Warrant for entry
293.Paragraph 2(1) provides for situations in which entry to land by authorised persons is actively opposed by the owner or occupier, where it has proven impossible to give advance notice, as required under paragraph 1, or where giving notice would defeat the object of the proposed entry. In such circumstances, a person authorised by SNH or the Scottish Ministers may obtain a warrant for entry from a sheriff or justice of the peace. This sets aside the requirement for advance notice and the authorised person may also use reasonable force to effect entry to the land. In the event that the use of force is anticipated to be necessary, the authorised person may wish to request the assistance of the police. As already noted, a warrant cannot be granted to SNH staff and other authorised persons for entry to lockfast premises or a dwelling. Powers of entry and search in relation to lockfast premises and dwellings are available only to the police.
294.Paragraph 2(2) ensures that the sheriff does not grant a warrant simply on the basis that entry is opposed or expected to be opposed, unless he or she is satisfied either that, where paragraph 1 requires notice to be given, the required notice has in fact been given or that notice is not required because entry is necessary under section 44(1)(f) for the purposes of investigating a suspected offence.
295.In essence this means that SNH or the Scottish Ministers must have made genuine efforts to give notice of entry before seeking a warrant where the argument for the warrant is simply that entry has been refused or is likely to be refused. The granting of a warrant is not, however, subject to this requirement where the land is unoccupied (or the occupier is absent), where entry is necessary in order to investigate a suspected offence or where giving notice would defeat the object of gaining entry (for example, in cases where an NCO is being considered).
296.Paragraph 2(3) provides that the warrant continues in force until the purpose for which it was issued has been satisfied. A warrant may however be time-limited by the sheriff when it is issued. Where this is the case, the warrant ceases to be valid when that time-limit is reached.