascertaining those wishes, direct meetings of the creditors or contributories to be called, held and conducted in such manner as the Court directs, and appoint a person to act as chairman of any such meeting and report the result of it to the Court.

(2) In the case of creditors, regard shall be had to the value of each creditor's debt.

(3 )F258 In the case of contributories, regard shall be had to the number of votes conferred on each contributory F259. . . .

Affidavits, etc., in United Kingdom and elsewhereN.I.

165.—(1) An affidavit required to be sworn under or for the purposes of this Part may be sworn in Northern Ireland before any court, judge or person lawfully authorised to take and receive affidavits, and shall, if sworn in Great Britain or elsewhere in Her Majesty's dominions before any court, judge or person lawfully authorised to take and receive affidavits, or before any of Her Majesty's consuls or vice‐consuls in any place outside Her Majesty's dominions, be treated as an affidavit sworn under or for the purposes of this Part.

(2) All courts, judges,[F260 lay magistrates], commissioners and persons acting judicially shall take judicial notice of the seal or stamp or signature (as the case may be) of any such court, judge, person, consul or vice‐consul attached, appended or subscribed to any such affidavit, or to any other document to be used for the purposes of this Part.

Annotations:

CHAPTER IXN.I.DISSOLUTION OF COMPANIES AFTER WINDING UP

Dissolution (voluntary winding up)N.I.

166.—(1) This Article applies, in the case of a company wound up voluntarily, where the liquidator has sent to the registrar his final account and return under Article 80 (members' voluntary) or Article 92 (creditors' voluntary).

(2) The registrar on receiving the account and return shall forthwith register them; and on the expiration of 3 months from the registration of the return the company is deemed to be dissolved.

(3) However, the High Court may, on the application of the liquidator or any other person who appears to the Court to be interested, make an order deferring the date at which the dissolution of the company is to take effect for such time as the Court thinks fit.

(4) The person on whose application an order of the High Court under this Article is made shall within 7 days from the making of the order deliver to the registrar [F261a copy] of the order for registration; and if that person contravenes this paragraph he shall be guilty of an offence and, for continued contravention, he shall be guilty of a continuing offence.

Early dissolutionN.I.

167.—(1) Where an order for the winding up of a company has been made by the High Court, the official receiver, if—

(a)he is the liquidator of the company, and

(b)it appears to him—

(i)that the realisable assets of the company are insufficient to cover the expenses of the winding up, and

(ii)that the affairs of the company do not require any further investigation,

may at any time apply to the registrar for the early dissolution of the company.

(2) Before making that application, the official receiver shall give not less than 28 days' notice of his intention to do so to the company's creditors and contributories and, if there is an administrative receiver of the company, to that receiver.

(3) With the giving of that notice the official receiver ceases (subject to any directions under Article 168) to be required toperform any duties imposed on him in relation to the company, its creditors or contributories by virtue of any provision of this Order, apart from a duty to make an application under paragraph (1).

(4) On the receipt of the official receiver's application under paragraph (1) the registrar shall forthwith register it and, subject to paragraph (5), at the expiration of 3 months from the day of the registration of the application, the company shall be dissolved.

(5) The Department may, on the application of the official receiver or any other person who appears to the Department to be interested, give directions under Article 168 at any time before the end of that period.

Consequence of notice under Article 167N.I.

168.—(1) Where a notice has been given under Article 167(2), the official receiver or any creditor or contributory of the company, or the administrative receiver of the company (if there is one) may apply to the Department for directions under this Article.

(2) The grounds on which that application may be made are—

(a)that the realisable assets of the company are sufficient to cover the expenses of the winding up;

(b)that the affairs of the company do require further investigation; or

(c)that for any other reason the early dissolution of the company is inappropriate.

(3) Directions under this Article—

(a)are directions making such provision as the Department thinks fit for enabling the winding up of the company to proceed as if no notice had been given under Article 167(2), and

(b)may, in the case of an application under Article 167(4), include a direction deferring the date at which the dissolution of the company is to take effect for such period as the Department thinks fit.

(4) An appeal to the High Court lies from any decision of the Department on an application for directions under this Article.

(5) The person on whose application any directions are given under this Article, or in whose favour an appeal with respect to an application for such directions is determined, shall, within 7 days from the giving of the directions or the determination of the appeal, deliver to the registrar for registration such a copy of the directions or determination as is prescribed.

(6) If a person without reasonable excuse contravenes paragraph (5), he shall be guilty of an offence and, for continued contravention, he shall be guilty of a continuing offence.

Dissolution otherwise than under Article 167N.I.

169.—(1) Where the registrar receives—

(a)a notice served for the purposes of Article 146(7) (final meeting of creditors and vacation of office by liquidator), or

(b)a notice from the official receiver that the winding up of a company by the High Court is complete,

the registrar shall, on receipt of the notice, forthwith register it; and, subject to paragraphs (2) to (4), at the expiration of 3 months from the day of the registration of the notice, the company shall be dissolved.

(2) The Department may, on the application of the official receiver or any other person who appears to the Department to be interested, give a direction deferring the date at which the dissolution of the company is to take effect for such period as the Department thinks fit.

(3) An appeal to the High Court lies from any decision of the Department on an application for a direction under paragraph (2).

(4) The person—

(a)on whose application a direction is given under paragraph (2); or

(b)in whose favour an appeal with respect to an application for such a direction is determined;

shall, within 7 days from the giving of the direction, the determination of the appeal or the making of the order, deliver to the registrar for registration such a copy of the direction or determination as is prescribed.

(5) If a person without reasonable excuse contravenes paragraph (4), he shall be guilty of an offence and, for continued contravention, he shall be guilty of a continuing offence.

CHAPTER XN.I.MALPRACTICE BEFORE AND DURING LIQUIDATION; PENALISATION OF COMPANIES AND COMPANY OFFICERS; INVESTIGATIONS AND PROSECUTIONS

Annotations:

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C41mod. by SR 2004/307

Offences of fraud, deception, etc.N.I.

Fraud, etc., in anticipation of winding upN.I.

170.—(1 )F262 When a company is ordered to be wound up by the High Court, or passes a resolution for voluntary winding up, any person who, being a past or present officer of the company, has, within the 12 months immediately preceding the commencement of the winding up—

(a)concealed any part of the company's property to the value of £500 or more, or concealed any debt due to or from the company, or

(b)fraudulently removed any part of the company's property to the value of £500 or more, or

(c)concealed, destroyed, mutilated or falsified any book or paper affecting or relating to the company's property or affairs, or

(d)made any false entry in any book or paper affecting or relating to the company's property or affairs, or

(e)fraudulently parted with, altered or made any omission in any document affecting or relating to the company's property or affairs, or

(f)pawned, pledged or disposed of any property of the company which has been obtained on credit and has not been paid for (unless the pawning, pledging or disposal was in the ordinary way of the company's business),

shall be guilty of an offence.

(2) Such a person as is mentioned in paragraph (1) shall be guilty of an offence if within the period mentioned in that paragraph he has been privy to the doing by others of any of the things mentioned in sub‐paragraphs (c), (d) and (e) of that paragraph; and he shall be guilty of an offence if, at any time after the commencement of the winding up, he does any of the things mentioned in sub‐paragraphs (a) to (f) of that paragraph, or is privy to the doing by others of any of the things mentioned in sub‐paragraphs (c) to (e) of that paragraph.

(3) For the purposes of this Article, “officer” includes a shadow director.

(4) It is a defence—

(a)for a person charged under sub‐paragraph (a) or (f) of paragraph (1) (or under paragraph (2) in respect of the things mentioned in either of those sub‐paragraphs) to prove that he had no intent to defraud, and

(b)for a person charged under sub‐paragraph (c) or (d) of paragraph (1) (or under paragraph (2) in respect of the things mentioned in either of those sub‐paragraphs) to prove that he had no intent to conceal the state of affairs of the company or to defeat the law.

(5) Where a person pawns, pledges or disposes of any property in circumstances which amount to an offence under paragraph (1)(f), every person who takes in pawn or pledge, or otherwise receives, the property knowing it to be pawned, pledged or disposed of in such circumstances, shall be guilty of an offence and shall, on conviction on indictment, be liable to the same penalty as if he had been convicted of handling stolen goods.

(6) The money sums specified in sub‐paragraphs (a) and (b) of paragraph (1) are subject to increase or reduction by order under Article 362(1)(a).

