Protection of public from risks arising from bodies
Section 90 Restriction on release of infected etc. bodies from hospital
180.This section deals with the circumstances whereby a health board may require the retention of an infected or contaminated body in hospital. It sets out that this must be by direction specifying that the body cannot be removed (except to a mortuary or similar premises for a post-mortem examination) until written authorisation is given to a named person for the purposes of immediate disposal, which may include preparation of the body for disposal. That direction can be made only where a health board competent person certifies that a defined set of circumstances applies. These circumstances, set out in subsection (1), are that a person has died of an infectious disease, had such a disease immediately before dying (but died of another cause) or was contaminated immediately before dying (whether the contaminant caused the death or not). If any of those circumstances applies and the competent person considers that there is also a significant risk to public health and it is necessary to retain the body to avoid or minimise that risk (until the health board is satisfied regarding the arrangements for disposal), a direction may be made.
181.Subsection (4) places a duty on a health board, where it makes such a direction, to explain to persons responsible for handling the body that there is significant risk to public health, the nature of that risk, any precautions the person should take and any other appropriate information. This does not apply where an explanation has already been given under section 91 to anyone who appears to be responsible for the disposal of the body. Subsection (6) states that a person who breaches a direction given under this section without reasonable excuse commits an offence.
Section 91 Duty of health board where infected etc. person dies
182.This section places a duty on a health board (where it knows a person in its area has died of an infectious disease, had such an infectious disease before dying, or was contaminated) to explain to any person who appears to be responsible for the disposal of the body the nature of any risk, the precautions that should be taken and any other appropriate information. This does not apply where an explanation has been given under section 90.
Section 92 Application for order in relation to bodies retained in premises
183.This section applies where the body of a person is being retained in premises and the local authority feels that appropriate disposal arrangements have not been made. The authority may apply to the sheriff for an order under section 93 seeking authority to dispose of the body appropriately. An application may only be made where a local authority competent person certifies, among other things, that there is a significant risk to public health and that appropriate disposal is necessary to avoid or minimise that risk.
Section 93 Power of sheriff to order removal to mortuary and disposal
184.This section allows the sheriff, if satisfied that there is a significant risk to public health, to make an order authorising the local authority to remove the body of a person mentioned in section 92 to a mortuary or other similar premises and to dispose of the body within the period set out in the order. If the sheriff is satisfied that the risk to public health is such that the body must be disposed of immediately, disposal by the local authority may be ordered as soon as reasonably practicable.
185.Subsection (2) gives powers to local authority officers or other persons authorised by local authorities (in either case an “authorised officer”) to enter premises, to take other persons and, if the authorised officer has reasonable cause to expect any serious obstruction in obtaining access, a constable, and take any other steps reasonably required in connection with removing and disposing of the body. In entering premises, the authorised officer may use reasonable force and enter at any time. This section of the Act does not affect any other legislation which regulates or authorises burial or cremation, and the requirements of the Cremation (Scotland) Regulations 1935 (as amended) continue to apply.
186.Any reasonable expenses incurred by the authority in carrying out a function authorised by an order under this section can be recovered from the estate of the deceased person. Any person who, without reasonable excuse, intentionally obstructs an officer of the local authority or another authorised person from carrying out any functions authorised by this section commits an offence and will be liable to a penalty, as outlined in section 120.