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Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 2003

The Risk Management Authority

Sections 3 to 13 and schedule 2 – The Risk Management Authority

30.Sections 3 to 13 and schedule 2 provide for the establishment of a new authority to be known as the Risk Management Authority (RMA) and for this authority to be a public body.  These sections also confer upon the RMA certain specific statutory functions in relation to the assessment and minimisation of risk posed to the public by offenders and certain accused persons.

31.Sections 3, 12 and 13 provide for the establishment of the RMA as a public body, and for the powers the RMA requires to operate as a public body and to discharge its functions in relation to the assessment and minimisation of risk. The sections also prescribe the RMA’s duties in relation to account keeping and the production of annual reports.  Schedule 2 makes provision concerning the constitution etc of the RMA.

32.Sections 4 to 11 set out the RMA’s functions in relation to its broad remit of co-ordinating research and promulgating best practice in the field of risk assessment and the minimisation of risk and in playing a direct part in the management of high risk offenders for whom a risk management plan (RMP) is to be prepared. These functions are :

  • to develop policy and carry out research in the field of assessment and management of risk posed by offenders;

  • to monitor research into and promote effective practice in the assessment and minimisation of risk by issuing guidelines and standards and to commission research and pilot schemes in this area;

  • to administer a scheme of accreditation and provide or secure education and training in relation to those professionals involved in the assessment and minimisation of risk;

  • to monitor risk management plans for certain classes of offender.

Section 3 – The Risk Management Authority

33.This section establishes the Risk Management Authority and provides that it will exercise the functions given to it by the Act and any other legislation to ensure effective risk assessment and the minimisation of risk.  The section also defines risk as the risk the person being at liberty presents to the safety of the public at large, and covers a person convicted of an offence or a person disposed of by the court on the grounds of insanity.

34.Section 3 also introduces schedule 2, which deals with a number of matters concerning the structure and procedures of the RMA (as a public body).  Schedule 2 provides for:

  • the status of the new body;

  • the procedures for membership of the new body, including appointment, resignation and removal from office;

  • the procedure of the authority;

  • the arrangements for remuneration, allowances and pension for members of the authority;

  • the arrangements for the employment of staff and for their pensions, allowances and gratuities.

Section 4 – Policy and research

35.This section describes the various functions the RMA will be required to undertake in relation to its policy and research role.  In relation to research, the RMA will be able to compile and keep under review research and developments in the field of risk assessment and risk minimisation, including information about how relevant services are provided in Scotland.  The section also empowers the RMA to carry out its own research or commission or co-ordinate research and to publish the findings.  The RMA will be able to carry out pilot schemes for the purposes of developing and improving risk assessment and minimisation methods and use the results of the research and pilots to promote effective practice throughout Scotland.  This will be done through issuing standards and guidelines which are dealt with in section 5.  As part of this function the RMA will also be able to give appropriate advice and make appropriate recommendations to the Scottish Ministers.

Section 5 – Guidelines and standards

36.This section enables the RMA (in pursuance of its policy and research function, prescribed by section 4) to produce, by means of guidelines, a common framework including standards within which those involved in the assessment and management of risk are to operate.  The standards will be defined, approved and published by the RMA.  The section also provides that those involved in the assessment and minimisation of risk must have regard to the RMA’s guidelines and standards when exercising their relevant risk management functions.  Practitioners involved in the field of risk assessment and the minimisation of risk may also be accredited for those purposes.  This matter is dealt with in section 11.

Sections 6 to 9 – Risk management plans: preparation, further provision, implementation and review

37.As explained above, the RMA has a specific function in relation to offenders for whom a risk management plan (RMP) is to be prepared.  Initially this will be for those offenders who are sentenced to an order for lifelong restriction (OLR).  However, the Act makes provision for the Scottish Ministers to make an order prescribing other categories of offenders for whom a RMP would have to be prepared.  There is a statutory requirement for the authorities who have responsibilities in connection with the relevant offenders when in prison or released into the community on licence to prepare a RMP.  The RMP will detail the role of those authorities involved with the offender in minimising the risk the offender's being at liberty presents to the safety of the public at large.  The RMA has a specific function to approve and monitor the implementation of the RMP.  The provisions dealing with the preparation of the RMP, its implementation and review and the RMA’s function in relation to these matters are set out in sections 6 to 9.

38.Section 6 requires that a RMP must be prepared for an offender who is sentenced to an OLR, and any other category of offender which the Scottish Ministers may, by order, prescribe.  The types of offences and the process by which an offender will be assessed for an OLR, including the criteria against which his or her level of risk will be measured, are dealt with in section 1.

39.Before making an order prescribing any new category of offender for whom a RMP will be required, the Scottish Ministers must consult the RMA and any other person as considered appropriate.

40.This section also prescribes that the RMP must contain an assessment of risk, the measures to be taken to minimise this risk and how these will be co-ordinated.  The form of the RMP is to be specified and published by the RMA, which may also provide guidance as appropriate on how the form should be prepared, implemented and reviewed.  The authority preparing the RMP must use the published form.

41.The purpose of a RMP is to ensure that the risk the offender's being at liberty presents to the safety of the public at large (offender's risk) is properly managed on a multi-disciplinary basis and will detail the role of those authorities or bodies involved in managing the offender’s risk.  The RMP may place responsibility for implementing the RMP on any person who could reasonably be expected to assist with the minimisation of the offender’s risk.