Annotations:

F262mod. by SR 2004/307

Transactions in fraud of creditorsN.I.

171.—(1 )F263 When a company is ordered to be wound up by the High Court or passes a resolution for voluntary winding up, a person who, being at the time an officer of the company,—

(a)within the 5 years immediately preceding the commencement of the winding up, has made or caused to be made any gift or transfer of, or charge on, or has caused or connived at the enforcement of a judgment against, the company's property, or

(b)has concealed or removed any part of the company's property since, or within the 2 months immediately preceding, the date of any unsatisfied judgment or order for the payment of money obtained against the company,

shall be guilty of an offence.

(2) It is a defence for a person charged under paragraph (1) to prove that, at the time of the conduct constituting the offence, he had no intent to defraud the company's creditors.

Annotations:

F263mod. by SR 2004/307

Misconduct in course of winding upN.I.

172.—(1) When a company is being wound up, whether by the High Court or voluntarily, any person who, being a past or present officer of the company,—

(a)does not to the best of his knowledge and belief fully and truly discover to the liquidator all the company's property, and how and to whom and for what consideration and when the company disposed of any part of that property (except such part as has been disposed of in the ordinary way of the company's business), or

(b)does not deliver up to the liquidator (or as he directs) all such part of the company's property as is in his custody or under his control, and which he is required by law to deliver up, or

(c)does not deliver up to the liquidator (or as he directs) all books and papers in his custody or under his control belonging to the company and which he is required by law to deliver up, or

(d)knowing or believing that a false debt has been proved by any person in the winding up, fails to inform the liquidator as soon as practicable, or

(e)after the commencement of the winding up, prevents the production of any book or paper affecting or relating to the company's property or affairs,

shall be guilty of an offence.

(2) Any person mentioned in paragraph (1) who, after the commencement of the winding up, attempts to account for any part of the company's property by fictitious losses or expenses shall be guilty of an offence; and if he so attempts at any meeting of the company's creditors within the 12 months immediately preceding the commencement of the winding up he shall be guilty of an offence.

(3) For the purposes of this Article, “officer” includes a shadow director.

(4) It is a defence—

(a)for a person charged under sub‐paragraph (a), (b) or (c) of paragraph (1) to prove that he had no intent to defraud, and

(b)for a person charged under sub‐paragraph (e) of that paragraph to prove that he had no intent to conceal the state of affairs of the company or to defeat the law.

Falsification of company's booksN.I.

173.  When a company is being wound up, an officer or contributory of the company who destroys, mutilates, alters or falsifies any books, papers or securities, or makes or is privy to the making of any false or fraudulent entry in any register, accounting records or document belonging to the company with intent to defraud or deceive any person shall be guilty of an offence.

Material omissions from statement relating to company's affairsN.I.

174.—(1) When a company is being wound up, whether by the High Court or voluntarily, any person who, being a past or present officer of the company, makes any material omission in any statement relating to the company's affairs shall be guilty of an offence.

(2 )F264 When a company has been ordered to be wound up by the High Court, or has passed a resolution for voluntary winding up, any person mentioned in paragraph (1) who, prior to the winding up, has made any material omission in any such statement shall be guilty of an offence.

(3) For the purposes of this Article, “officer” includes a shadow director.

(4) It is a defence for a person charged under this Article to prove that he had no intent to defraud.

Annotations:

F264mod. by SR 2004/307

False representations to creditorsN.I.

175.—(1) When a company is being wound up, whether by the High Court or voluntarily, any person who, being a past or present officer of the company,—

(a)makes any false representation or commits any other fraud for the purpose of obtaining the consent of the company's creditors or any of them to an agreement with reference to the company's affairs or to the winding up; or

(b)prior to the winding up, has made any false representation, or committed any other fraud, for the purpose mentioned in sub‐paragraph (a);

shall be guilty of an offence.

(2) For the purposes of this Article, “officer” includes a shadow director.

Penalisation of directors and officersN.I.

Summary remedy against delinquent directors, liquidators, etc.N.I.

176.—(1) This Article applies if in the course of the winding up of a company it appears that a person who—

(a)is or has been an officer of the company,

(b)has acted as liquidatorF265. . . or administrative receiver of the company, or

(c)not being a person falling within sub‐paragraph (a) or (b), is or has been concerned, or has taken part, in the promotion, formation or management of the company,

has misapplied or retained, or become accountable for, any money or other property of the company, or been guilty of any misfeasance or breach of any fiduciary or other duty in relation to the company.

(2) The reference in paragraph (1) to any misfeasance or breach of any fiduciary or other duty in relation to the company includes, in the case of a person who has acted as liquidatorF266. . . of the company, any misfeasance or breach of any fiduciary or other duty in connection with the carrying out of his functions as liquidatorF266. . . of the company.

(3) The High Court may, on the application of the official receiver or the liquidator, or of any creditor or contributory, examine into the conduct of the person falling within paragraph (1) and order him—

(a)to repay, restore or account for the money or property, or any part of it, with interest at such rate as the Court thinks just, or

(b)to contribute such sum to the company's assets by way of compensation in respect of the misfeasance or breach of fiduciary or other duty as the Court thinks just.

(4) The power to make an application under paragraph (3) in relation to a person who has acted as liquidatorF267. . . of the company is not exercisable, except with the leave of the High Court, after[F268he] has had his release.

(5) The power of a contributory to make an application under paragraph (3) is not exercisable except with the leave of the High Court, but is exercisable notwithstanding that he will not benefit from any order the Court may make on the application.

(6) F269. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Fraudulent tradingN.I.

177.  If in the course of the winding up of a company it appears that any business of the company has been carried on with intent to defraud creditors of the company or creditors of any other person, or for any fraudulent purpose, the High Court, on the application of the liquidator, may declare that any persons who were knowingly parties to the carrying on of the business in such manner are to be liable to make such contributions (if any) to the company's assets as the Court thinks proper.

Wrongful tradingN.I.

178.—(1) Without prejudice to Article 177 and subject to paragraph (3), if in the course of the winding up of a company it appears that paragraph (2) applies in relation to a person who is or has been a director of the company, the High Court, on the application of the liquidator, may declare that that person is to be liable to make such contribution (if any) to the company's assets as the Court thinks proper.

(2 )F270 This paragraph applies in relation to a person if—

(a)the company has gone into insolvent liquidation,

(b)at some time before the commencement of the winding up of the company, that person knew or ought to have concluded that there was no reasonable prospect that the company would avoid going into insolvent liquidation, and

(c)that person was a director of the company at that time,

but the High Court shall not make a declaration under this Article in any case where the time mentioned in sub‐paragraph (b) was before the coming into operation of this Article.

(3) The High Court shall not make a declaration under this Article with respect to any person if it is satisfied that after the condition specified in paragraph (2)(b) was first satisfied in relation to him that person took every step with a view to minimising the potential loss to the company's creditors as (assuming him to have known that there was no reasonable prospect that the company would avoid going into insolvent liquidation) he ought to have taken.

(4) For the purposes of paragraphs (2) and (3), the facts which a director of a company ought to know or ascertain, the conclusions which he ought to reach and the steps which he ought to take are those which would be known or ascertained, or reached or taken, by a reasonably diligent person having both—

(a)the general knowledge, skill and experience that may reasonably be expected of a person carrying out the same functions as are carried out by that director in relation to the company, and

(b)the general knowledge, skill and experience that that director has.

(5) The reference in paragraph (4) to the functions carried out in relation to a company by a director of the company includes any functions which he does not carry out but which have been entrusted to him.

(6) For the purposes of this paragraph a company goes into insolvent liquidation if it goes into liquidation at a time when its assets are insufficient for the payment of its debts and other liabilities and the expenses of the winding up.

[F271(7) In this Article “director” includes a shadow director.]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .F272N.I.
Annotations:

F272mod. by SR 2004/307

Proceedings under Articles 177 and 178N.I.

179.—(1 )F273 On the hearing of an application under Article 177 or 178, the liquidator may himself give evidence or call witnesses.

(2 )F273 Where under either Article the High Court makes a declaration, it may give such further directions as it thinks proper for giving effect to the declaration; and in particular, the Court may—

(a)provide for the liability of any person under the declaration to be a charge on any debt or obligation due from the company to him, or on any mortgage or charge or any interest in a mortgage or charge on assets of the company held by or vested in him, or any person on his behalf, or any person claiming as assignee from or through the person liable or any person acting on his behalf, and

(b)make such further order as may be necessary for enforcing any charge imposed under this paragraph.

(3) For the purposes of paragraph (2), “assignee”

(a)includes a person to whom or in whose favour, by the directions of the person made liable, the debt, obligation, mortgage or charge was created, issued or transferred or the interest created, but

(b)does not include an assignee for valuable consideration (not including consideration by way of marriage[F274 or the formation of a civil partnership]) given in good faith and without notice of any of the matters on the ground of which the declaration is made.

(4 )F273 Where the High Court makes a declaration under either Article in relation to a person who is a creditor of the company, it may direct that the whole or any part of any debt owed by the company to that person and any interest thereon shall rank in priority after all other debts owed by the company and after any interest on those debts.

(5 )F273 Articles 177 and 178 have effect notwithstanding that the person concerned may be criminally liable in respect of matters on the ground of which the declaration under the Article is to be made.

(6) F275. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Restriction on re‐use of company namesN.I.

180.—(1) This Article applies to a person where a company ( “the liquidating company”) has gone into insolvent liquidation on or after the coming into operation of this Article and he was a director or shadow director of the company at any time within the period of 12 months immediately preceding the day before it went into liquidation.

(2) For the purposes of this Article, a name is a prohibited name in relation to such a person if—

(a)it is a name by which the liquidating company was known at any time in that period, or

(b)it is a name which is so similar to a name falling within sub‐paragraph (a) as to suggest an association with that company.

(3) Except with the leave of the High Court or in such circumstances as may be prescribed, a person to whom this Article applies shall not at any time within 5 years from the day on which the liquidating company went into liquidation—

(a)be a director of any other company that is known by a prohibited name, or

(b)in any way, whether directly or indirectly, be concerned or take part in the promotion, formation or management of any such company, or

(c)in any way, whether directly or indirectly, be concerned or take part in the carrying on of a business carried on (otherwise than by a company) under a prohibited name.

(4) If a person contravenes this Article he shall be guilty of an offence.

(5) On an application for leave under paragraph (3), the Department or the official receiver may appear and call the attention of the High Court to any matters which seem to be relevant.

(6) References in this Article, in relation to any time, to a name by which a company is known are to the name of the company at that time or to any name under which the company carries on business at that time.

(7) For the purposes of this Article a company goes into insolvent liquidation if it goes into liquidation at a time when its assets are insufficient for the payment of its debts and other liabilities and the expenses of the winding up.

[F276(8) In this Article “company” includes a company which may be wound up under Part 6 (unregistered companies).]

Personal liability for debts, following contravention of Article 180N.I.

181.—(1) A person is personally responsible for all the relevant debts of a company if at any time—

(a)in contravention of Article 180, he is involved in the management of the company, or

(b)as a person who is involved in the management of the company, he acts or is willing to act on instructions given (without the leave of the High Court) by a person whom he knows at that time to be in contravention in relation to the company of Article 180.

(2) Where a person is personally responsible under this Article for the relevant debts of a company, he is jointly and severally liable in respect of those debts with the company and any other person who, whether under this Article or otherwise, is so liable.

(3) For the purposes of this Article the relevant debts of a company are—

(a)in relation to a person who is personally responsible under sub‐paragraph(a) of paragraph (1), such debts and other liabilities of the company as are incurred at a time when that person was involved in the management of the company, and

(b)in relation to a person who is personally responsible under sub‐paragraph (b) of paragraph (1), such debts and other liabilities of the company as are incurred at a time when that person was acting or was willing to act on instructions given as mentioned in that sub‐paragraph.

(4) For the purposes of this Article, a person is involved in the management of a company if he is a director of the company or if he is concerned, whether directly or indirectly, or takes part, in the management of the company.

(5) For the purposes of this Article a person who, as a person involved in the management of a company, has at any time acted on instructions given (without the leave of the High Court) by a person whom he knew at that time to be in contravention in relation to the company of Article 180 is presumed, unless the contrary is shown, to have been willing at any time thereafter to act on any instructions given by that person.

[F277(6) In this Article “company” has the same meaning as in Article 180.]

Investigation and prosecution of malpracticeN.I.

Prosecution of delinquent officers and members of companyN.I.

182.—(1 )F278 If it appears to the High Court in the course of a winding up by the Court that any past or present officer, or any member, of the company has been guilty of any offence in relation to the company for which he is criminally liable, the Court may (either on the application of a person interested in the winding up or of its own motion) direct the liquidator to refer the matter to[F279 the Department].

(2 )F278 If in the case of a winding up by the High Court it appears to the liquidator, not being the official receiver, that any past or present officer of the company, or any member of it, has been guilty of any offence in relation to the company for which he is criminally liable, the liquidator shall report the matter to the official receiver.

(3 )F278 If it appears to the liquidator in the course of a voluntary winding up that any past or present officer of the company, or any member of it, has been guilty of any offence in relation to the company for which he is criminally liable, he shall—

[F279(a)forthwith report the matter to the Department, and

(b)furnish to the Department such information and give to it such access to and facilities for inspecting and taking copies of documents (being information or documents in the possession or under the control of the liquidator and relating to the matter in question) as the Department requires.]

[F279(4) Where a report is made to the Department under paragraph (3), the Department may, for the purpose of investigating the matter reported to it and such other matters relating to the affairs of the company as appear to it to require investigation, exercise any of the powers which are exercisable by inspectors appointed under [F280section 431 or 432 of the Companies Act 1985] to investigate a company's affairs.]

(5 )F278 If it appears to the High Court in the course of a voluntary winding up that—

(a)any past or present officer of the company, or any member of it, has been guilty of any offence in relation to the company for which he is criminally liable, and

(b)no report with respect to the matter has been made by the liquidatorF281. . . under paragraph (3),

the Court may (on the application of any person interested in the winding up or of its own motion) direct the liquidator to make such a report.

(6) On a report being made under paragraph (5), this Article has effect as though the report had been made in pursuance of paragraph (3).

Obligations arising under Article 182N.I.

183.—(1) For the purpose of an investigation by the Department[F282 in consequence of a report made to it under Article 182(3)], any obligation imposed on a person by any provision of [F283the Companies Act 1985] to produce documents or give information to, or otherwise to assist, inspectors appointed as mentioned in[F282 Article 182(4)] is to be regarded as an obligation similarly to assist the Department in its investigation.

(2) An answer given by a person to a question put to him in exercise of the powers conferred by Article 182(4) may be used in evidence against him.

[F284(2A) However, in criminal proceedings in which that person is charged with an offence to which this paragraph applies—

(a)no evidence relating to the answer may be adduced, and

(b)no question relating to it may be asked,

by or on behalf of the prosecution, unless evidence relating to it is adduced, or a question relating to it is asked, in the proceedings by or on behalf of that person.

(2B) Paragraph (2A) applies to any offence other than an offence under Article 7 or 10 of the Perjury (Northern Ireland) Order 1979 (NI 19) (false statements made on oath otherwise than in judicial proceedings or made otherwise than on oath).]

(3) Where criminal proceedings are instituted by[F282 the Director of Public Prosecutions for Northern Ireland] or the Department following any report or reference under Article 182, the liquidator and every officer and agent of the company past and present (other than the defendant) shall give to[F282 the Director of Public Prosecutions for Northern Ireland] or the Department (as the case may be) all assistance in connection with the prosecution which he is reasonably able to give.

(4) In paragraph (3), “agent” includes any banker or solicitor of the company and any person employed by the company as auditor, whether that person is or is not an officer of the company.

(5) If a person fails or neglects to give assistance in the manner required by paragraph (3), the High Court may, on the application of the[F282 Director of Public Prosecutions for Northern Ireland] or the Department (as the case may be) direct the person to comply with that paragraph; and if the application is made with respect to a liquidator, the Court may (unless it appears that the failure or neglect to comply was due to the liquidator not having in his hands sufficient assets of the company to enable him to do so) direct that the costs shall be borne by the liquidator personally.

PART VIN.I.WINDING UP OF UNREGISTERED COMPANIES

Annotations:

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

[F285Meaning of “unregistered company”N.I.

184.  For the purposes of this Part “unregistered company” includes any association and any company, with the following exceptions—

(a)a railway company incorporated by a statutory provision;

(b)a company registered under the Companies Act 2006 in any part of the United Kingdom.]

Winding up of unregistered companiesN.I.

185.—(1) Subject to the provisions of this Part, any unregistered company may be wound up under this Order; and all the provisions of this Order F286. . . about winding up apply to an unregistered company with the exceptions and additions mentioned in paragraphs (2) to (4).