42.Section 7 prescribes that  "the body" who will be responsible for preparing the RMP will be known as the  “lead authority”.

43.The identity of the lead authority following conviction will depend on the age of the offender and where the offender is liable to be detained or imprisoned.

44.There is no age limit on who may be sentenced to an OLR.  If the offender is serving a sentence in prison or is being detained in a young offenders institution or is a child and is detained in some other establishment under section 208 of the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995, the lead authority will be the Scottish Ministers.  If the offender has a mental disorder and is detained in hospital under any of the provisions described in subsection (2) of section 7, the lead authority will be the State hospital or appropriate NHS authority.

45.This section also provides for a local authority to be the lead authority where the lead authority is not the Scottish Ministers or a hospital.  In practice, the local authority will become the lead authority when the offender has been released from detention or imprisonment.  Arrangements for transferring the lead from one authority to another, for example when an offender is released from detention or imprisonment are dealt with in section 9.

46.Section 8 sets out the preparation process for the RMP.  The initial RMP is to be prepared within 9 months of the offender being sentenced or detained in hospital, although the RMA can grant a reasonable extension where an appeal under subsection (7) is pending. The lead authority is to consult any person or authority upon which it is considering conferring functions in relation to the implementation of the RMP and any other appropriate person. Those consulted are under a duty to comply with reasonable requests.

47.This section also requires the lead authority to submit the RMP to the RMA for approval.  The RMA may either approve the plan or reject it if it does not comply with the minimum standards set out in section 6(3) or any other guidelines and standards which the RMA have prepared.  If, in rejecting the RMP, the RMA considers that the lead authority has disregarded minimum standards or any relevant guideline, standard or requirement produced by the RMA in relation to the preparation of RMPs, the RMA can give reasonable directions to the lead authority or any person named in the plan concerning the preparation of a revised plan.  Those receiving such a direction are obliged to comply with any reasonable direction.  Those receiving such a direction may appeal to the sheriff against such a direction on the grounds that it is unreasonable.

48.Section 9 provides for the procedures for the implementation and review of RMPs.  The lead authority and any other person having functions under the risk management plan are required to implement their respective responsibilities. If the RMA considers that the lead authority or other persons with duties under the plan are failing, without reasonable excuse, to implement the plan in accordance with those functions, the Authority may give directions to the lead authority or person concerned as to the implementation of the plan. The lead authority or relevant person is under a duty to comply with such a direction.  Those receiving such a direction may appeal to the sheriff against such a direction on the grounds that it is unreasonable.  The lead authority must report to the RMA annually on the implementation.

49.The section also provides a review process to be activated where there is likely to be a significant change in the offender’s circumstances, for example, where the offender may be considered by the Parole Board for release on licence.  Where a change is considered, the lead authority must review the RMP.  If after review the lead authority considers that the current RMP is no longer suitable or is likely to become unsuitable then that authority must prepare a revised RMP and submit it to the RMA for approval within a period which the RMA may reasonably require.  Where, following a review, the lead authority considers that it is no longer appropriate for it to continue as “lead” (for example where an offender is being released on licence), the responsibility will pass to a different lead authority as prescribed under section 7 and the new lead authority must prepare a revised RMP and have it approved by the RMA.  The RMA’s power to reject a RMP on the grounds that it does not meet agreed standards and issue directions apply equally to revised RMPs.

Section 10 – Grants to local authorities in connection with risk management plans

50.Section 10 enables the Scottish Ministers to make specific grants to local authorities subject to such conditions as they consider appropriate to assist with the preparation and implementation of the RMP.  Before making such a grant the Scottish Ministers are to consult local authorities and other persons as appropriate.

51.It is expected that local authorities will bear the cost of preparing and implementing RMPs from within existing budgets on the basis that they already have a statutory duty to provide appropriate services for these offenders.  However the RMA will be able to make recommendations to the Scottish Ministers concerning the granting of specific funding where it appears to the Authority that this is required to ensure that a RMP can be prepared or implemented.

Section 11 - Accreditation, education and training

52.This section gives the RMA two roles.  It enables the RMA to:

  • administer any scheme set up by the Scottish Ministers for the purpose of accrediting the processes of assessing and monitoring risk and practitioners who work in the area of risk assessment and minimisation. The RMA’s function in this respect extends to awarding, suspending or withdrawing accreditation;

  • carry out or commission relevant educational and training activities.

53.The section also empowers the Scottish Ministers to make regulations to establish appropriate accreditation schemes for the RMA to administer. The accreditation may cover any RMA-sponsored education or training and may also recognise other relevant experience or qualifications held. For example, the accreditation may recognise relevant qualification previously obtained, or obtained from a source other than the RMA. As respects the processes of assessing and minimising risk, the accreditation will provide recognition of the effectiveness of any method and practices which may be employed in that regard.

Section 12 – Functions: supplementary

54.This section makes the standard provisions required to enable the RMA to operate as a public body.  In particular the RMA is empowered to acquire and dispose of land, enter into contracts, charge for goods and services and, with the consent of the Scottish Ministers, invest and borrow money.  In addition it provides a power for the Scottish Ministers to direct the RMA in relation to the discharge of its functions.

Section 13 – Accounts and annual reports

55.This section provides for the standard account keeping and reporting procedures for a public body including the preparation and submission to the Scottish Ministers of annual accounts and annual reports.  The Scottish Ministers must publish the RMA’s annual reports and lay a copy before the Scottish Parliament.

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