(2) If an unregistered company has a principal place of business situated in England and Wales or Scotland, it shall not be wound up under this Part unless it has a principal place of business situated in Northern Ireland, and the principal place of business in Northern Ireland is, for all the purposes of the winding up, deemed to be the registered office of the company.

(3) No unregistered company shall be wound up under this Order voluntarily[F287, except in accordance with the EC Regulation].

(4) The circumstances in which an unregistered company may be wound up are as follows—

(a)if the company is dissolved, or has ceased to carry on business, or is carrying on business only for the purpose of winding up its affairs;

(b)if the company is unable to pay its debts;

(c)if the High Court is of opinion that it is just and equitable that the company should be wound up.

Inability to pay debts: unpaid creditor for £750 or moreN.I.

186.—(1) An unregistered company is deemed (for the purposes of Article 185) unable to pay its debts if there is a creditor, by assignment or otherwise, to whom the company is indebted in a sum exceeding £750 then due and—

(a)the creditor has served on the company, by leaving at its principal place of business in Northern Ireland, or by delivering to the secretary or some director or principal officer of the company, or by otherwise serving in such manner as the High Court may approve or direct, a written demand in the prescribed form requiring the company to pay the sum due, and

(b)the company has for 3 weeks from the service of the demand neglected to pay the sum or to secure or compound for it to the creditor's satisfaction.

(2) The money sum for the time being specified in paragraph (1) is subject to increase or reduction by order under Article 362(1)(a); but no increase in the sum so specified affects any case in which the winding‐up petition was presented before the coming into operation of the increase.

Inability to pay debts: debt remaining unsatisfied after action broughtN.I.

187.  An unregistered company is deemed (for the purposes of Article 185) unable to pay its debts if an action or other proceeding has been instituted against any member for any debt or demand due, or claimed to be due, from the company, or from him in his character of member, and—

(a)notice in writing of the institution of the action or proceeding has been served on the company by leaving it at the company's principal place of business in Northern Ireland (or by delivering it to the secretary, or some director or principal officer of the company, or by otherwise serving it in such manner as the High Court may approve or direct), and

(b)the company has not within 3 weeks from service of the notice paid, secured or compounded for the debt or demand, or procured the action or proceeding to be stayed, or indemnified the defendant to his reasonable satisfaction against the action or proceeding, and against all costs and damages to be incurred by him because of it.

Inability to pay debts: other casesN.I.

188.—(1) An unregistered company is deemed (for the purposes of Article 185) unable to pay its debts—

(a)if, in Northern Ireland, a certificate of unenforceability has been granted in respect of a judgment against the company under Article 19 of the Judgments Enforcement (Northern Ireland) Order 1981F288;

(b)if, in England and Wales, execution or other process issued on a judgment, decree or order obtained in any court in favour of a creditor against the company, or any member of it as such, or any person authorised to be sued as nominal defendant on behalf of the company, is returned unsatisfied;

(c)if, in Scotland, the induciae of a charge for payment on an extract decree, or an extract registered bond, or an extract registered protest, have expired without payment being made;

(d)it is otherwise proved to the satisfaction of the High Court that the company is unable to pay its debts as they fall due.

(2) An unregistered company is also deemed unable to pay its debts if it is proved to the satisfaction of the High Court that the value of the company's assets is less than the amount of its liabilities, taking into account its contingent and prospective liabilities.

Annotations:

Company incorporated outside Northern Ireland may be wound up though dissolvedN.I.

189.[F289(1)] Where a company incorporated outside Northern Ireland which has been carrying on business in Northern Ireland ceases to carry on business in Northern Ireland, it may be wound up as an unregistered company under this Order, notwithstanding that it has been dissolved or otherwise ceased to exist as a company under or by virtue of the laws of the country under which it was incorporated.

[F289(2) This Article is subject to the EC Regulation.]

Annotations:

F289SR 2002/334

Contributories in winding up of unregistered companyN.I.

190.—(1) In the event of an unregistered company being wound up, every person is deemed a contributory who is liable to pay or contribute to the payment of any debt or liability of the company, or to pay or contribute to the payment of any sum for the adjustment of the rights of members among themselves, or to pay or contribute to the payment of the costs of winding up the company.

(2) Every contributory is liable to contribute to the company's assets all sums due from him in respect of any such liability as is mentioned in paragraph (1).

(3) F290. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Power of High Court to stay or restrain proceedingsN.I.

191.  The provisions of this Part with respect to staying or restraining actions and proceedings against a company at any time after the presentation of a petition for winding up and before the making of awinding‐up order extend, in the case of an unregistered company, where the application to stay or restrain is presented by a creditor, to actions and proceedings against any contributory of the company.

Actions stayed on winding‐up orderN.I.

192.  Where an order has been made for winding up an unregistered company, no action or proceeding shall be proceeded with or commenced against any contributory of the company in respect of any debt of the company, except by leave of the High Court, and subject to such terms as the Court may impose.

Provisions of this Part to be cumulativeN.I.

193.—(1) The provisions of this Part with respect to unregistered companies are in addition to and not in restriction of any provisions in Part V with respect to winding up companies by the High Court; and the Court or liquidator may exercise any powers or do any act in the case of unregistered companies which might be exercised or done by it or him in winding up [F291companies registered under the Companies Act 2006 in Northern Ireland].

(2) F292. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

PART VIIN.I.MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS APPLYING TO COMPANIES WHICH ARE INSOLVENT OR IN LIQUIDATION

Office‐holdersN.I.

Holders of office to be qualified insolvency practitionersN.I.

194.—(1) F293. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(2) Where an administrative receiver of a company is appointed, he must be a person who is so qualified.

(3) Where a company goes into liquidation, the liquidator must be a person who is so qualified.

(4) Where a provisional liquidator is appointed, he must be a person who is so qualified.

(5) Paragraphs (3) and (4) are without prejudice to any statutory provision under which the official receiver is to be, or may be, liquidator or provisional liquidator.

Appointment to office of two or more personsN.I.

195.—(1) This Article applies if an appointment or nomination of any person to the office ofF294. . . administrative receiver, liquidator or provisional liquidator—

(a)relates to more than one person, or

(b)has the effect that the office is to be held by more than one person.

(2) The appointment or nomination shall declare whether any act required or authorised under any statutory provision to be done by theF295. . . administrative receiver, liquidator or provisional liquidator is to be done by all or any one or more of the persons for the time being holding the office in question.

Validity of office‐holder's actsN.I.

196.  The acts of an individual asF296. . . administrative receiver, liquidator or provisional liquidator of a company are valid notwithstanding any defect in his appointment, nomination or qualifications.

Management by administrators, liquidators, etc.N.I.

Supplies of water, electricity, etc.N.I.

197 .F297—(1) This Article applies in the case of a company where—

[F298(a)the company enters administration, or]

(b)an administrative receiver is appointed, or

[F299(ba)a moratorium under Article 14A is in force, or]

(c)a voluntary arrangement[F300 approved under Part II], has taken effect, or

(d)the company goes into liquidation, or

(e)a provisional liquidator is appointed;

and “the office‐holder” means the administrator, the administrative receiver[F299 the nominee,], the supervisor of the voluntary arrangement, the liquidator or the provisional liquidator, as the case may be.

(2) If a request is made by or with the concurrence of the office‐holder for the giving, after the effective date, of any of the supplies mentioned in paragraph (3), the supplier—

(a)may make it a condition of the giving of the supply that the office‐holder personally guarantees the payment of any charges in respect of the supply, but

(b)shall not make it a condition of the giving of the supply, or do anything which has the effect of making it a condition of the giving of the supply, that any outstanding charges in respect of a supply given to the company before the effective date are paid.

(3) The supplies referred to in paragraph (2) are—

(a)a supply of electricity by[F301 a public electricity supplier within the meaning of Part II of the Electricity (Northern Ireland) Order 1992],

[F302(aa)a supply of gas by the holder of a licence under Article 8 of the Gas (Northern Ireland) Order 1996;]

[F303(b)a supply of water or sewerage services by a water or sewerage undertaker;]

[F304(c)a supply of communications services by a provider of a public electronic communications service,]

[F304and in this paragraph “communications services” do not include electronic communications services to the extent that they are used to broadcast or transmit programme services (within the meaning of the Communications Act 2003).]

(4) “The effective date” for the purposes of this Article is whichever is applicable of the following dates—

[F305(a)the date on which the company entered administration]

(b)the date on which the administrative receiver was appointed (or, if he was appointed in succession to another administrative receiver, the date on which the first of his predecessors was appointed),

[F299(ba)the date on which the moratorium came into force]

(c)the date on which the voluntary arrangement[F300 took effect],

(d)the date on which the company went into liquidation,

(e)the date on which the provisional liquidator was appointed.

Getting in the company's propertyN.I.

198.—(1) This Article applies in the case of a company where—

[F306(a)the company enters administration, or]

(b)an administrative receiver is appointed, or

(c)the company goes into liquidation, or

(d)a provisional liquidator is appointed;

and “the office‐holder” means the administrator, the administrative receiver, the liquidator or the provisional liquidator, as the case may be.

(2) Where any person has in his possession or control any property, books, papers or records to which the company appears to be entitled, the High Court may require that person forthwith (or within such period as the Court may direct) to pay, deliver, convey, surrender or transfer the property, books, papers or records to the office‐holder.

(3) Where the office‐holder—

(a)seizes or disposes of any property which is not property of the company, and

(b)at the time of seizure or disposal believes, and has reasonable grounds for believing, that he is entitled (whether in pursuance of an order of the High Court or otherwise) to seize or dispose of that property,

paragraph (4) has effect.

(4) In that case the office‐holder—

(a)is not liable to any person in respect of any loss or damage resulting from the seizure or disposal except in so far as that loss or damage is caused by the office‐holder's own negligence, and

(b)has a lien on the property, or the proceeds of its sale, for such expenses as were incurred in connection with the seizure or disposal.

Duty to co‐operate with office‐holderN.I.

199.—(1) This Article applies as does Article 198; and it also applies, in the case of a company in respect of which a winding‐up order has been made by the High Court, as if references to the office‐holder included the official receiver, whether or not he is the liquidator.

(2) Each of the persons mentioned in paragraph (3) shall—

(a)give to the office‐holder such information concerning the company and its promotion, formation, business, dealings, affairs or property as the office‐holder may at any time after the effective date reasonably require, and

(b)attend on the office‐holder at such times as the latter may reasonably require.

(3) The persons referred to in paragraph (2) are—

(a)those who are or have at any time been officers of the company,

(b)those who have taken part in the formation of the company at any time within one year before the effective date,

(c)those who are in the employment of the company, or have been in its employment (including employment under a contract for services) within that year, and are in the office‐holder's opinion capable of giving information which he requires,

(d)those who are, or have within that year been, officers of, or in the employment (including employment under a contract for services) of, another company which is, or within that year was, an officer of the company in question, and

(e)in the case of a company being wound up by the High Court, any person who has acted as administrator, administrative receiver or liquidator of the company.

(4) For the purposes of paragraphs (2) and (3), “the effective date” is whichever is applicable of the following dates—

[F307(a)the date on which the company entered administration,]

(b)the date on which the administrative receiver was appointed or, if he was appointed in succession to another administrative receiver, the date on which the first of his predecessors was appointed,

(c)the date on which the provisional liquidator was appointed, and

(d)the date on which the company went into liquidation.

(5) If a person without reasonable excuse fails to comply with any obligation imposed by this Article, he shall be guilty of an offence and, for continued contravention, shall be guilty of a continuing offence.

Inquiry into company's dealings, etc.N.I.

200.—(1) This Article applies as does Article 198; and it also applies, in the case of a company in respect of which a winding‐up order has been made by the High Court, as if references to the office‐holder included the official receiver, whether or not he is the liquidator.

(2) The High Court may, on the application of the office‐holder, summon to appear before it—

(a)any officer of the company,

(b)any person known or suspected to have in his possession any property of the company or supposed to be indebted to the company, or

(c)any person whom the Court thinks capable of giving information concerning the promotion, formation, business, dealings, affairs or property of the company.

(3) The High Court may require any such person as is mentioned in paragraph (2)(a) to (c) to submit an affidavit to the Court containing an account of his dealings with the company or to produce any books, papers or other records in his possession or under his control relating to the company or the matters mentioned in sub‐paragraph (c) of that paragraph.

(4) The following applies in a case where—

(a)a person without reasonable excuse fails to appear before the High Court when he is summoned to do so under this Article, or

(b)there are reasonable grounds for believing that a person has absconded, or is about to abscond, with a view to avoiding his appearance before the Court under this Article.

(5) The High Court may, for the purpose of bringing that person and anything in his possession before the Court, cause a warrant to be issued to a constable—

(a)for the arrest of that person, and

(b)for the seizure of any books, papers, records, money or goods in that person's possession.

(6) The High Court may authorise a person arrested under such a warrant to be kept in custody, and anything seized under such a warrant to be held, in accordance with the rules, until that person is brought before the Court under the warrant or until such other time as the Court may order.

High Court's enforcement powers under Article 200N.I.

201.—(1) If it appears to the High Court, on consideration of any evidence obtained under Article 200 or this Article, that any person has in his possession any property of the company, the Court may, on the application of the office‐holder, order that person to deliver the whole or any part of the property to the office‐holder at such time, in such manner and on such terms as the Court thinks fit.

(2) If it appears to the High Court, on consideration of any evidence so obtained, that any person is indebted to the company, the Court may, on the application of the office‐holder, order that person to pay to the office‐holder, at such time and in such manner as the Court may direct, the whole or any part of the amount due, whether in full discharge of the debt or otherwise, as the Court thinks fit.

(3) The High Court may, if it thinks fit, order that any person liable to be summoned to appear before it under Article 200 or this Article shall be examined on oath, either orally or by interrogatories, concerning the company or the matters mentioned in Article 200(2)(c).

Adjustment of prior transactions (administration and liquidation)N.I.

Transactions at an undervalueN.I.

202.—(1) This Article applies in the case of a company where—

[F308(a)the company enters administration, or]

(b)the company goes into liquidation;

and “the office‐holder” means the administrator or the liquidator, as the case may be.

(2) Where the company has at a relevant time (as defined in Article 204) entered into a transaction with any person at an undervalue, the office‐holder may apply to the High Court for an order under this Article.

(3) Subject to paragraph (5) the High Court shall, on such an application, make such order as it thinks fit for restoring the position to what it would have been if the company had not entered into that transaction.

(4) For the purposes of this Article and Article 205, a company enters into a transaction with a person at an undervalue if—

(a)the company makes a gift to that person or otherwise enters into a transaction with that person on terms that provide for the company to receive no consideration, or

(b)the company enters into a transaction with that person for a consideration the value of which, in money or money's worth, is significantly less than the value, in money or money's worth, of the consideration provided by the company.

(5) The High Court shall not make an order under this Article in respect of a transaction at an undervalue if it is satisfied—

(a)that the company which entered into the transaction did so in good faith and for the purpose of carrying on its business, and

(b)that at the time it did so there were reasonable grounds for believing that the transaction would benefit the company.

PreferencesN.I.

203.—(1) This Article applies as does Article 202.

(2) Where the company has at a relevant time (as defined in Article 204) given a preference to any person, the office‐holder may apply to the High Court for an order under this Article.

(3) Subject to paragraph (5) and Article 205(2), the High Court shall, on such an application, make such order as it thinks fit for restoring the position to what it would have been if the company had not given that preference.

(4) For the purposes of this Article and Article 205, a company gives a preference to a person if—

(a)that person is one of the company's creditors or a surety or guarantor for any of the company's debts or other liabilities, and

(b)the company does anything or suffers anything to be done which (in either case) has the effect of putting that person into a position which, in the event of the company going into insolvent liquidation, will be better than the position he would have been in if that thing had not been done.

(5) The High Court shall not make an order under this Article in respect of a preference given to any person unless the company which gave the preference was influenced in deciding to give it by a desire to produce in relation to that person the effect mentioned in paragraph (4)(b).

(6) A company which has given a preference to a person connected with the company (otherwise than by reason only of being its employee) at the time the preference was given is presumed, unless the contrary is shown, to have been influenced in deciding to give it by such a desire as is mentioned in paragraph (5).

(7) The fact that something has been done in pursuance of the order of a court does not, without more, prevent the doing or suffering of that thing from constituting the giving of a preference.

“Relevant time” under Articles 202, 203N.I.

204.—(1) Subject to paragraph (2), the time at which a company enters into a transaction at an undervalue or gives a preference is a relevant time if the transaction is entered into, or the preference given—

(a)in the case of a transaction at an undervalue or of a preference which is given to a person who is connected with the company (otherwise than by reason only of being its employee), at a time in the period of 2 years ending with the onset of insolvency,

(b)in the case of a preference which is not such a transaction and is not so given, at a time in the period of 6 months ending with the onset of insolvency,F309. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

[F310(c)in either case, at a time between the making of an administration application in respect of the company and the making of an administration order on that application, and

(d)in either case, at a time between the filing with the Court of a copy of notice of intention to appoint an administrator under paragraph 15 or 23 of Schedule B1 and the making of an appointment under that paragraph.]

(2) Where a company enters into a transaction at an undervalue or gives a preference at a time mentioned in paragraph (1)(a) or (b), that time is not a relevant time for the purposes of Article 202 or 203 unless the company—

(a)is at that time unable to pay its debts within the meaning of Article 103, or

(b)becomes unable to pay its debts within the meaning of Article 103 in consequence of the transaction or preference;

but the requirements of this paragraph are presumed to be satisfied, unless the contrary is shown, in relation to any transaction at an undervalue which is entered into by a company with a person who is connected with the company.

(3) For the purposes of paragraph (1), the onset of insolvency is—

[F311(a)in a case where Article 202 or 203 applies by reason of an administrator of a company being appointed by administration order, the date on which the administration application is made,

(b)in a case where Article 202 or 203 applies by reason of an administrator of a company being appointed under paragraph 15 or 23 of Schedule B1 following filing with the High Court of a copy of a notice of intention to appoint under that paragraph, the date on which the copy of the notice is filed,

(c)in a case where Article 202 or 203 applies by reason of an administrator of a company being appointed otherwise than as mentioned in sub-paragraph (a) or (b), the date on which the appointment takes effect,

(d)in a case where Article 202 or 203 applies by reason of a company going into liquidation either following conversion of administration into winding up by virtue of Article 37 of the EC Regulation or at the time when the appointment of an administrator ceases to have effect, the date on which the company entered administration (or, if relevant, the date on which the application for the administration order was made or a copy of the notice of intention to appoint was filed), and

(e)in a case where Article 202 or 203 applies by reason of a company going into liquidation at any other time, the date of the commencement of the winding up.]

Orders under Articles 202, 203N.I.

205.—(1) Without prejudice to the generality of Articles 202(3) and 203(3), an order under either of those Articles with respect to a transaction or preference entered into or given by a company may (subject to paragraph (2))—

(a)require any property transferred as part of the transaction, or in connection with the giving of the preference, to be vested in the company,

(b)require any property to be so vested if it represents in any person's hands the application either of the proceeds of sale of property so transferred or of money so transferred,

(c)release or discharge (in whole or in part) any security given by the company,

(d)require any person to pay, in respect of benefits received by him from the company, such sums to the office‐holder as the High Court may direct,

(e)provide for any surety or guarantor whose obligations to any person were released or discharged (in whole or in part) under the transaction, or by the giving of the preference, to be under such new or revived obligations to that person as the Court thinks appropriate,

(f)provide for security to be provided for the discharge of any obligation imposed by or arising under the order, for such an obligation to be charged on any property and for the security or charge to have the same priority as a security or charge released or discharged (in whole or in part) under the transaction or by the giving of the preference, and

(g)provide for the extent to which any person whose property is vested by the order in the company, or on whom obligations are imposed by the order, is to be able to prove in the winding up of the company for debts or other liabilities which arose from, or were released or discharged (in whole or in part) under or by, the transaction or the giving of the preference.

(2) An order under Article 202 or 203 may affect the property of, or impose any obligation on, any person whether or not he is the person with whom the company in question entered into the transaction or (as the case may be) the person to whom the preference was given; but such an order—

(a)shall not prejudice any interest in property which was acquired from a person other than the company and was acquired[F312 in good faith and for value], or prejudice any interest deriving from such an interest, and

(b)shall not require a person who received a benefit from the transaction or preference[F312 in good faith and for value] to pay a sum to the office‐holder, except where that person was a party to the transaction or the payment is to be in respect of a preference given to that person at a time when he was a creditor of the company.

[F313(2A) Where a person has acquired an interest in property from a person other than the company in question, or has received a benefit from the transaction or preference, and at the time of that acquisition or receipt—

(a)he had notice of the relevant surrounding circumstances and of the relevant proceedings, or

(b)he was connected with, or was an associate of, either the company in question or the person with whom that company entered into the transaction or to whom that company gave the preference,

then, unless the contrary is shown, it shall be presumed for the purposes of sub‐paragraph (a) or (as the case may be) sub‐paragraph (b) of paragraph (2) that the interest was acquired or the benefit was received otherwise than in good faith.]

[F314(3) For the purposes of paragraph (2A)(a), the relevant surrounding circumstances are (as the case may require)—

(a)the fact that the company in question entered into the transaction at an undervalue; or

(b)the circumstances which amounted to the giving of the preference by the company in question;

and paragraphs (3A) to (3C) have effect to determine whether, for those purposes, a person has notice of the relevant proceedings.

[F315(3A) Where Article 202 or 203 applies by reason of a company's entering administration, a person has notice of the relevant proceedings if he has notice that—

(a)an administration application has been made,

(b)an administration order has been made,

(c)a copy of a notice of intention to appoint an administrator under paragraph 15 or 23 of Schedule B1 has been filed, or

(d)notice of the appointment of an administrator has been filed under paragraph 19 or 30 of that Schedule.]

[F316(3B) Where Article 202 or 203 applies by reason of a company's going into liquidation at the time when the appointment of an administrator of the company ceases to have effect, a person has notice of the relevant proceedings if he has notice that—

(a)an administration application has been made,

(b)an administration order has been made,

(c)a copy of a notice of intention to appoint an administrator under paragraph 15 or 23 of Schedule B1 has been filed,

(d)notice of the appointment of an administrator has been filed under paragraph 19 or 30 of that Schedule, or

(e)the company has gone into liquidation.]

(3C) In a case where Article 202 or 203 applies by reason of the company in question going into liquidation at any other time, a person has notice of the relevant proceedings if he has notice—

(a)where the company goes into liquidation on the making of a winding‐up order, of the fact that the petition on which the winding‐up order is made has been presented or of the fact that the company has gone into liquidation;

(b)in any other case, of the fact that the company has gone into liquidation.]

(4) The provisions of Articles 202 to 204 and this Article apply without prejudice to the availability of any other remedy, even in relation to a transaction or preference which the company had no power to enter into or give.

Extortionate credit transactionsN.I.

206.—(1) This Article applies as does Article 202, and where the company is, or has been, a party to a transaction for, or involving, the provision of credit to the company.

(2) The High Court may, on the application of the office‐holder, make an order with respect to the transaction if the transaction is or was extortionate and was entered into in the period of 3 years ending with[F317the day on which the company entered administration or went into liquidation].

(3) For the purposes of this Article a transaction is extortionate if, having regard to the risk accepted by the person providing the credit—

(a)the terms of it are or were such as to require grossly exorbitant payments to be made (whether unconditionally or in certain contingencies) in respect of the provision of the credit, or

(b)it otherwise grossly contravened ordinary principles of fair dealing;

and it shall be presumed, unless the contrary is proved, that a transaction with respect to which an application is made under this Article is or, as the case may be, was extortionate.

(4) An order under this Article with respect to any transaction may contain such one or more of the following as the High Court thinks fit, that is to say—

(a)provision setting aside the whole or part of any obligation created by the transaction,

(b)provision otherwise varying the terms of the transaction or varying the terms on which any security for the purposes of the transaction is held,

(c)provision requiring any person who is or was a party to the transaction to pay to the office‐holder any sums paid to that person, by virtue of the transaction, by the company,

(d)provision requiring any person to surrender to the office‐holder any property held by him as security for the purposes of the transaction,

(e)provision directing accounts to be taken between any persons.

(5) The powers conferred by this Article are exercisable in relation to any transaction concurrently with any powers exercisable in relation to that transaction as a transaction at an undervalue.

Avoidance of certain floating chargesN.I.

207.—(1) This Article applies as does Article 202.

(2) Subject to the following provisions of this Article, a floating charge on the company's undertaking or property created at a relevant time is invalid except to the extent of the aggregate of—

(a)the value of so much of the consideration for the creation of the charge as consists of money paid, or goods or services supplied, to the company at the same time as, or after, the creation of the charge,

(b)the value of so much of that consideration as consists of the discharge or reduction, at the same time as, or after, the creation of the charge, of any debt of the company, and

(c)the amount of such interest (if any) as is payable on the amount falling within sub‐paragraph (a) or (b) in pursuance of any agreement under which the money was so paid, the goods or services were so supplied or the debt was so discharged or reduced.

(3) Subject to paragraph (4), the time at which a floating charge is created by a company is a relevant time for the purposes of this Article if the charge is created—

(a)in the case of a charge which is created in favour of a person who is connected with the company, at a time in the period of 2 years ending with the onset of insolvency,

(b)in the case of a charge which is created in favour of any other person, at a time in the period of 12 months ending with the onset of insolvency,F318. . .

[F319(c)in either case, at a time between the making of an administration application in respect of the company and the making of an administration order on that application, or

(d)in either case, at a time between the filing with the High Court of a copy of notice of intention to appoint an administrator under paragraph 15 or 23 of Schedule B1 and the making of an appointment under that paragraph.]

(4) Where a company creates a floating charge at a time mentioned in paragraph (3)(b) and the person in favour of whom the charge is created is not connected with the company, that time is not a relevant time for the purposes of this Article unless the company—

(a)is at that time unable to pay its debts within the meaning of Article 103, or

(b)becomes unable to pay its debts within the meaning of Article 103 in consequence of the transaction under which the charge is created.

(5) For the purposes of paragraph (3), the onset of insolvency is—

[F320(a)in a case where this Article applies by reason of an administrator of a company being appointed by administration order, the date on which the administration application is made,

(b)in a case where this Article applies by reason of an administrator of a company being appointed under paragraph 15 or 23 of Schedule B1 following filing with the High Court of a copy of notice of intention to appoint under that paragraph, the date on which the copy of the notice is filed,

(c)in a case where this Article applies by reason of an administrator of a company being appointed otherwise than as mentioned in sub-paragraph (a) or (b), the date on which the appointment takes effect, and

(d)in a case where this Article applies by reason of a company going into liquidation, the date of the commencement of the winding up.]

(6) For the purposes of paragraph (2)(a) the value of any goods or services supplied by way of consideration for a floating charge is the amount in money which at the time they were supplied could reasonably have been expected to be obtained for supplying the goods or services in the ordinary course of business and on the same terms (apart from the consideration) as those on which they were supplied to the company.

Unenforceability of liens on books, etc.N.I.

208.—(1) This Article applies in the case of a company where—

[F321(a)the company enters administration, or]

(b)the company goes into liquidation, or

(c)a provisional liquidator is appointed;

and the office‐holder means the administrator, the liquidator or the provisional liquidator, as the case may be.

(2) Subject to paragraph (3), a lien or other right to retain possession of any of the books, papers or other records of the company is unenforceable to the extent that its enforcement would deny possession of any books, papers or other records to the office‐holder.

(3) Paragraph (2) does not apply to a lien on documents which give a title to property and are held as such.

[F322PARTS 7A TO 10N.I.INSOLVENCY OF INDIVIDUALS; BANKRUPTCY]

Annotations:

F322Pts. 7A to 10 group heading inserted (with previous group heading Pts. VIII to X omitted) (30.6.2011) by virtue of Debt Relief Act (Northern Ireland) 2010 (c. 16), ss. 1, 7(1); S.R. 2011/13, art. 2

Modifications etc. (not altering text)

C44Pts. VIII-X (arts. 209-345) modified (prosp.) by Foyle Fisheries Act (Northern Ireland)1952 (c. 5), s. 52K(2) (as inserted by Foyle and Carlingford Fisheries (Northern Ireland) Order 2007 (S.I. 2007/915 (N.I. 9), arts. 1(3), 3(1) (with art. 32)

[F323PART 7A N.I.DEBT RELIEF ORDERS

Annotations:

PreliminaryN.I.

Debt relief ordersN.I.

208A(1) An individual who is unable to pay his debts may apply for an order under this Part (“a debt relief order”) to be made in respect of his qualifying debts.

(2) In this Part “qualifying debt” means (subject to paragraph (3)) a debt which—

(a)is for a liquidated sum payable either immediately or at some certain future time; and

(b)is not an excluded debt.

(3) A debt is not a qualifying debt to the extent that it is secured.

(4) In this Part “excluded debt” means a debt of any description prescribed for the purposes of this paragraph.

Applications for a debt relief orderN.I.

Making of applicationN.I.

208B(1) An application for a debt relief order must be made to the official receiver through an approved intermediary.

(2) The application must include—

(a)a list of the debts to which the debtor is subject at the date of the application, specifying the amount of each debt (including any interest, penalty or other sum that has become payable in relation to that debt on or before that date) and the creditor to whom it is owed;

(b)details of any security held in respect of any of those debts; and

(c)such other information about the debtor's affairs (including his creditors, debts and liabilities and his income and assets) as may be prescribed.

(3) The rules may make further provision as to—

(a)the form of an application for a debt relief order;

(b)the manner in which an application is to be made; and

(c)information and documents to be supplied in support of an application.

(4) For the purposes of this Part an application is not to be regarded as having been made until—

(a)the application has been submitted to the official receiver; and

(b)any fee required in connection with the application by an order under Article 361 has been paid to such person as the order may specify.

Duty of official receiver to consider and determine applicationN.I.

208C(1) This Article applies where an application for a debt relief order is made.

(2) The official receiver may stay consideration of the application until he has received answers to any queries raised with the debtor in relation to anything connected with the application.

(3) The official receiver must determine the application by—

(a)deciding whether to refuse the application;

(b)if he does not refuse it, by making a debt relief order in relation to the specified debts he is satisfied were qualifying debts of the debtor at the application date;

but he may only refuse the application if he is authorised or required to do so by any of the following provisions of this Article.

(4) The official receiver may refuse the application if he considers that—

(a)the application does not meet all the requirements imposed by or under Article 208B;

(b)any queries raised with the debtor have not been answered to the satisfaction of the official receiver within such time as he may specify when they are raised;

(c)the debtor has made any false representation or omission in making the application or on supplying any information or documents in support of it.

(5) The official receiver must refuse the application if he is not satisfied that—

(a)the debtor is an individual who is unable to pay his debts;

(b)at least one of the specified debts was a qualifying debt of the debtor at the application date;

(c)each of the conditions set out in Part 1 of Schedule 2ZA is met.

(6) The official receiver may refuse the application if he is not satisfied that each condition specified in Part 2 of Schedule 2ZA is met.

(7) If the official receiver refuses an application he must give reasons for his refusal to the debtor in the prescribed manner.

(8) In this Article “specified debt” means a debt specified in the application.

Presumptions applicable to the determination of an applicationN.I.

208D(1) The following presumptions are to apply to the determination of an application for a debt relief order.

(2) The official receiver must presume that the debtor is an individual who is unable to pay his debts at the determination date if—

(a)that appears to the official receiver to be the case at the application date from the information supplied in the application and he has no reason to believe that the information supplied is incomplete or inaccurate; and

(b)he has no reason to believe that, by virtue of a change in the debtor's financial circumstances since the application date, the debtor may be able to pay his debts.

(3) The official receiver must presume that a specified debt (of the amount specified in the application and owed to the creditor so specified) is a qualifying debt at the application date if—

(a)that appears to him to be the case from the information supplied in the application; and

(b)he has no reason to believe that the information supplied is incomplete or inaccurate.

(4) The official receiver must presume that the condition specified in paragraph 1 of Schedule 2ZA is met if—

(a)that appears to him to be the case from the information supplied in the application;

(b)any prescribed verification checks relating to the condition have been made; and

(c)he has no reason to believe that the information supplied is incomplete or inaccurate.

(5) The official receiver must presume that any other condition specified in Part 1 or 2 of Schedule 2ZA is met if—

(a)that appears to him to have been the case as at the application date from the information supplied in the application and he has no reason to believe that the information supplied is incomplete or inaccurate;

(b)any prescribed verification checks relating to the condition have been made; and

(c)he has no reason to believe that, by virtue of a change in circumstances since the application date, the condition may no longer be met.

(6) References in this Article to information supplied in the application include information supplied to the official receiver in support of the application.

(7) In this Article “specified debt” means a debt specified in the application.

Making and effect of debt relief orderN.I.

Making of debt relief ordersN.I.

208E(1) This Article applies where the official receiver makes a debt relief order on determining an application under Article 208C.

(2) The order must be made in the prescribed form.

(3) The order must include a list of the debts which the official receiver is satisfied were qualifying debts of the debtor at the application date, specifying the amount of the debt at that time and the creditor to whom it was then owed.

(4) The official receiver must—

(a)give a copy of the order to the debtor; and

(b)make an entry for the order in the register containing the prescribed information about the order or the debtor.

(5) The rules may make provision as to other steps to be taken by the official receiver or the debtor on the making of the order.

(6) Those steps may include in particular notifying each creditor to whom a qualifying debt specified in the order is owed of—

(a)the making of the order and its effect,

(b)the grounds on which a creditor may object under Article 208K, and

(c)any other prescribed information.

(7) In this Part the date on which an entry relating to the making of a debt relief order is first made in the register is referred to as “the effective date”.

Effect of debt relief order on administration orderN.I.

208F  Where—

(a)a debt relief order is made; and

(b)immediately before the order is made, an administration order under Part 6 of the Judgments Enforcement Order is in force in respect of the debtor,

the administration order ceases to be in force when the debt relief order is made.

Moratorium from qualifying debtsN.I.

208G(1) A moratorium commences on the effective date for a debt relief order in relation to each qualifying debt specified in the order (“a specified qualifying debt”).

(2) During the moratorium, the creditor to whom a specified qualifying debt is owed—

(a)has no remedy in respect of the debt, and

(b)may not—

(i)commence a creditor's petition in respect of the debt, or

(ii)otherwise commence any action or other legal proceedings against the debtor for the debt,

except with the permission of the High Court and on such terms as the Court may impose.

(3) If on the effective date a creditor to whom a specified qualifying debt is owed has any such petition, action or other proceeding as mentioned in paragraph (2)(b) pending in any court, that court may—

(a)stay the proceedings on the petition, action or other proceedings (as the case may be), or

(b)allow them to continue on such terms as that court thinks fit.

(4) In paragraph (2)(a) and (b) references to the debt include a reference to any interest, penalty or other sum that becomes payable in relation to that debt after the application date.

(5) Nothing in this Article affects the right of a secured creditor of the debtor to enforce his security.

The moratorium periodN.I.

208H(1) The moratorium relating to the qualifying debts specified in a debt relief order continues for the period of one year beginning with the effective date for the order, unless—

(a)the moratorium terminates early; or

(b)the moratorium period is extended by the official receiver under this Article or by the High Court under Article 208M.

(2) The official receiver may only extend the moratorium period for the purpose of—

(a)carrying out or completing an investigation under Article 208K;

(b)taking any action he considers necessary (whether as a result of an investigation or otherwise) in relation to the order; or

(c)in a case where he has decided to revoke the order, providing the debtor with the opportunity to make arrangements for making payments towards his debts.

(3) The official receiver may not extend the moratorium period for the purpose mentioned in paragraph (2)(a) without the permission of the High Court.

(4) The official receiver may not extend the moratorium period beyond the end of the period of 3 months beginning after the end of the initial period of one year mentioned in paragraph (1).

(5) The moratorium period may be extended more than once, but any extension (whether by the official receiver or by the High Court) must be made before the moratorium would otherwise end.

(6) References in this Part to a moratorium terminating early are to its terminating before the end of what would otherwise be the moratorium period, whether on the revocation of the order or by virtue of any other statutory provision.

Discharge from qualifying debtsN.I.

208I(1) Subject to the following provisions of this Article, at the end of the moratorium applicable to a debt relief order the debtor is discharged from all the qualifying debts specified in the order (including all interest, penalties and other sums which may have become payable in relation to those debts since the application date).

(2) Paragraph (1) does not apply if the moratorium terminates early.

(3) Paragraph (1) does not apply in relation to any qualifying debt which the debtor incurred in respect of any fraud or fraudulent breach of trust to which the debtor was a party.

(4) The discharge of the debtor under paragraph (1) does not release any other person from—

(a)any liability (whether as partner or co-trustee of the debtor or otherwise) from which the debtor is released by the discharge; or

(b)any liability as surety for the debtor or as a person in the nature of such a surety.

(5) If the order is revoked by the High Court under Article 208M after the end of the moratorium period, the qualifying debts specified in the order shall (so far as practicable) be treated as though paragraph (1) had never applied to them.

Duties of debtorN.I.

Providing assistance to official receiver, etc.N.I.

208J(1) The duties in this Article apply to a debtor at any time after the making of an application by him for a debt relief order.

(2) The debtor must—

(a)give to the official receiver such information as to his affairs,

(b)attend on the official receiver at such times, and

(c)do all such other things,

as the official receiver may reasonably require for the purpose of carrying out his functions in relation to the application or, as the case may be, the debt relief order made as a result of the application.

(3) The debtor must notify the official receiver as soon as reasonably practicable if he becomes aware of—

(a)any error in, or omission from, the information supplied to the official receiver in, or in support of, the application;

(b)any change in his circumstances between the application date and the determination date that would affect (or would have affected) the determination of the application.

(4) The duties under paragraphs (2) and (3) apply after (as well as before) the determination of the application, for as long as the official receiver is able to exercise functions of the kind mentioned in paragraph (2).

(5) If a debt relief order is made as a result of the application, the debtor must notify the official receiver as soon as reasonably practicable if—

(a)there is an increase in his income during the moratorium period applicable to the order;

(b)he acquires any property or any property is devolved upon him during that period;

(c)he becomes aware of any error in or omission from any information supplied by him to the official receiver after the determination date.

(6) A notification under paragraph (3) or (5) must give the prescribed particulars (if any) of the matter being notified.

Objections, investigations and revocationN.I.

Objections and investigationsN.I.

208K(1) Any person specified in a debt relief order as a creditor to whom a specified qualifying debt is owed may object to—

(a)the making of the order;

(b)the inclusion of the debt in the list of the debtor's qualifying debts; or

(c)the details of the debt specified in the order.

(2) An objection under paragraph (1) must be—

(a)made during the moratorium period relating to the order and within the prescribed period for objections;

(b)made to the official receiver in the prescribed manner;

(c)based on a prescribed ground;

(d)supported by any information and documents as may be prescribed;

and the prescribed period mentioned in sub-paragraph (a) must not be less than 28 days after the creditor in question has been notified of the making of the order.

(3) The official receiver must consider every objection made to him under this Article.

(4) The official receiver may—

(a)as part of his consideration of an objection, or

(b)on his own initiative,

carry out an investigation of any matter that appears to the official receiver to be relevant to the making of any decision mentioned in paragraph (5) in relation to a debt relief order or the debtor.

(5) The decisions to which an investigation may be directed are—

(a)whether the order should be revoked or amended under Article 208L;

(b)whether an application should be made to the High Court under Article 208M; or

(c)whether any other steps should be taken in relation to the debtor.

(6) The power to carry out an investigation under this Article is exercisable after (as well as during) the moratorium relating to the order.

(7) The official receiver may require any person to give him such information and assistance as he may reasonably require in connection with an investigation under this Article.

(8) Subject to anything prescribed in the rules as to the procedure to be followed in carrying out an investigation under this Article, an investigation may be carried out by the official receiver in such manner as he thinks fit.

Power of official receiver to revoke or amend a debt relief orderN.I.

208L(1) The official receiver may revoke or amend a debt relief order during the applicable moratorium period in the circumstances provided for by this Article.

(2) The official receiver may revoke the order on the ground that—

(a)any information supplied to him by the debtor—

(i)in, or in support of, the application, or

(ii)after the determination date,

was incomplete, incorrect or otherwise misleading;

(b)the debtor has failed to comply with a duty under Article 208J;

(c)a bankruptcy order has been made in relation to the debtor; or

(d)the debtor has made a proposal under Chapter 2 of Part 8 (or has notified the official receiver of his intention to do so).

(3) The official receiver may revoke the order on the ground that he should not have been satisfied—

(a)that the debts specified in the order were qualifying debts of the debtor as at the application date;

(b)that the conditions specified in Part 1 of Schedule 2ZA were met;

(c)that the conditions specified in Part 2 of that Schedule were met or that any failure to meet such a condition did not prevent his making the order.

(4) The official receiver may revoke the order on the ground that either or both of the conditions in paragraphs 7 and 8 of Schedule 2ZA (monthly surplus income and property) are not met at any time after the order was made. For this purpose those paragraphs are to be read as if references to the determination date were references to the time in question.

(5) Where the official receiver decides to revoke the order, he may revoke it either—

(a)with immediate effect, or